List of birds of Singapore

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) perched on the balcony of a 12th floor condominium along Bedok South Avenue 1 on 8 May 2013

Singapore has 386 species of birds on the checklist. In addition to these are some ornamental birds, escapees and free-ranging birds from the Singapore Zoo or Jurong Bird Park, making a total of more than 400 bird species.



  • Very Common (VC) - found almost all the time in suitable locations
  • Common (C) - found most of the time in suitable locations
  • Uncommon (U) - found some of the time
  • Rare (R) - found several times a year
  • Very Rare (VR) - not found every year
  • Extirpated (Ex) - used to be found in Singapore, but not any more


  • Resident (R) - stays throughout the year without known breeding record
  • Resident Breeder (RB) - stays throughout the year with known breeding record
  • Winter Visitor (WV) - spends months at wintering site
  • Passage Migrant (PM) - spends days to weeks at wintering site
  • Migrant Breeder (MB) - breeds locally, but winters elsewhere
  • Non-breeding visitor (NBV) - can be found throughout the year for days to months, but does not breed locally
  • Vagrant (V) - not usually found locally
  • Introduced (I) - either released or escaped birds
  • Reintroduced (rI) - previously extinct, but has been re-introduced into wild
  • Ornamental (O) - placed in parks or gardens for display purpose
  • Free-ranging (F) - allowed to fly freely from zoos or bird parks


There are many locations for bird-watching in Singapore. The habitats include forests, mangroves, rivers, coasts, grasslands, woodlands, marshes and offshore islands.

Nature Reserves[edit]

Offshore Islands[edit]

There are many islands surrounding mainland Singapore. They often have names carrying the word "pulau" (P.), meaning "island" (Is.) in the Malay language.


There are many rivers in Singapore. They often have names carrying the word "sungei" (S.), meaning "river" in the Malay language.

  • Sungei Punggol - a river in the north-eastern part of Singapore. It has been converted into a reservoir in 2011 and is now known as Punggol Reservoir. It contains Sengkang Floating Wetland (SFW) and is beside Sengkang Riverside Park (SRP).
  • Sungei Serangoon - a river in the north-eastern part of Singapore. It has been converted into a reservoir in 2011 and is now known as Serangoon Reservoir. It is beside Lorong Halus Wetland, Punggol grassland.


There are many coastal habitats around mainland Singapore.

  • Lower Seletar Dam (LSD) - a mudflat and sandy beach at north-eastern Singapore. It is the northern border of Lower Seletar Reservoir (LSR).
  • Kranji Dam - a dam at north-western Singapore. It is the northern border of the Kranji Reservoir.
  • Mandai Mudflat - a mudflat at north-western Singapore. It is a feeding ground for migratory waders.

Parks and Gardens[edit]

There are many parks and gardens in Singapore. Some of them contain lakes, mangroves, forests, quarries or rivers. Others like Ang Mo Kio Town Garden West (AMK TGW) is a park in the middle of a town. Satay by the Bay (SBTB) is a part of the bigger Gardens by the Bay aat the south-eastern end of Singapore (formerly Marina South).


Cemeteries, present or past, are good nature areas because they are left undisturbed most of the time.

Other locations[edit]

The other locations include reclaimed lands, woodlands and military grounds.

  • Changi - the reclaimed land and coast at eastern Singapore
  • Neo Tiew Lane (NTL) - the area from Neo Tiew Lane 1 to 3, including a marsh, known locally as Kranji Marsh.
  • Western Water Catchment (WWC) - the four reservoirs in western Singapore (Tengeh, Poyan, Murai and Sarimbun) and surrounding forests
  • Tuas - the reclaimed land and coast at western Singapore

List of birds[edit]

Order Galliformes (Fowls)[edit]

Family Phasianidae (Pheasants and relatives)

Order Anseriformes (Waterfowls)[edit]

Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)

Order Podicipediformes (Grebes)[edit]

