List of birds of Tajikistan
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.
Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
- Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
- Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Gray Heron Ardea cinerea
- Purple Heron Ardea purpurea
- Great Egret Ardea alba
- Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
- Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Ibises and spoonbills
The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Ducks, geese and swans
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Mute Swan Cygnus olor
- Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus
- Bean Goose Anser fabalis
- Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons
- Greylag Goose Anser anser
- Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus
- Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea
- Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna
- Gadwall Anas strepera
- Eurasian Teal Anas crecca
- Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
- Northern Pintail Anas acuta
- Garganey Anas querquedula
- Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata
- Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris
- Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina
- Common Pochard Aythya ferina
- Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca
- Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula
- White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca
- Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
- Smew Mergellus albellus
- Common Merganser Mergus merganser
- White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Black Kite Milvus migrans
- Pallas's Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus
- White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla
- Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus
- Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus
- Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis
- Eurasian Griffon Gyps fulvus
- Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus
- Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus
- Western Marsh-Harrier Circus aeruginosus
- Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus
- Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus
- Shikra Accipiter badius
- Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
- Eurasian Buzzard Buteo buteo
- Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus
- Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca
- Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos
- Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus
- Booted Eagle Aquila pennatus
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni
- Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
- Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus
- Merlin Falco columbarius
- Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo
- Saker Falcon Falco cherrug
- Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides
- Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
Grouse are game birds, similar to quails and partridge. There are 18 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Rock Ptarmigan Lagopus muta
Pheasants and partridges
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Tibetan Snowcock Tetraogallus tibetanus
- Himalayan Snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis
- Chukar Alectoris chukar
- See-see Partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis
- Common Quail Coturnix coturnix
- Ring-necked Pheasant Phasianus colchicus
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Water Rail Rallus aquaticus
- Corn Crake Crex crex
- Little Crake Porzana parva
- Baillon's Crake Porzana pusilla
- Spotted Crake Porzana porzana
- Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
- Eurasian Coot Fulica atra
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus
The Ibisbill is a bird related to the waders, but sufficiently distinctive to merit its own family. The adult is grey with a white belly, red legs and long down curved bill, and a black face and black breast band.
- Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Eurasian Thick-knee Burhinus oedicnemus
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
- Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius
- White-tailed Lapwing Vanellus leucurus
- Pacific Golden-Plover Pluvialis fulva
- Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola
- Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius
- Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus
- Lesser Sandplover Charadrius mongolus
- Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii
Sandpipers and allies
The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola
- Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus
- Solitary Snipe Gallinago solitaria
- Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago
- Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa
- Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
- Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata
- Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus
- Common Redshank Tringa totanus
- Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis
- Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia
- Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus
- Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola
- Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus
- Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
- Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
- Sanderling Calidris alba
- Little Stint Calidris minuta
- Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii
- Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
- Dunlin Calidris alpina
- Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus
- Ruff Philomachus pugnax
- Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus
- Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius
Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Mew Gull Larus canus
- Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans
- Great Black-headed Gull Larus ichthyaetus
- Brown-headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus
- Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus
- Little Gull Larus minutus
Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica
- Common Tern Sterna hirundo
- Little Tern Sterna albifrons
- Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus
- White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus
- Black Tern Chlidonias niger
Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Tibetan Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes tibetanus
- Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata
- Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis
Pigeons and doves
- Rock Pigeon Columba livia
- Hill Pigeon Columba rupestris
- Snow Pigeon Columba leuconota
- Stock Dove Columba oenas
- Yellow-eyed Pigeon Columba eversmanni
- Common Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus
- European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur
- Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis
- Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis
Cuckoos and anis
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Pallid Scops-Owl Otus brucei
- European Scops-Owl Otus scops
- Eurasian Eagle-Owl Bubo bubo
- Tawny Owl Strix aluco
- Little Owl Athene noctua
- Boreal Owl Aegolius funereus
- Long-eared Owl Asio otus
- Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- European Roller Coracias garrulus
Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Hoopoe Upupa epops
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Desert Lark Ammomanes deserti
- Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra
- Bimaculated Lark Melanocorypha bimaculata
- Black Lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis
- Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla
- Hume's Lark Calandrella acutirostris
- Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella rufescens
- Crested Lark Galerida cristata
- Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis
- Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula
- Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Sand Martin Riparia riparia
- Grey-throated Martin Riparia paludicola
- Eurasian Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris
- Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
- Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii
- Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica
- Common House Martin Delichon urbicum
Wagtails and pipits
The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- White Wagtail Motacilla alba
- Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola
- Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava
- Gray Wagtail Motacilla cinerea
- Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris
- Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis
- Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis
- Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus
- Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta
The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Goldcrest Regulus regulus
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterized by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus
Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes
The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris
- Himalayan Accentor Prunella himalayana
- Brown Accentor Prunella fulvescens
- Black-throated Accentor Prunella atrogularis
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Common Rock Thrush Monticola saxatilis
- Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius
- Blue Whistling-Thrush Myophonus caeruleus
- Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula
- Dark-throated Thrush Turdus ruficollis
- Fieldfare Turdus pilaris
- Song Thrush Turdus philomelos
- Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus
Cisticolas and allies
The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Streaked Scrub-Warbler Scotocerca inquieta
Old World warblers
The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 33 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti
- Long-billed Bush-Warbler Bradypterus major
- Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia
- Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides
- Moustached Warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon
- Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
- Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola
- Eurasian Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus
- Blyth's Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum
- Great Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus
- Clamorous Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus
- Booted Warbler Hippolais caligata
- Sykes's Warbler Hippolais rama
- Eastern Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida
- Upcher's Warbler Hippolais languida
- Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina
- White-browed Tit-Warbler Leptopoecile sophiae
- Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
- Mountain Chiffchaff Phylloscopus sindianus
- Plain Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus neglectus
- Sulphur-bellied Warbler Phylloscopus griseolus
- Lemon-rumped Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus
- Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus
- Hume's Warbler Phylloscopus humei
- Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides
- Western Crowned Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus occipitalis
- Greater Whitethroat Sylvia communis
- Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca
- Hume's Whitethroat Sylvia althaea
- Asian Desert Warbler Sylvia nana
- Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria
- Eastern Orphean Warbler Sylvia crassirostris
- Menetries's Warbler Sylvia mystacea
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 27 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata
- Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica
- Rusty-tailed Flycatcher Muscicapa ruficauda
- European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
- Taiga Flycatcher Ficedula albicilla
- European Robin Erithacus rubecula
- Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos
- White-tailed Rubythroat Luscinia pectoralis
- Bluethroat Luscinia svecica
- White-throated Robin Irania gutturalis
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas galactotes
- Rufous-backed Redstart Phoenicurus erythronota
- Blue-capped Redstart Phoenicurus caeruleocephalus
- Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros
- Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
- White-winged Redstart Phoenicurus erythrogaster
- White-capped Redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus
- Siberian Stonechat Saxicola maura
- Little Forktail Enicurus scouleri
- Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata
- Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
- Finsch's Wheatear Oenanthe finschii
- Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata
- Pied Wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka
- Red-tailed Wheatear Oenanthe xanthoprymna
- Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti
- Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina
The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Asian Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi
The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Streaked Laughingthrush Garrulax lineatus
The parrotbills are a group of birds native to East and Southeast Asia, though feral populations are known from elsewhere. They are generally small, long-tailed birds which inhabit reedbeds and similar habitats. There are 20 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Bearded Reedling Panurus biarmicus
Chickadees and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 6 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Coal Tit Periparus ater
- Black-breasted Tit Periparus rufonuchalis
- Great Tit Parus major
- Turkestan Tit Parus bokharensis
- Azure Tit Cyanistes cyanus
- Yellow-breasted Tit Cyanistes flavipectus
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Tajikistan.
The Wallcreeper is a small bird with stunning crimson, grey and black plumage, related to the nuthatch family.
- Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Bar-tailed Treecreeper Certhia himalayana
The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Eurasian Penduline-Tit Remiz pendulinus
- Black-headed Penduline-Tit Remiz macronyx
- White-crowned Penduline-Tit Remiz coronatus
Old World orioles
The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Tajikistan.
- Indian Golden Oriole Oriolus kundoo
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio
- Rufous-tailed Shrike Lanius isabellinus
- Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach
- Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor
- Southern Gray Shrike Lanius meridionalis
- Lesser Gray Shrike Lanius minor
Crows, jays, ravens and magpies
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Eurasian Magpie Pica pica
- Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
- Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus
- Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus monedula
- Rook Corvus frugilegus
- Carrion Crow Corvus corone
- Common Raven Corvus corax
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Tajikistan.
Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 13 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella
- Pine Bunting Emberiza leucocephalos
- Rock Bunting Emberiza cia
- Gray-hooded Bunting Emberiza buchanani
- Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana
- Chestnut-breasted Bunting Emberiza stewarti
- Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla
- Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica
- Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala
- Red-headed Bunting Emberiza bruniceps
- Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus
- Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra
- Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus
Siskins, crossbills and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
- Brambling Fringilla montifringilla
- Plain Mountain-Finch Leucosticte nemoricola
- Black-headed Mountain-Finch Leucosticte brandti
- Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus
- Red-mantled Rosefinch Carpodacus rhodochlamys
- Caucasian Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla
- Red-fronted Rosefinch Carpodacus puniceus
- Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra
- European Greenfinch Carduelis chloris
- Eurasian Siskin Carduelis spinus
- European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
- Twite Carduelis flavirostris
- Eurasian Linnet Carduelis cannabina
- Fire-fronted Serin Serinus pusillus
- Eurasian Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula
- Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes
- White-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas carnipes
- Crimson-winged Finch Rhodopechys sanguinea
- Mongolian Finch Rhodopechys mongolica
- Desert Finch Rhodospiza obsoleta
- Long-tailed Rosefinch Uragus sibiricus
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Tajikistan.
- House Sparrow Passer domesticus
- Spanish Sparrow Passer hispaniolensis
- Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
- Rock Petronia Petronia petronia
- White-winged Snowfinch Montifringilla nivalis
- Afghan Snowfinch Montifringilla theresae