List of butterflies of Australia

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Cairns Birdwing (Ornithoptera euphorion): Australia's largest endemic butterfly

Australia has more than 400 species of butterflies, the majority of which are continental species, and more than a dozen endemic species from remote islands administered by various Australian territorial governments. The largest butterflies in the world are endemic to the Australasian ecozone. They are the birdwingsOrnithoptera and other genera—of the Troidini tribe of swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae).[1]

Papilionidae: Swallowtails[edit]

family: Papilionidae (Swallowtails) — 18+2 species [*2 non-continental species]

Papilioninae[edit]

subfamily: Papilioninae
tribe: Leptocircini (formerly Graphiini)
genus: Protographium
P. l. leosthenes (Doubleday, 1846)[2]
P. l. geimbia (Tindale, 1927)[3]
genus: Graphium (Swordtails)
G. m. macleayanus (Leach, 1814)[5]
G. m. moggana (Couchman, 1965)[6]
G. e. lycaon (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
G. e. nyctimus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
G. e. lycanoides (Rothschild, 1895)[10]
tribe: Papilionini (Fluted Swallowtails)
genus: Papilio (Linnaeus, 1758)[7]
P. a. aegeus (Donovan, 1805)[13]
P. a. ormenus (Guérin-Méneville, 1830)[14]
P. f. canopus (Westwood, 1842)[17]
P. f. capaneus (Westwood, 1843)[18]
P. f. indicatus (Butler, 1876)[19]
tribe: Troidini (Aristolochia-eating Swallowtails)
genus: Cressida
C. c. cressida (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Ornithoptera (Birdwings)
O. p. poseidon (Doubleday, 1847)[2][23]
O. p. pronomus (Gray, 1853)[22]
O. p. macalpinei (Moulds, 1974)[24]
genus: Pachliopta

Pieridae: Whites and Yellows[edit]

family: Pieridae (Whites and Yellows) — 35+2+1 species [†1 introduced species]

Pierinae: Whites[edit]

subfamily: Pierinae (Whites)
tribe: Pierini
genus: Pieris
  • †Small Cabbage White, Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758)[7] [†introduced species] — pictured right
tribe: Aporiini
genus: Cepora
C. p. scyllara (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
genus: Delias (Jezebels)
D. a. argenthona (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
D. a. inferna (Butler, 1871)[27]
D. e. nigidius (Miskin, 1884)[29]
D. e. tindalii (Joicey & Talbot, 1926)[30]
D. m. mysis (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
D. m. aestiva (Butler, 1897)[31]
D. m. onca (Fruhstorfer, 1910)[32]
D. n. nysa (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
D. n. nivira (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]

Coliadinae: Yellows[edit]

subfamily: Coliadinae (Yellows)
genus: Catopsilia (Migrants or Emigrants)
C. p. crokera (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
C. s. etesia (Hewitson, 1867)[33]
C. g. gorgophone (Boisduval, 1836)[34]
genus: Eurema (Grass-yellows)
E. b. australis (Wallace, 1867)[28]
E. b. zoraide (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
E. l. sana (Butler, 1877)[11]
E. s. smilax (Donovan, 1805)[13]
E. p. papuan (Butler, 1898)[35]
E. p. virgo (Wallace, 1867)[28]
E. h. hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758)[7]
E. h. phoebus (Butler, 1886)[37]

Incertae sedis: Uncertain phylogeny[edit]

Incertae sedis (Uncertain phylogeny)
genus: Belenois (formerly Anaphaeis)
B. j. peristhene (Boisduval, 1859)[20]
B. j. teutonia (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Leptosia
genus: Elodina (Pearl-whites)
genus: Appias (Albatrosses)
A. a. caria (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
A. a. albina (Boisduval, 1836)[34]
A. p. ega (Boisduval, 1836)[34]

Riodinidae: Metalmarks[edit]

family: Riodinidae (Metalmarks) — 1 species

Nemeobiinae[edit]

subfamily: Nemeobiinae
genus: Praetaxila
P. s. punctaria (Fruhstorfer, 1914)[44]

Lycaenidae: Gossamer-winged Blues and Coppers[edit]

family: Lycaenidae (Gossamer-winged Blues and Coppers) — 142+7 species

Miletinae: Harvesters[edit]

subfamily: Miletinae (Harvesters)
tribe: Liphyrini
genus: Liphyra
L. b. major (Rothschild, 1898)[46]