Family Podicepidae

  • Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) - U/RB - Halus, P. Punggol, KRP, Kranji Marsh, Punggol, Singapore Quarry, Tampines Quarry

Order Procellariiformes (Tubenoses)[edit]

Family Hydrobatidae (Storm-petrels)

Family Procellariidae (Shearwaters)

Order Pelecaniformes (Pelicans and relatives)[edit]

Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans)

Family Sulidae (Gannets and boobies)

  • Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) - VR/V - Pedra Branca
  • Red-footed Booby (Sula sula) - VR/V - CCKC (2011), Singapore Strait (2012)

Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)

  • Christmas Island Frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi) - VR/V - P. Ubin, Singapore Strait, SBWR
  • Lesser Frigatebird (Fregata ariel) - VR/V - Pedra Branca, Singapore Strait

Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and shags)

  • Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) - U/F - Changi, Johor Strait, Kranji Dam, Mandai Mudflat, Tuas

Family Anhingidae (Darters)

Family Phaethontidae (Tropicbirds)

Order Ciconiiformes (Herons and relatives)[edit]

Family Ciconiidae (Storks)

Family Ardeidae (Herons, egrets and bitterns)

Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)

Order Falconiformes (Birds of prey)[edit]

Family Pandionidae (Osprey)

Family Accipitridae (Eagles, hawks and relatives)

  • Black Baza (Aviceda leuphotes) - C/WVPM - islandwide
  • Jerdon's Baza (Aviceda jerdoni) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, CCKC, Clementi, Jurong Lake, Halus, Maju Camp, PRP, Poyan, Marina South
  • Oriental Honey Buzzard (Pernis ptilorhyncus) - C/WVPM, R/NBV - WVPM: islandwide. NBV: Poyan, Toa Payoh, USR
  • Bat Hawk (Macheiramphus alcinus) - VR/NBV - MacRitchie, P. Ubin
  • Black-winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus) - C/RB - grasslands
  • Black Kite (Milvus migrans) - U/WV - BBNP, CCNR, Changi, Punggol, P. Punggol, Seletar Camp, SBWR, Marina South
  • Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) - C/RB - islandwide
  • Japanese Sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) - C/WVPM - islandwide
  • Chinese Sparrowhawk (Accipiter soloensis) - U/WVPM - AMK TGW, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, LSD, Mt Faber, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR, Tuas, WCP
  • Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) - R/RB - AMK TGW, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Kranji Dam, NTL, Punggol, P. Ubin, Sembawang Park, SBG, Southern Ridges, Zoo
  • Besra (Accipiter virgatus) - VR/PM - Changi, Tuas
  • Grey-faced Buzzard (Butastur indicus) - U/WV - BBNP, Changi, Tuas
  • Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) - U/WV - Bidadari, Changi
  • Blyth's Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus alboniger) - VR/NBV - KRP, Simpang
  • Changeable Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus cirrhatus) - C/RB - forests, woodlands
  • Rufous-bellied Eagle (Hieraaetus kienerii) - R/WVPM - BBNP, BBC, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, SBG, SBWR
  • Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) - R/WV - Bidadari, Bukit Panjang, CCNR, Changi, CCKC, Punggol, P. Punggol
  • Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) - VR/WV - Changi, Murai, P. Punggol, SBG, Tuas
  • Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) - VR/V - Changi, Punggol
  • Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) - VR/V - Changi, Halus, Punggol, Tuas, S. Serangoon
  • White-bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) - C/RB - islandwide near water
  • Grey-headed Fish Eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) - U/RB - CCNR, Changi, Changi Village, Jurong Lake, Little Guilin, LSR, NTL, Poyan, Seletar Camp, SBG, Springleaf, SBWR
  • Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis) - VR/V - AMK, BTNR, Changi, Johor Strait, Orchard Road, Simpang, SBWR
  • Short-toed Snake Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) - VR/PM - CCNR, Jurong Lake, Halus, NTL, SBWR, Tuas
  • Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela) - R/R - BTNR, CCNR, Goldhill Avenue, Jurong Lake, Malcolm Park, Sembawang Park, SBG, Springleaf, SBWR
  • Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) - VR/WV - Halus, Poyan
  • Pied Harrier (Circus melanoleucos) - R/WV - Changi, P. Punggol, Tuas
  • Eastern Marsh Harrier (Circus spilonotus) - U/WV - Changi, NTL, Poyan, P. Semakau, Sengkang, SBWR, Tuas

