List of birds of Singapore

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Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) perched on the balcony of a 12th floor condominium along Bedok South Avenue 1 on 8 May 2013

Singapore has 386 species of birds on the checklist. In addition to these are some ornamental birds, escapees and free-ranging birds from the Singapore Zoo or Jurong Bird Park, making a total of more than 400 bird species.

Contents

Abundance[edit]

  • Very Common (VC) - found almost all the time in suitable locations
  • Common (C) - found most of the time in suitable locations
  • Uncommon (U) - found some of the time
  • Rare (R) - found several times a year
  • Very Rare (VR) - not found every year
  • Extirpated (Ex) - used to be found in Singapore, but not any more

Status[edit]

  • Resident (R) - stays throughout the year without known breeding record
  • Resident Breeder (RB) - stays throughout the year with known breeding record
  • Winter Visitor (WV) - spends months at wintering site
  • Passage Migrant (PM) - spends days to weeks at wintering site
  • Migrant Breeder (MB) - breeds locally, but winters elsewhere
  • Non-breeding visitor (NBV) - can be found throughout the year for days to months, but does not breed locally
  • Vagrant (V) - not usually found locally
  • Introduced (I) - either released or escaped birds
  • Reintroduced (rI) - previously extinct, but has been re-introduced into wild
  • Ornamental (O) - placed in parks or gardens for display purpose
  • Free-ranging (F) - allowed to fly freely from zoos or bird parks

Locations[edit]

There are many locations for bird-watching in Singapore. The habitats include forests, mangroves, rivers, coasts, grasslands, woodlands, marshes and offshore islands.

Nature Reserves[edit]

Offshore Islands[edit]

There are many islands surrounding mainland Singapore. They often have names carrying the word "pulau" (P.), meaning "island" (Is.) in the Malay language.

Rivers[edit]

There are many rivers in Singapore. They often have names carrying the word "sungei" (S.), meaning "river" in the Malay language.

  • Sungei Punggol - a river in the north-eastern part of Singapore. It has been converted into a reservoir in 2011 and is now known as Punggol Reservoir. It contains Sengkang Floating Wetland (SFW) and is beside Sengkang Riverside Park (SRP).
  • Sungei Serangoon - a river in the north-eastern part of Singapore. It has been converted into a reservoir in 2011 and is now known as Serangoon Reservoir. It is beside Lorong Halus Wetland, Punggol grassland.

Coasts[edit]

There are many coastal habitats around mainland Singapore.

  • Lower Seletar Dam (LSD) - a mudflat and sandy beach at north-eastern Singapore. It is the northern border of Lower Seletar Reservoir (LSR).
  • Kranji Dam - a dam at north-western Singapore. It is the northern border of the Kranji Reservoir.
  • Mandai Mudflat - a mudflat at north-western Singapore. It is a feeding ground for migratory waders.

Parks and Gardens[edit]

There are many parks and gardens in Singapore. Some of them contain lakes, mangroves, forests, quarries or rivers. Others like Ang Mo Kio Town Garden West (AMK TGW) is a park in the middle of a town. Satay by the Bay (SBTB) is a part of the bigger Gardens by the Bay aat the south-eastern end of Singapore (formerly Marina South).

Cemeteries[edit]

Cemeteries, present or past, are good nature areas because they are left undisturbed most of the time.

Other locations[edit]

The other locations include reclaimed lands, woodlands and military grounds.

  • Changi - the reclaimed land and coast at eastern Singapore
  • Neo Tiew Lane (NTL) - the area from Neo Tiew Lane 1 to 3, including a marsh, known locally as Kranji Marsh.
  • Western Water Catchment (WWC) - the four reservoirs in western Singapore (Tengeh, Poyan, Murai and Sarimbun) and surrounding forests
  • Tuas - the reclaimed land and coast at western Singapore

List of birds[edit]

Order Galliformes (Fowls)[edit]

Family Phasianidae (Pheasants and relatives)

Order Anseriformes (Waterfowls)[edit]

Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)

Order Podicipediformes (Grebes)[edit]

