List of capitals in the United States

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Washington, D.C., has been the capital of the United States since 1800. Eight other cities have served as the meeting place for the U.S. Congress and are therefore considered to have once been the capital of the United States. In addition, each of the fifty U.S. states and the five principal territories of the United States maintains its own capital.

State capitals[edit]

In 33 of the 50 U.S. states, the state capital is not the state's most populous city. Only two of the state capitals — Trenton, New Jersey, and Carson City, Nevada — border another state, while Juneau, Alaska, shares a border with the Canadian province of British Columbia.[a] The dates listed in the following table indicate the year in which the city started to continuously serve as the state's sole capital. Most states have changed their capital city at least once—see Historical state capitals for details.

State Capitals of the United States[citation needed]
State Abbr. Date of statehood Capital Capital since Land area (mi²) Rank in cities of its state by population Municipal population (2010 census) Metropolitan population (2010 census) Notes
Alabama AL 1819 Montgomery 1846 155.4 2 205,764 374,536 Birmingham is the state's largest city
Alaska AK 1959 Juneau 1906 2716.7 3 31,275 Juneau is the largest capital by land area. Anchorage is the state's largest city.
Arizona AZ 1912 Phoenix 1889 474.9 1 1,445,632 4,192,887 Phoenix is the most populous U.S. state capital and only capital with more than 1 million citizens
Arkansas AR 1836 Little Rock 1821 116.2 1 193,524 877,091
California CA 1850 Sacramento 1854 97.2 6 466,488 2,527,123 The Supreme Court of California is headquartered in San Francisco. Los Angeles is the state's largest city.
Colorado CO 1876 Denver 1867 153.4 1 600,158 2,552,195 Denver was called Denver City until 1882.
Connecticut CT 1788 Hartford 1875 17.3 3 124,512 1,212,381 Bridgeport is the state's largest city, but Hartford is the largest metro area.
Delaware DE 1787 Dover 1777 22.4 2 36,047 162,310 Longest-serving capital in terms of statehood. Wilmington is the state's largest city.
Florida FL 1845 Tallahassee 1824 95.7 7 181,412 367,413 Jacksonville is the largest city, and Miami has the largest metro area.
Georgia GA 1788 Atlanta 1868 131.7 1 420,003 5,268,860 Atlanta is the state capital with the most populous metro area in the U.S.
Hawaii HI 1959 Honolulu 1845 85.7 1 337,256 953,207
Idaho ID 1890 Boise 1865 63.8 1 205,671 616,561
Illinois IL 1818 Springfield 1837 54.0 6 116,250 208,182 Chicago is the state's largest city.
Indiana IN 1816 Indianapolis 1825 361.5 1 829,718 1,756,221 Indianapolis is the second largest city in the Midwest.
Iowa IA 1846 Des Moines 1857 75.8 1 203,433 580,255
Kansas KS 1861 Topeka 1856 56.0 4 127,473 230,824 Wichita is the state's largest city.
Kentucky KY 1792 Frankfort 1792 14.7 14 25,527 70,758 Louisville is the state's largest city.
Louisiana LA 1812 Baton Rouge 1880 76.8 2 229,553 802,484 New Orleans is the state's largest city and home to the Louisiana Supreme Court. Louisiana is home to the tallest state capitol building.
Maine ME 1820 Augusta 1832 55.4 8 19,136 117,114 Augusta was officially made the capital 1827, but the legislature did not sit there until 1832. Portland is the state's largest city.
Maryland MD 1788 Annapolis 1694 6.73 7 38,394 Annapolis is the third-longest serving capital in the United States after Santa Fe and Boston. Its capitol building is the oldest still in use. It is also the smallest capital by land area. Baltimore is the state's largest city.
Massachusetts MA 1788 Boston 1630 48.4 1 617,594 4,522,858 Boston is the longest continuously serving capital in the United States. The Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area encompasses the state capitals of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island.
Michigan MI 1837 Lansing 1847 35.0 5 114,297 464,036 Lansing is the only state capital that is not also the county seat of the county in which it is situated.[citation needed] Detroit is the state's largest city.
Minnesota MN 1858 Saint Paul 1849 52.8 2 285,068 3,502,891 Minneapolis is the state's largest city; it and Saint Paul form the core of the state's largest metropolitan area.
Mississippi MS 1817 Jackson 1821 104.9 1 173,514 539,057
Missouri MO 1821 Jefferson City 1826 27.3 15 43,079 149,807 Kansas City is the state's largest city, and Greater St. Louis is the state's largest metropolitan area.
Montana MT 1889 Helena 1875 14.0 6 28,190 74,801 Billings is the state's largest city.
Nebraska NE 1867 Lincoln 1867 74.6 2 258,379 302,157 Omaha is the state's largest city.
Nevada NV 1864 Carson City 1861 143.4 6 55,274 Las Vegas is the state's largest city.
New Hampshire NH 1788 Concord 1808 64.3 3 42,695 Manchester is the state's largest city.
New Jersey NJ 1787 Trenton 1784 7.66 10 84,913 366,513 Newark is the state's largest city. Trenton served as the US capital for a short period in the late 18th century.
New Mexico NM 1912 Santa Fe 1610 37.3 4 75,764 183,732 Santa Fe is the longest serving capital in the United States. El Paso del Norte served as the capital of the Santa Fe de Nuevo México colony-in-exile during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692. Santa Fe has the highest elevation of any state capital. Albuquerque is the state's largest city.
New York NY 1788 Albany 1797 21.4 6 97,856 857,592 New York City is the state's largest city.
North Carolina NC 1789 Raleigh 1792 114.6 2 403,892 1,130,490 Charlotte is the state's largest city.
North Dakota ND 1889 Bismarck 1883 26.9 2 61,272 108,779 Fargo is the state's largest city.
Ohio OH 1803 Columbus 1816 210.3 1 787,033 1,967,066 Columbus is Ohio's largest city, and the fourth-largest state capital; however, the Cincinnati and Cleveland metropolitan areas are both slightly larger.
Oklahoma OK 1907 Oklahoma City 1910 607.0 1 580,000 1,252,987 Oklahoma City is the shortest serving current state capital in the United States.
Oregon OR 1859 Salem 1855 45.7 3 154,637 390,738 Portland is the state's largest city.
Pennsylvania PA 1787 Harrisburg 1812 8.11 9 49,528 647,390 Philadelphia is the state's largest city.
Rhode Island RI 1790 Providence 1900 18.5 1 178,042 1,630,956 Providence also served as the capital 1636–1686 and 1689–1776. It was one of five co-capitals 1776–1853, and one of two co-capitals 1853–1900.
South Carolina SC 1788 Columbia 1786 125.2 1 131,686 913,797 Columbia is the largest city in South Carolina but second largest metro area and combined statistical area behind Greenville.
South Dakota SD 1889 Pierre 1889 13.0 8 13,646 Sioux Falls is the state's largest city.
Tennessee TN 1796 Nashville 1826 473.3 2 635,710 1,582,264 Memphis is the state's largest city, and Nashville is the largest metro area.
Texas TX 1845 Austin 1839 251.5 4 790,390 1,716,291 Houston is the state's largest city and the previous capital, and Dallas–Fort Worth is the largest metro area. Austin is the largest state capital that is not also the state's largest city. Texas would have the tallest state capitol building if all of the underground work were above ground.
Utah UT 1896 Salt Lake City 1858 109.1 1 186,440 1,124,197
Vermont VT 1791 Montpelier 1805 10.2 5 7,855 Montpelier is the least populous U.S. state capital. Burlington is the state's largest city.
Virginia VA 1788 Richmond 1780 60.1 4 204,214 1,231,675 Virginia Beach is the state's largest city, and Northern Virginia is the state's largest metro area.
Washington WA 1889 Olympia 1853 16.7 22 46,478 234,670 Seattle is the state's largest city.
West Virginia WV 1863 Charleston 1885 31.6 1 51,400 304,214
Wisconsin WI 1848 Madison 1838 68.7 2 233,209 561,505 Milwaukee is the state's largest city.
Wyoming WY 1890 Cheyenne 1869 21.1 1 59,466 91,738