Family Falconidae (Falcons and relatives)

Order Turniciformes (Buttonquails)[edit]

Family Turnicidae (Buttonquails)

  • Barred Buttonquail (Turnix suscitator) - C/RB - Changi, Halus, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Punggol, TEG, Tuas

Order Gruiformes (Cranes and relatives)[edit]

Family Heliornithidae (Finfoots)

Family Gruidae (Cranes)

Family Rallidae (Rails and relatives)

Order Charadriiformes (Shorebirds)[edit]

Family Charadriidae (Plovers and lapwings)

Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and relatives)

Family Rostratulidae (Painted snipes)

Family Jacanidae (Jacanas)

Family Burhinidae (Thickknees)

Family Recurvirostridae (Stilts and avocets)

Family Glareolidae (Pratincoles and Coursers)

  • Small Pratincole (Glareola lactea) - VR/PM - Changi, P. Punggol
  • Oriental Pratincole (Glareola maldivarum) - U/PM - CCNR, Changi, Kranji Marsh, Punggol, P. Punggol, P. Semakau, Tuas

Family Stercorariidae (Skuas and jaegers)

Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)

  • Heuglin's Gull (Larus heuglini) - VR/V - Singapore Strait
  • Brown-headed Gull (Larus brunnicephalus) - VR/WV - Changi
  • Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) - R/WV - LSD, Mandai Mudflat, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
  • White-winged Tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) - C/WVPM - rivers, coasts, Halus, Kranji Reservoir, Singapore Strait
  • Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybridus) - R/WVPM - Halus, Johor Strait, Jurong Lake, Kranji Dam
  • Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) - C/RBWV - rivers, coasts, Singapore Strait
  • Aleutian Tern (Sterna aleutica) - R/WV - Changi, Singapore Strait
  • Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus) - U/RB, C/PM - Changi, Pedra Branca, Singapore Strait
  • Lesser Crested Tern (Sterna bengalensis) - C/WV - Changi, Johor Strait, Mandai Mudflat, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
  • Great Crested Tern (Sterna bergii) - C/WV - Changi, Johor Strait, Mandai Mudflat, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
  • Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) - R/WV - Mandai Mudflat
  • Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) - VR/V - Pedra Branca
  • Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) - U/WV - Changi, Halus, Mandai Mudflat, Singapore Strait
  • Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica) - R/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, P. Ubin
  • Black-naped Tern (Sterna sumatrana) - U/RB - Changi, Johor Strait, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, P. Tekong, Singapore Strait

Order Columbiformes (Pigeons)[edit]

Family Columbidae (Pigeons)

Order Psittaciformes (Parrots)[edit]

Family Cacatuidae (Cockatoos)

Family Psittacidae (Parrots)

Order Cuculiformes (Cuckoos and relatives)[edit]

Family Cuculidae (Cuckoos)