Family Podicepidae

  • Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) - U/RB - Halus, P. Punggol, KRP, Kranji Marsh, Punggol, Singapore Quarry, Tampines Quarry

Order Procellariiformes (Tubenoses)[edit]

Family Hydrobatidae (Storm-petrels)

Family Procellariidae (Shearwaters)

Order Pelecaniformes (Pelicans and relatives)[edit]

Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans)

Family Sulidae (Gannets and boobies)

  • Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) - VR/V - Pedra Branca
  • Red-footed Booby (Sula sula) - VR/V - CCKC (2011), Singapore Strait (2012)

Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)

  • Christmas Island Frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi) - VR/V - P. Ubin, Singapore Strait, SBWR
  • Lesser Frigatebird (Fregata ariel) - VR/V - Pedra Branca, Singapore Strait

Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and shags)

  • Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) - U/F - Changi, Johor Strait, Kranji Dam, Mandai Mudflat, Tuas

Family Anhingidae (Darters)

Family Phaethontidae (Tropicbirds)

Order Ciconiiformes (Herons and relatives)[edit]

Family Ciconiidae (Storks)

Family Ardeidae (Herons, egrets and bitterns)

Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills)

Order Falconiformes (Birds of prey)[edit]

Family Pandionidae (Osprey)

Family Accipitridae (Eagles, hawks and relatives)

  • Black Baza (Aviceda leuphotes) - C/WVPM - islandwide
  • Jerdon's Baza (Aviceda jerdoni) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, CCKC, Clementi, Jurong Lake, Halus, Maju Camp, PRP, Poyan, Marina South
  • Oriental Honey Buzzard (Pernis ptilorhyncus) - C/WVPM, R/NBV - WVPM: islandwide. NBV: Poyan, Toa Payoh, USR
  • Bat Hawk (Macheiramphus alcinus) - VR/NBV - MacRitchie, P. Ubin
  • Black-winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus) - C/RB - grasslands
  • Black Kite (Milvus migrans) - U/WV - BBNP, CCNR, Changi, Punggol, P. Punggol, Seletar Camp, SBWR, Marina South
  • Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) - C/RB - islandwide
  • Japanese Sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) - C/WVPM - islandwide
  • Chinese Sparrowhawk (Accipiter soloensis) - U/WVPM - AMK TGW, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, LSD, Mt Faber, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR, Tuas, WCP
  • Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) - R/RB - AMK TGW, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Kranji Dam, NTL, Punggol, P. Ubin, Sembawang Park, SBG, Southern Ridges, Zoo
  • Besra (Accipiter virgatus) - VR/PM - Changi, Tuas
  • Grey-faced Buzzard (Butastur indicus) - U/WV - BBNP, Changi, Tuas
  • Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) - U/WV - Bidadari, Changi
  • Blyth's Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus alboniger) - VR/NBV - KRP, Simpang
  • Changeable Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus cirrhatus) - C/RB - forests, woodlands
  • Rufous-bellied Eagle (Hieraaetus kienerii) - R/WVPM - BBNP, BBC, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, SBG, SBWR
  • Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) - R/WV - Bidadari, Bukit Panjang, CCNR, Changi, CCKC, Punggol, P. Punggol
  • Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) - VR/WV - Changi, Murai, P. Punggol, SBG, Tuas
  • Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) - VR/V - Changi, Punggol
  • Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) - VR/V - Changi, Halus, Punggol, Tuas, S. Serangoon
  • White-bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) - C/RB - islandwide near water
  • Grey-headed Fish Eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) - U/RB - CCNR, Changi, Changi Village, Jurong Lake, Little Guilin, LSR, NTL, Poyan, Seletar Camp, SBG, Springleaf, SBWR
  • Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis) - VR/V - AMK, BTNR, Changi, Johor Strait, Orchard Road, Simpang, SBWR
  • Short-toed Snake Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) - VR/PM - CCNR, Jurong Lake, Halus, NTL, SBWR, Tuas
  • Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela) - R/R - BTNR, CCNR, Goldhill Avenue, Jurong Lake, Malcolm Park, Sembawang Park, SBG, Springleaf, SBWR
  • Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) - VR/WV - Halus, Poyan
  • Pied Harrier (Circus melanoleucos) - R/WV - Changi, P. Punggol, Tuas
  • Eastern Marsh Harrier (Circus spilonotus) - U/WV - Changi, NTL, Poyan, P. Semakau, Sengkang, SBWR, Tuas