Theclinae: Hairstreaks[edit]

subfamily: Theclinae (Hairstreaks)
tribe: Luciini
genus: Lucia
genus: Paralucia
P. p. lucida (Crosby, 1951)[49]
genus: Pseudodipsas
P. e. iole (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Acrodipsas (Ant-blues)
genus: Hypochrysops (Jewels)
H. a. apelles (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
H. a. apollo (Miskin, 1891)[59]
H. a. phoebus (Waterhouse, 1928)[60]
H. d. delicia (Hewitson, 1875)[62]
H. d. duaringae (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
H. e. elgneri (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1909)[64]
H. e. barnardi (Waterhouse, 1934)[65]
H. h. nebulosis (Sands, 1986)[67]
H. i. ignita (Leach, 1814)[5]
H. i. chrysonotus (Grose-Smith, 1899)[68]
H. i. erythina (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
H. i. oliffi (Miskin, 1889)[5]
H. m. miskini (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
H. n. narcissus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
H. n. sabirus (Fruhstorfer, 1908)[69]
H. p. rovena (Druce, 1891)[71]
H. p. euclides (Miskin, 1889)[41]
H. t. medocus (Fruhstorfer, 1908)[69]
H. t. cretatus (Sands, 1986)[67]
genus: Philiris (Moonbeams)
P. d. diana (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
P. d. papuanus (Wind & Clench, 1947)[72]
P. f. kurandae (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
P. n. nitens (Grose-Smith, 1898)[75]
P. n. lucina (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
tribe: Arhopalini
genus: Arhopala (Oak-blues)
A. m. amphis (Waterhouse, 1942)[76]
A. w. wildei (Miskin, 1891)[59]
tribe: Ogyrini
genus: Ogyris (Azures)
tribe: Zesiini (Hairstreaks)
genus: Jalmenus
J. i. inous (Hewitson, 1865)[87]
J. i. notocrucifer (Johnson, Hay & Bollam, 1992)[88]
genus: Pseudalmenus
P. c. chlorinda (Blanchard, 1948)[48]
P. c. conara (Couchman, 1965)[6]
P. c. zephyrus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
P. c. myrsilus (Westwood, 1851)[77]
P. c. chloris (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
P. c. barringtonensis (Waterhouse, 1928)[60]
tribe: Hypolycaenini
genus: Hypolycaena
H. d. turneri (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
H. p. phorbas (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
H. p. ingura (Tindale, 1923)[90]
tribe: Deudorigini
genus: Deudorix
D. e. dido (Waterhouse, 1934)[65]
D. e. diovis (Hewitson, 1863)[92]
D. e. agimar (Fruhstorfer, 1908)[69]
D. d. democles (Miskin, 1884)[29]
D. s. dalyensis (le Souëf & Tindale, 1970)[94]
genus: Rapala
R. v. simsoni (Miskin, 1874)[74]
genus: Bindahara
B. p. yurgama (Couchman, 1965)[6]

Polyommatinae: Blues[edit]