  • Plaintive Cuckoo (Cacomantis merulinus) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Halus, NTL, Punggol, P. Ubin, Poyan, SBWR, Tampines, Tuas
  • Rusty-breasted Cuckoo (Cacomantis sepulcralis) - U/RB - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, NTL, Poyan, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR, Sentosa, Khatib Bongsu
  • Banded Bay Cuckoo (Cacomantis sonnerati) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, Kranji Marsh, NTL, P. Ubin
  • Horsfield's Bronze Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx basalis) - VR/WV - Changi Beach, Halus, Kranji, P. Tekong, Sentosa, Tuas, Marina East, Marina South
  • Little Bronze Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx minutillus) - C/RB - woodlands
  • Violet Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, PRP, Poyan, P. Ubin, Simpang
  • Pied Cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) - VR/V - Halus (2013-2014)
  • Chestnut-winged Cuckoo (Clamator coromandus) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Halus, Murai, Poyan, P. Punggol, Simpang, SBG, SBWR, Khatib Bongsu
  • Hodgson's Hawk Cuckoo (Cuculus nisicolor) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, CCKC, Jurong Lake, Kusu Island, PRP, Poyan, P. Punggol
  • Malaysian Hawk Cuckoo (Cuculus fugax) - R/NBV - Bishan Park, CCNR, SBWR
  • Indian Cuckoo (Cuculus micropterus) - C/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Mt. Faber, Poyan, SBG, SBWR
  • Oriental Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) - R/PM - Bidadari, Coney Island, Jurong Lake
  • Large Hawk Cuckoo (Cuculus sparverioides) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, P. Punggol, PRP, Khatib Bongsu
  • Asian Koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) - VC/RB - Islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Asian Drongo Cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) - U/RBWV - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Jurong Lake, NTL, PRP, Poyan, SBWR
  • Chestnut-bellied Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus sumatranus) - R/RB - BTNR, CCNR, Poyan, TBHP
  • Black-bellied Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus diardi) - Ex/RB
  • Lesser Coucal (Centropus bengalensis) - C/RB - grasslands
  • Greater Coucal (Centropus sinensis) - U/RB - forests, SBWR, Venus Drive

Order Strigiformes (Owls)[edit]

Family Tytonidae (Barn and Bay owls)

  • Barn Owl (Tyto alba) - U/RB - under bridges, Changi, Istana, Jurong Lake, Kranji Dam, Marina Barrage, Sentosa, Toa Payoh, Tuas
  • Oriental Bay Owl (Phodilus badius) - Ex/RB

Family Strigidae (Typical owls)

  • Barred Eagle Owl (Bubo sumatranus) - Ex/RB, VR/NBV - CCNR, P. Ubin
  • Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) - VR/WVPM - Changi
  • Buffy Fish Owl (Ketupa ketupu) - R/RB - CCNR, Poyan, P. Ubin, SBWR, Sentosa
  • Brown Hawk Owl (Ninox scutulata) - C/RBWV - BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin, Sentosa
  • Sunda Scops Owl (Otus lempiji) - C/RB - Alexandra Hill, BBNP, BBC, BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin, SBWR, Sentosa
  • Oriental Scops Owl (Otus sunia) - VR/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, Fort Canning, Jalan Petalok, KRP, Kent Road, Mt. Faber, Seletar Country Club, SBWR
  • Brown Wood Owl (Strix leptogrammica) - R/RB - CCNR, P. Ubin
  • Spotted Wood Owl (Strix seloputo) - U/RB - Chinatown, City, Dover Road, Jurong Lake, PRP, P. Ubin, Poyan, St. John Is., Sentosa, SBG, TBHP, Toa Payoh

Order Caprimulgiformes (Nightjars and relatives)[edit]

Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)

Order Apodiformes (Swifts)[edit]

Family Apodidae (True swifts)

Family Hemiprocnidae (Treeswifts)

Order Coraciiformes (Kingfishers and relatives)[edit]

Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

Family Meropidae (Bee-eaters)

  • Blue-tailed Bee-eater (Merops philippinus) - C/WV - islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Blue-throated Bee-eater (Merops viridis) - C/MB - islandwide (including offshore islands)

Family Phoeniculidae (Wood-hoopoes)

Family Coraciidae (Rollers)

Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills)

Order Trogoniformes (Trogons)[edit]

Family Trogonidae (Trogons)

Order Piciformes (Woodpeckers and relatives)[edit]

Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)