Family Falconidae (Falcons and relatives)

Order Turniciformes (Buttonquails)[edit]

Family Turnicidae (Buttonquails)

  • Barred Buttonquail (Turnix suscitator) - C/RB - Changi, Halus, NTL, P. Punggol, P. Ubin, Punggol, TEG, Tuas

Order Gruiformes (Cranes and relatives)[edit]

Family Heliornithidae (Finfoots)

Family Gruidae (Cranes)

Family Rallidae (Rails and relatives)

Order Charadriiformes (Shorebirds)[edit]

Family Charadriidae (Plovers and lapwings)

Family Scolopacidae (Sandpipers and relatives)

Family Rostratulidae (Painted snipes)

Family Jacanidae (Jacanas)

Family Burhinidae (Thickknees)

Family Recurvirostridae (Stilts and avocets)

Family Glareolidae (Pratincoles and Coursers)

  • Small Pratincole (Glareola lactea) - VR/PM - Changi, P. Punggol
  • Oriental Pratincole (Glareola maldivarum) - U/PM - CCNR, Changi, Kranji Marsh, Punggol, P. Punggol, P. Semakau, Tuas

Family Stercorariidae (Skuas and jaegers)

Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)

  • Heuglin's Gull (Larus heuglini) - VR/V - Singapore Strait
  • Brown-headed Gull (Larus brunnicephalus) - VR/WV - Changi
  • Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) - R/WV - LSD, Mandai Mudflat, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
  • White-winged Tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) - C/WVPM - rivers, coasts, Halus, Kranji Reservoir, Singapore Strait
  • Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybridus) - R/WVPM - Halus, Johor Strait, Jurong Lake, Kranji Dam
  • Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) - C/RBWV - rivers, coasts, Singapore Strait
  • Aleutian Tern (Sterna aleutica) - R/WV - Changi, Singapore Strait
  • Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus) - U/RB, C/PM - Changi, Pedra Branca, Singapore Strait
  • Lesser Crested Tern (Sterna bengalensis) - C/WV - Changi, Johor Strait, Mandai Mudflat, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
  • Great Crested Tern (Sterna bergii) - C/WV - Changi, Johor Strait, Mandai Mudflat, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, Singapore Strait
  • Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia) - R/WV - Mandai Mudflat
  • Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) - VR/V - Pedra Branca
  • Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) - U/WV - Changi, Halus, Mandai Mudflat, Singapore Strait
  • Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica) - R/WVPM - Changi, Mandai Mudflat, P. Ubin
  • Black-naped Tern (Sterna sumatrana) - U/RB - Changi, Johor Strait, Pedra Branca, P. Ubin, P. Tekong, Singapore Strait

Order Columbiformes (Pigeons)[edit]

Family Columbidae (Pigeons)

Order Psittaciformes (Parrots)[edit]

Family Cacatuidae (Cockatoos)

Family Psittacidae (Parrots)

Order Cuculiformes (Cuckoos and relatives)[edit]

Family Cuculidae (Cuckoos)