subfamily: Polyommatinae (Blues)
tribe: Candalidini
genus: Candalides (Pencil– and Dusky-blues)
C. h. helenita (Semper, 1879)[85]
C. m. margarita (Semper, 1879)[85]
C. c. consimilis (Waterhouse, 1942)[76]
C. c. goodingi (Tindale, 1965)[97]
C. c. toza (Kerr, 1967)[98]
C. c. cyprotus (Olliff, 1886)[99]
C. c. pallescens (Tite, 1963)[100]
C. h. hyacinthina (Semper, 1879)[85]
C. h. simplexa (Tepper, 1882)[101]
C. h. gilesi (Williams & Bollam, 2001)[102]
C. e. erinus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
C. h. heathi (Cox, 1873)[104]
C. h. alpina (Waterhouse, 1928)[60]
C. h. doddi (Burns, 1948)[106]
genus: Nesolycaena (Opals)
tribe: Lycaenestheni
genus: Anthene (Ciliate-blues)
A. s. affinis (Waterhouse & RE Turner, 1905)[112]
A. l. godeffroyi (Semper, 1879)[85]
tribe: Polyommatini
genus: Petrelaea
genus: Nacaduba
N. b. berenice (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
N. k. parma (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
N. k. felsina (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
N. b. biocellata (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
N. c. calauria (C Felder, 1860)[93]
genus: Erysichton
E. l. lineata (Murray, 1874)[114]
E. p. tasmanicus (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Danis
D. d. serapis (Miskin, 1891)[59]
D. d. syrius (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Nothodanis
genus: Psychonotis
P. c. taygetus (C & R Felder, 1865)[8]
genus: Prosotas
P. d. dubiosa (Semper, 1879)[85]
P. n. auletes (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Catopyrops
C. a. mysia (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
C. f. halys (Waterhouse, 1934)[65]
C. f. estrella (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Ionolyce
I. h. hyllus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Theclinesthes
T. h. hesperia (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. h. littoralis (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. m. miskini (TP Lucas, 1889)[117]
T. m. eucalypti (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. m. arnoldi (Fruhstorfer, 1916)[118]
T. o. onycha (Hewitson, 1865)[87]
T. o. capricornia (Sibatani & Grund, 1978)[116]
T. s. serpentata (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
T. s. lavara (Couchman, 1954)[119]
genus: Sahulana
genus: Neolucia (Heath-blues)
N. a. agricola (Westwood, 1851)[77]
N. a. insulana (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
N. a. occidens (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
N. h. hobartensis (Miskin, 1890)[80]
N. h. monticola (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Jamides (Ceruleans)
J. a. coelestis (Miskin, 1891)[59]
J. c. claudia (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Catochrysops (Pea-blues)
C. a. amasea (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
C. p. platissa (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
C. p. pauana (Tite, 1959)[121]
genus: Lampides
genus: Leptotes (synonyms Tarucus and Syntarucus)
L. p. pseudocassius (Murray, 1873)[123]
genus: Zizeeria
genus: Zizina
Z. l. labradus (Godart, 1824)[125]
Z. l. labdalon (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Famegana
Black-spotted Grass-blue, Famegana alsulus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
F. a. alsulus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)[113]
genus: Zizula
Z. h. attenuata (TP Lucas, 1890)[127]
genus: Everes
E. l. australis (Couchman, 1962)[128]
genus: Pithecops
P. d. dionisius (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
genus: Neopithecops
N. l. heria (Fruhstorfer, 1919)[129]
genus: Megisba
M. s. nigra (Miskin, 1890)[80]
genus: Udara
genus: Euchrysops
E. c. cnidus (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Freyeria
F. p. putli (Kollar, 1844)[131]

Nymphalidae: Brush– or four-footed[edit]

family: Nymphalidae (Brush– or four-footed) — 81+6 species

Morphinae[edit]

subfamily: Morphinae
tribe: Amathusiini
genus Taenaris
T. a. jamesi (Butler, 1876)[19]

Satyrinae[edit]

subfamily: Satyrinae
tribe: Biini
subtribe: Melanititi
genus: Melanitis
M. l. bankia (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
tribe: Elymniini
subtribe: Elymniiti
genus: Elymnias
E. a. australiana (Fruhstorfer, 1900)[133]
subtribe: Mycalesiti
O. m. moira (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
M. p. perseus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
M. s. sirius (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
M. t. terminus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
tribe: Satyrini
subtribe: Ypthimiti
genus: Ypthima
Y. a. arctoa (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
subtribe: Hypocystiti
genus: Hypocysta
H. a. angustata (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Nesoxenicaendemic to Tasmania
N. l. leprea (Hewitson, 1864)[136]
N. l. elia (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
genus: Argynnina
genus: Oreixenica
genus: Geitoneura
genus: Heteronympha
genus: Tisiphone

Charaxinae: Leafwings[edit]

subfamily: Charaxinae (Leafwings)
genus: Charaxes
genus: Polyura
Polyura pyrrhus sempronius (Fabricius, 1793)[26]

Apaturinae[edit]

subfamily: Apaturinae
genus: Apaturina
A. e. papuana (Ribbe, 1884)[148]

Heliconiinae: Longwings[edit]

subfamily: Heliconiinae (Longwings)
tribe: Acraeini
genus: Acraea
A. a. andromacha (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
tribe: Heliconiini
genus: Cethosia
C. c. chrysippe (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
C. p. paksha (Fruhstorfer, 1905)[149]
tribe: Vagrantini
genus: Vindula
V. a. ada (Butler, 1874)[150]
genus: Cupha
C. p. prosope (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Vagrans
V. e. propinqua (Miskin, 1884)[29]
genus: Phalanta
P. p. araca (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
tribe: Argynnini
genus: Argyreus
A. h. inconstans (Butler, 1873)[151]