Family Megalaimidae (Barbets)

Order Passeriformes (Perching birds)[edit]

Family Pittidae (Pittas)[edit]

  • Mangrove Pitta (Pitta megarhyncha) - R/RB - PRP, P. Ubin, P. Tekong, SBG, SBWR
  • Blue-winged Pitta (Pitta moluccensis) - U/WVPM - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Jurong Is., Poyan, SBG, WCP, Kranji Nature Trail
  • Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Jurong Lake, SBG, WCP
  • Garnet Pitta (Pitta granatina) - Ex/RB

Family Eurylaimidae (Broadbills)[edit]

Family Acanthizidae (Gerygones and relatives)[edit]

Family Pachycephalidae (Whistlers and relatives)[edit]

  • Mangrove Whistler (Pachycephala grisola) - U/RB - Changi, Halus, P. Hantu, P. Semakau, P. Ubin, SBWR

Family Dicruridae (Monarchs, paradise flycatchers, drongos and relatives)[edit]

Family Prionopidae (Helmetshrikes and relatives)[edit]

Family Campephagidae (Cuckoo-shrikes, trillers, minivets and relatives)[edit]

Family Oriolidae (Old World orioles)[edit]

Family Corvidae (Crows and relatives)[edit]

Family Irenidae (Fairy bluebirds)[edit]

Family Chloropseidae (Leafbirds)[edit]

Family Laniidae (Shrikes)[edit]

Family Aegithinidae (Ioras)[edit]

Family Turdidae (Thrushes)[edit]

Family Muscicapidae (Old World flycatchers)[edit]

Family Sturnidae (Starlings, mynas, oxpeckers)[edit]

Family Hirundinidae (Swallows)[edit]

  • Red-rumped Swallow (Hirundo daurica) - U/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, Changi, LSD, Poyan, Punggol, Tuas
  • Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) - VC/WVPM - islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Pacific Swallow (Hirundo tahitica) - C/RB - islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) - U/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Kranji Marsh, LSD, NTL
  • Asian House Martin (Delichon dasypus) - R/PM - BTNR, Changi, NTL

Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)[edit]

Family Sylviidae (Old World warblers)[edit]

Family Timaliidae (Old World babblers)[edit]

Family Zosteropidae (White-eyes)[edit]

Family Dicaeidae (Flowerpeckers)[edit]

Family Nectariniidae (Sunbirds and spiderhunters)[edit]

Family Motacillidae (Wagtails, pipits and relatives)[edit]

  • Forest Wagtail (Dendronanthus indicus) - U/WVPM - forest edges, Bidadari, CCNR, Venus Drive
  • White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) - R/WV - Bishan, BBC, Changi, SBG, P. Punggol, Punggol
  • Grey Wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) - U/WVPM - Admiralty Park, Bt Batok, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Punggol, P. Ubin, Simpang
  • Citrine Wagtail (Motacilla citreola) - VR/WV - Punggol, Serangoon, Tuas
  • Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava) - C/WV - Changi, Halus, Kranji Marsh, NTL, P. Punggol, Punggol
  • Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus) - R/WV - Changi, P. Punggol
  • Olive-backed Pipit (Anthus hodgsoni) - VR/PM - Bidadari (2010)
  • Paddyfield Pipit (Anthus rufulus) - C/RB - urban areas

Family Ploceidae (Weavers and relatives)[edit]

Family Estrildidae (Estrildid finches)[edit]

Family Viduidae (Indigobirds and Whydahs)[edit]

Family Fringillidae (True Finches)[edit]

Family Emberizidae (Buntings and relatives)[edit]

Family Passeridae (Old World sparrows)[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Roselaar, C.S.; J.P. Michels. ". Systematic notes on Asian birds. 48. Nomenclatural chaos untangled, resulting in the naming of the formally undescribed Cacatua species from the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Zool. Verh. Leiden 350: 183–196. 

External links[edit]