  • Plaintive Cuckoo (Cacomantis merulinus) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Halus, NTL, Punggol, P. Ubin, Poyan, SBWR, Tampines, Tuas
  • Rusty-breasted Cuckoo (Cacomantis sepulcralis) - U/RB - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, NTL, Poyan, P. Tekong, P. Ubin, SBG, SBWR, Sentosa, Khatib Bongsu
  • Banded Bay Cuckoo (Cacomantis sonnerati) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Halus, Kranji Marsh, NTL, P. Ubin
  • Horsfield's Bronze Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx basalis) - VR/WV - Changi Beach, Halus, Kranji, P. Tekong, Sentosa, Tuas, Marina East, Marina South
  • Little Bronze Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx minutillus) - C/RB - woodlands
  • Violet Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus) - U/RB - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, PRP, Poyan, P. Ubin, Simpang
  • Pied Cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) - VR/V - Halus (2013-2014)
  • Chestnut-winged Cuckoo (Clamator coromandus) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Halus, Murai, Poyan, P. Punggol, Simpang, SBG, SBWR, Khatib Bongsu
  • Hodgson's Hawk Cuckoo (Cuculus nisicolor) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, CCKC, Jurong Lake, Kusu Island, PRP, Poyan, P. Punggol
  • Malaysian Hawk Cuckoo (Cuculus fugax) - R/NBV - Bishan Park, CCNR, SBWR
  • Indian Cuckoo (Cuculus micropterus) - C/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Jurong Lake, Mt. Faber, Poyan, SBG, SBWR
  • Oriental Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) - R/PM - Bidadari, Coney Island, Jurong Lake
  • Large Hawk Cuckoo (Cuculus sparverioides) - R/WVPM - Bidadari, CCNR, Changi, P. Punggol, PRP, Khatib Bongsu
  • Asian Koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) - VC/RB - Islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Asian Drongo Cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) - U/RBWV - Bidadari, BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Jurong Lake, NTL, PRP, Poyan, SBWR
  • Chestnut-bellied Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus sumatranus) - R/RB - BTNR, CCNR, Poyan, TBHP
  • Black-bellied Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus diardi) - Ex/RB
  • Lesser Coucal (Centropus bengalensis) - C/RB - grasslands
  • Greater Coucal (Centropus sinensis) - U/RB - forests, SBWR, Venus Drive

Order Strigiformes (Owls)[edit]

Family Tytonidae (Barn and Bay owls)

  • Barn Owl (Tyto alba) - U/RB - under bridges, Changi, Istana, Jurong Lake, Kranji Dam, Marina Barrage, Sentosa, Toa Payoh, Tuas
  • Oriental Bay Owl (Phodilus badius) - Ex/RB

Family Strigidae (Typical owls)

  • Barred Eagle Owl (Bubo sumatranus) - Ex/RB, VR/NBV - CCNR, P. Ubin
  • Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) - VR/WVPM - Changi
  • Buffy Fish Owl (Ketupa ketupu) - R/RB - CCNR, Poyan, P. Ubin, SBWR, Sentosa
  • Brown Hawk Owl (Ninox scutulata) - C/RBWV - BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin, Sentosa
  • Sunda Scops Owl (Otus lempiji) - C/RB - Alexandra Hill, BBNP, BBC, BTNR, CCNR, P. Ubin, SBWR, Sentosa
  • Oriental Scops Owl (Otus sunia) - VR/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, Fort Canning, Jalan Petalok, KRP, Kent Road, Mt. Faber, Seletar Country Club, SBWR
  • Brown Wood Owl (Strix leptogrammica) - R/RB - CCNR, P. Ubin
  • Spotted Wood Owl (Strix seloputo) - U/RB - Chinatown, City, Dover Road, Jurong Lake, PRP, P. Ubin, Poyan, St. John Is., Sentosa, SBG, TBHP, Toa Payoh

Order Caprimulgiformes (Nightjars and relatives)[edit]

Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)

Order Apodiformes (Swifts)[edit]

Family Apodidae (True swifts)

Family Hemiprocnidae (Treeswifts)

Order Coraciiformes (Kingfishers and relatives)[edit]

Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

Family Meropidae (Bee-eaters)

  • Blue-tailed Bee-eater (Merops philippinus) - C/WV - islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Blue-throated Bee-eater (Merops viridis) - C/MB - islandwide (including offshore islands)

Family Phoeniculidae (Wood-hoopoes)

Family Coraciidae (Rollers)

Family Bucerotidae (Hornbills)

Order Trogoniformes (Trogons)[edit]

Family Trogonidae (Trogons)

Order Piciformes (Woodpeckers and relatives)[edit]

Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)

Family Megalaimidae (Barbets)