Nymphalinae[edit]

subfamily: Nymphalinae
genus: Doleschallia
D. b. australis (C & R Felder, 1867)[152]
genus: Hypolimnas
H. a. lamina (Fruhstorfer, 1903)[153]
H. a. darwinensis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
H. a. albula (Wallace, 1869)[154]
H. b. bolina (Linnaeus, 1758)[7]
H. b. nerina (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
genus: Yoma
Yoma sabina parva (Butler, 1876)[19]
genus: Junonia
Junonia hedonia zelima (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
Junonia orithya albicincta (Butler, 1875)[135]
Junonia villida calybe (Godart, 1819)[156]
genus: Vanessa
genus: Mynes
M. g. guerini (Wallace, 1869)[154]

Biblidinae[edit]

subfamily: Biblidinae (Planes)
genus: Pantoporia
P. c. consimilis (Boisduval, 1832)[15]
P. v. moorei (WJ Macleay, 1866)[158]
genus: Neptis
N. p. staudingereana (de Nicéville, 1898)[159]
genus: Phaedyma
P. s. shepherdi (Moore, 1858)[91]
genus: Lexias

Libytheinae[edit]

subfamily: Libytheinae
genus: Libythea
L. g. genia (Waterhouse, 1938)[160]
L. g. nicevillei (Olliff, 1891)[161]

Danainae: Milkweed butterflies[edit]

subfamily: Danainae (Milkweed butterflies)
tribe: Danaini (Tigers and Crows)
genus Tirumala
T. h. hamata (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
genus Danaus
D. a. affinis (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
D. a. alexis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
D. a. gelanor (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
conspecific with:[162] D. philene (Stoll, 1782)[4]
D. g. alexis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]
D. c. petilia (Stoll, 1790)[163]
D. c. cratippus (C Felder, 1860)[93]
genus Euploea
E. a. eichhorni (Staudinger, 1884)[164]
E. a. enastri (Fenner, 1991)[165]
E. a. monilifera (Moore, 1883)[166]
E. c. corinna (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
E. a. violetta (Butler, 1876)[19]
E. b. resarta (Butler, 1876)[19]
E. c. macleari (Butler, 1887)[167]
E. d. darchia (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
E. d. niveata (Butler, 1875)[135]
E. s. sylvester (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
E. s. pelor (Doubleday, 1847)[23]
E. t. tulliolus (Fabricius, 1793)[26]
tribe: Tellervini
genus Tellervo
Cairns Hamadryad, Tellervo zoilus zoilus (Fabricius, 1775)[21]
Cape York Hamadryad, Tellervo zoilus gelo (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914)[9]

Hesperiidae: Skippers[edit]

family: Hesperiidae (Skippers)[170]121+1 species

Pyrginae: Spread-winged Skippers[edit]

subfamily: Pyrginae (Spread-winged Skippers) (Burmeister, 1878)[171]
genus: Dusk-flats, Chaetocneme (C Felder, 1860)[93]
C. c. sphinterifera (Fruhstorfer, 1910)[32]
genus: Euschemon (Doubleday, 1846)[2]
E. r. rafflesia (WS Macleay, 1826)[12]
E. r. alba (Mabille, 1903)[174]
genus: Exometoeca
genus: Netrocoryne
N. r. repanda (C & R Felder, 1867)[152]
N. r. expansa (Waterhouse, 1932)[176]
genus: Tagiades
T. j. janetta (Butler, 1870)[177]

Coeliadinae: Awls, Awlets and Policemen[edit]

subfamily: Coeliadinae (Awls, Awlets and Policemen)
genus: Allora
genus: Badamia
genus: Hasora
H. d. mastusia (Fruhstorfer, 1911)[180]
H. c. chromus (Cramer, 1780)[4]
H. k. haslia (Swinhoe, 1899)[182]

Trapezitinae: Australian Skippers[edit]

subfamily: Trapezitinae (Australian Skippers)
genus: Antipodia
genus: Croitana
genus: Herimosa (Atkins, 1994);[188] previously Anisynta (Lower, 1911)[189]
A. c. cynone (Hewitson, 1874)[51]
A. c. gunneda (Couchman, 1954)[119]
genus: Hesperilla
genus: Mesodina
genus: Motasingha
genus: Neohesperilla
genus: Oreisplanus
genus: Signeta
genus: Toxidia
genus: Trapezites

