List of cancer clusters

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This is a list of cancer clusters. A cancer cluster is a statistical event, which may or may not have a cause other than chance. There are other cancer clusters that occur without any obvious source of carcinogens.

North America
Date Disease Location Number Source Refs
1917–1927 Osteosarcoma New Jersey, Connecticut, Illinois 86 Radium [1][2]
1938–1971 Adenocarcinoma U.S.A. 750 diethylstilbestrol [3][4]
1963–1999 Lung cancer, Mesothelioma Libby, Montana 56 vermiculite [5]
1967–1973 Liver angiosarcoma (Hemangiosarcoma) Louisville, Kentucky 4 vinyl chloride monomer [6]
1968–1995 Leukemia, Lymphoma Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (see Camp Lejeune water contamination) 13[note 1] trichloroethylene
1,2-dichloroethylene
tetrachloroethylene
methylene chloride
vinyl chloride
[8][7]
1973–1982 Brain, CNS cancer Cooke County, Texas 16-29 Unknown [9]
1979–1996 Brain, CNS cancer Toms River, New Jersey 90+ SAN trimer
styrene
acrylonitrile
[10][11][12]
1981–1986 Leukemia Woburn, Massachusetts 21 Chloroform
Tetrachloroethylene
Trichloroethylene
1,2-Dichloroethene
Arsenic
[13][14]
1982–1984 Testicular cancer Fulton County, New York 3 dimethylformamide (DMF)
2-ethoxyethanol
2-ethoxyethyl acetate
2-butoxyethanol
[15]
1987–1999 Brain cancer, Leukemia, Lymphoma Wilmington, Massachusetts 20 Unknown
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)
[16][17][18]
1997–2002 Leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma Fallon, Nevada 17 Unknown
Tungsten
Arsenic
Chlorpyrifos
DDE
Benzene in jet fuel
[19][20][21][22]
1996–2013 Leukemia, Brain Tumors, lymphoma, Other Forms Clyde, Ohio 36 Mostly Children Unknown [23]
1953–2010 wide range of cancers Shannon, Quebec 400 trichloroethylene [24][25]
Europe
Date Disease Location Number Source Refs
1968–1995 Leukemia Seascale, Sellafield, England 9 Unsure
studies indicate a correlation with paternal preconceptional irradiation (PPI)
[26][27]
1978–1993 Leukemia La Hague, Normandy, France 27 Unknown
(speculated to be tritium)
[28][29]
1980s Leukemia, Brain tumors East Yorkshire, UK 13 Unproven link to Capper Pass tin smelter in Melton; Polonium 210, Lead, Arsenic and other metal emitter [30][31][32][33]
1990–2005 Leukemia Krümmel (Kruemmel), Elbmarsch, Germany 16 Unknown
(speculated to be actinide, especially Plutonium241 of unknown origin that was found in the area or tritium from a nearby nuclear power plant)
[34][35]
India
Date Disease Location Number Source Refs
mid 1980s Skin Lesions, Arsenicosis West Bengal, India Unknown Arsenic [36]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Out of 106 suspected health problems, 52 were confirmed, including 13 hematopoietic cancers and 39 birth defects.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grady, Denise (October 8, 1998). "A Glow in the Dark, and a Lesson in Scientific Peril". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ Thun, M. J.; Sinks, T. (2004). "Understanding Cancer Clusters". CA 54 (5): 273–80. doi:10.3322/canjclin.54.5.273. PMID 15371285. 
  3. ^ Jones, LA; Hajek, RA (1995). "Effects of estrogenic chemicals on development". Environmental health perspectives. 103 Suppl 7 (Suppl 7): 63–7. PMC 1518876. PMID 8593877. 
  4. ^ "Role of DES Cohort Studies". US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  5. ^ McDonald, J C; Harris, J; Armstrong, B (2004). "Mortality in a cohort of vermiculite miners exposed to fibrous amphibole in Libby, Montana". Occupational and Environmental Medicine 61 (4): 363–6. doi:10.1136/oem.2003.008649. PMC 1740743. PMID 15031396. 
  6. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1997). "Epidemiologic notes and reports. Angiosarcoma of the liver among polyvinyl chloride workers--Kentucky. 1974". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46 (5): 97–101. PMID 9045039. 
  7. ^ a b "Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: Health Study Activities Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)". US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). September 16, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Survey of Childhood Cancers and Birth Defects at USMC Camp Lejeune". US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). July 2003. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  9. ^ Centers for Disease Control (1984). "Brain cancer--Texas". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 33 (33): 477–9. PMID 6431254. 
  10. ^ "CIBA-GEIGY CORP". US Environmental Protection Agency. December 14, 2004. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  11. ^ "Childhood Cancer Incidence Health Consultation: A Review and Analysis of Cancer Registry Data, 1979-1995 for Dover Township (Ocean County), New Jersey". New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Hazardous Site Health Evaluation Program, Division of Epidemiology, Environmental and Occupational Health, & US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). September 1997. 