Order Passeriformes (Perching birds)[edit]

Family Pittidae (Pittas)[edit]

  • Mangrove Pitta (Pitta megarhyncha) - R/RB - PRP, P. Ubin, P. Tekong, SBG, SBWR
  • Blue-winged Pitta (Pitta moluccensis) - U/WVPM - BBNP, BTNR, CCNR, Jurong Is., Poyan, SBG, WCP, Kranji Nature Trail
  • Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida) - U/WVPM - Bidadari, BTNR, CCNR, Jurong Lake, SBG, WCP
  • Garnet Pitta (Pitta granatina) - Ex/RB

Family Eurylaimidae (Broadbills)[edit]

Family Acanthizidae (Gerygones and relatives)[edit]

Family Pachycephalidae (Whistlers and relatives)[edit]

  • Mangrove Whistler (Pachycephala grisola) - U/RB - Changi, Halus, P. Hantu, P. Semakau, P. Ubin, SBWR

Family Dicruridae (Monarchs, paradise flycatchers, drongos and relatives)[edit]

Family Prionopidae (Helmetshrikes and relatives)[edit]

Family Campephagidae (Cuckoo-shrikes, trillers, minivets and relatives)[edit]

Family Oriolidae (Old World orioles)[edit]

Family Corvidae (Crows and relatives)[edit]

Family Irenidae (Fairy bluebirds)[edit]

Family Chloropseidae (Leafbirds)[edit]

Family Laniidae (Shrikes)[edit]

Family Aegithinidae (Ioras)[edit]

Family Turdidae (Thrushes)[edit]

Family Muscicapidae (Old World flycatchers)[edit]

Family Sturnidae (Starlings, mynas, oxpeckers)[edit]

Family Hirundinidae (Swallows)[edit]

  • Red-rumped Swallow (Hirundo daurica) - U/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, Changi, LSD, Poyan, Punggol, Tuas
  • Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) - VC/WVPM - islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Pacific Swallow (Hirundo tahitica) - C/RB - islandwide (including offshore islands)
  • Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) - U/WVPM - BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Kranji Marsh, LSD, NTL
  • Asian House Martin (Delichon dasypus) - R/PM - BTNR, Changi, NTL

Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)[edit]

Family Sylviidae (Old World warblers)[edit]

Family Timaliidae (Old World babblers)[edit]

Family Zosteropidae (White-eyes)[edit]

Family Dicaeidae (Flowerpeckers)[edit]

Family Nectariniidae (Sunbirds and spiderhunters)[edit]

Family Motacillidae (Wagtails, pipits and relatives)[edit]

  • Forest Wagtail (Dendronanthus indicus) - U/WVPM - forest edges, Bidadari, CCNR, Venus Drive
  • White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) - R/WV - Bishan, BBC, Changi, SBG, P. Punggol, Punggol
  • Grey Wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) - U/WVPM - Admiralty Park, Bt Batok, BTNR, CCNR, Changi, Punggol, P. Ubin, Simpang
  • Citrine Wagtail (Motacilla citreola) - VR/WV - Punggol, Serangoon, Tuas
  • Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava) - C/WV - Changi, Halus, Kranji Marsh, NTL, P. Punggol, Punggol
  • Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus) - R/WV - Changi, P. Punggol
  • Olive-backed Pipit (Anthus hodgsoni) - VR/PM - Bidadari (2010)
  • Paddyfield Pipit (Anthus rufulus) - C/RB - urban areas

Family Ploceidae (Weavers and relatives)[edit]

Family Estrildidae (Estrildid finches)[edit]

Family Viduidae (Indigobirds and Whydahs)[edit]

Family Fringillidae (True Finches)[edit]

Family Emberizidae (Buntings and relatives)[edit]

Family Passeridae (Old World sparrows)[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roselaar, C.S.; J.P. Michels. ". Systematic notes on Asian birds. 48. Nomenclatural chaos untangled, resulting in the naming of the formally undescribed Cacatua species from the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Zool. Verh. Leiden 350: 183–196. 

External links[edit]