Hesperinae: Grass Skippers[edit]

subfamily: Hesperinae (Grass Skippers)
genus: Notocrypta
N. w. proserpina (Butler, 1883)[200]
genus: Taractrocera
T. i. ilia (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
genus: Ocybadistes
O. a. ardea (Bethune-Baker, 1906)[209]
O. a. heterobathra (Lower, 1908)[185]
genus: Suniana
genus: Arrhenes
A. d. iris (Waterhouse, 1903)[63]
A. m. affinis (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1912)[192]
genus: Telicota
T. a. krefftii (WJ Macleay, 1866)[158]
T. c. argeus (Plötz, 1883)[215]
T. m. mesoptis (Lower, 1911)[189]
genus: Cephrenes
C. a. sperthias (C Felder, 1862)[96]
genus: Sabera
genus: Pelopidas
genus: Parnara
genus: Borbo
B. i. lavinia (Waterhouse, 1932)[176]
B. i. tetragaphus (Mabille, 1891)[201]

Remote islands species[edit]

Australia has 8,222 islands within her maritime borders. This is small in comparison with her northern neighbour Indonesia, with about 18,300 islands (high geological activity is constantly adding and removing Indonesian islands). The British Isles include more than 6,000 islands over a much smaller area. The Greek islands include about as many islands depending on the minimum size to take into account, but in an even smaller area.

Christmas Island (105°E)[edit]

Torres Strait islands (142–144°E)[edit]

Dauan Island (Dauan, 142.5°E)
Saibai Island (Saibai, 142.7°E)
Yorke Island (Masig, 143.4°E)
Darnley Island (Erub, 143.7°E)
Murray Island (Mer, 144.0°E)

Norfolk Island (168°E)[edit]

Glossary[edit]

Major collections[edit]

Butterflies (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)
in principal collections
Collection Specimens Amateur Percent
ANIC, Canberra 115,000 92,000 80%
Australian Museum, Sydney 65,000 63,900 98%
Museum of Victoria 24,000 18,000 75%
Queensland Museum 9,000 6,300 70%
South Australian Museum 36,000 19,800 55%
Total 249,000 200,000 80%

Museums outside of Australia with significant Australian butterfly collections[edit]

See also[edit]

collections
butterfly lists
Australian animal lists

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ NM Collins and MG Morris, Threatened swallowtail butterflies of the world, The IUCN Red Data Book, (IUCN and Cambridge University Press, 1985).
  2. ^ a b c d Edward Doubleday, John Obadiah Westwood and William Chapman Hewitson. The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera: comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habits and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846–52.
  3. ^ Norman Barnett Tindale, "A new butterfly of the genus Papilio from Arnhem Land", Records of the South Australian Museum 3 (1927): 103–134.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Pieter Cramer and Caspar Stoll, Uitlandische Kapellen: voorkomende in de drei Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven (Dutch), Papilions Exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amerique (French), 34 issues in 4 volumes, (Amsterdam: Steven Jacobus Baalde, and Utrecht: Bartholomeus Wild, [1775]–1782).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h William Elford Leach, Zoological Miscellany, (London: British Museum), 1814.
  6. ^ a b c Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1965.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Caroli Linnæi, Systema Naturæ: per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, tomus I, editio decima reformata, (Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), pp. 458ff. (Latin)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1865).
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1914), The Butterflies of Australia: a monograph of the Australian Rhopalocera introducing a complete scheme of structural classification, and giving descriptiosn and illustrations of all the butterflies found in Australia, including a number now recorded for the first time, (Sydney, Angus & Robertson). 239 pp.
  10. ^ Walter Rothschild, 1895.
  11. ^ a b c Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1877.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k William Sharp Macleay, "Annulosa, catalogue of insects, collected by Captain King, RN", Appendix B in Phillip Parker King, Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia, (London: John Murray, 1826): pp. 438–469.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Edward Donovan, An Epitome of the Natural History of the Insects of New Holland, New Zealand, New Guinea, Otaheite, and other Islands in the Indian, Southern, and Pacific Oceans: including the figures and descriptions of one hundred and fifty-three species of the more splendid, beautiful, and interesting insects, hitherto discovered in those countries, and which for the most part have not appeared in the works of any preceding author, (London: Francis, Charles & John Rivington, 1805).
  14. ^ a b c Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville, 1830.
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Braby, Michael F. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution. 2 volumes. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, 2000.
[Reviewed in Australian Journal of Entomology 40 (2001): 202–204.]

Taxonomic authorities[edit]

External links[edit]