  12. ^ "Volume 1: Summary of the Final Technical Report". Case-control Study of Childhood Cancers in Dover Township (Ocean County), New Jersey. NJDHSS, ATSDR. December 2001. Retrieved January 31, 2005.  See also: "Dover Township Childhood Cancer Investigation". Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  13. ^ "BEHA Reports - Woburn, Massachusetts". Massachusetts Department of Public Health and Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment. 1997. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  14. ^ Costas, Kevin; Knorr, Robert S; Condon, Suzanne K (2002). "A case–control study of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: The relationship between leukemia incidence and exposure to public drinking water". Science of the Total Environment 300 (1–3): 23–35. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00169-9. PMID 12685468. 
  15. ^ Centers for Disease Control (1989). "Testicular cancer in leather workers--Fulton County, New York". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 38 (7): 105–6, 111–4. PMID 2536886. 
  16. ^ "Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment". Wilmington Childhood Cancer Study. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. 2002. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  17. ^ "Evaluation of Cancer Incidence data for the Town of Wilmington, Massachusetts 1987-1995". Letter to the Wilmington Board of Health. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. August 2000. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  18. ^ "Toxic chemicals and childhood cancer: A review of the evidence". Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell. 2003. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  19. ^ "Cancer Clusters - Churchill County (Fallon), Nevada Exposure Assessment". National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  20. ^ Steinmaus, Craig; Lu, Meng; Todd, Randall L; Smith, Allan H (2004). "Probability estimates for the unique childhood leukemia cluster in Fallon, Nevada, and risks near other U.S. Military aviation facilities". Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (6): 766–71. doi:10.1289/ehp.6592. PMC 1241974. PMID 15121523. 
  21. ^ "Nevada". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Retrieved January 31, 2005. 
  22. ^ Mullen, Frank (February 27, 2005). "Scientists zero in on tungsten as Fallon cancer cause". Reno Gazette-Journal. 
  23. ^ Seewer, John (December 30, 2010). "Ohio child cancers confound parents, investigators". Associated Press. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Quebec town demands compensation for tainted water". CBC News. June 10, 2009. 
  25. ^ Asselin, Pierre (January 4, 2010). "Eau contaminée de Shannon: le nombre de maladies répertoriées augmente" [Shannon's contaminated water: the number of identified diseases increases]. Le Soleil (in French). 
  26. ^ Gardner, Martin J. (1991). "Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield nuclear plant". Environmental health perspectives 94: 5–7. doi:10.2307/3431285. JSTOR 3431285. PMC 1567974. PMID 1954939. 
  27. ^ Dickinson, Heather O.; Parker, Louise (2002). "Leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children of male Sellafield radiation workers". International Journal of Cancer 99 (3): 437–44. doi:10.1002/ijc.10385. PMID 11992415. 
  28. ^ Pobel, D.; Viel, J.-F. (1997). "Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: The environmental hypothesis revisited". BMJ 314 (7074): 101–6. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7074.101. PMC 2125632. PMID 9006467. 
  29. ^ Seth, Anita (1997). "Leukemia Clusters Near La Hague and Sellafield". Energy & Security (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research) (4): 14. 
  30. ^ M S Baxter; B W East; A B MacKenzie; E M Scott (1990). A Review of radioactivity in and around the Capper Pass smelter, Melton Works, North Humberside, a report prepared for the East Yorkshire Health Authority, February 1990. Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre{{inconsistent citations}} 
  31. ^ Radioactivity 176. Hansard, House of Commons. 19 July 1990. cc.1283. "We cannot, in any way, attribute excess cancers to the practices at, or discharges from, the plant. All we can say in summary is that there is far too little information on which to form a sound judgment (quoted from report)" 
  32. ^ Sources:
  33. ^ John S. Scott, ed. (1992). "Cancer cluster". Dictionary Of Civil Engineering (4 ed.). Chapman and Hall. ISBN 9780412984211{{inconsistent citations}} 
  34. ^ Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dieckmann, Helga; Dieckmann, Hayo; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge (1997). "A Cluster of Childhood Leukemia near a Nuclear Reactor in Northern Germany". Archives of Environmental Health 52 (4): 275–80. doi:10.1080/00039899709602198. PMID 9210727. 
  35. ^ Brüske-Hohlfeld, I; Scherb, H; Bauchinger, M; Schmid, E; Fender, H; Wolf, G; Obe, G; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I et al. (2001). "A cluster of childhood leukaemias near two neighbouring nuclear installations in Northern Germany: Prevalence of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes". International Journal of Radiation Biology 77 (1): 111–6. doi:10.1080/095530001453177. PMID 11213343. 
  36. ^ Métral, Jerome; Charlet, Laurent; Bureau, Sara; Mallik, Sukumar; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ahmed, Kazi M; Rahman, MW; Cheng, Zhongqi; Van Geen, Alexander (2008). "Comparison of dissolved and particulate arsenic distributions in shallow aquifers of Chakdaha, India, and Araihazar, Bangladesh". Geochemical Transactions 9: 1. doi:10.1186/1467-4866-9-1. PMC 2246114. PMID 18190703. 

External links[edit]