Insular area capitals[edit]

An insular area is a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district. Those insular areas with territorial capitals are listed below.

Capitals of United States Insular Areas
Insular area Abr. Date Capital Notes
American Samoa AS 1899 Pago Pago De facto capital of the Territory of American Samoa. Fagatogo is the official seat of government stated in the territory's constitution since 1967.
Guam GU 1898 Hagåtña Dededo is the area's largest village.
Northern Mariana Islands MP 1947 Saipan
Puerto Rico PR 1898 San Juan The city of San Juan was originally called Puerto Rico while the island was called San Juan Bautista. When Ponce de León landed here it was originally named Borínquen.
U.S. Virgin Islands VI 1917 Charlotte Amalie

Former national capitals[edit]

United States of America [edit]

Congress convenes at the Federal Hall National Memorial in New York for a special session on September 6, 2002.

From 1774 to 1800, Congress met in numerous locations; therefore, the following cities can be said to have once been the United States capital:[1]

First Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
  • Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: May 10, 1775 to December 12, 1776
  • Henry Fite House, Baltimore, Maryland: December 20, 1776 to February 27, 1777
  • Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: March 4, 1777 to September 18, 1777
  • Court House, Lancaster, Pennsylvania: September 27, 1777 (one day)
  • Court House, York, Pennsylvania: September 30, 1777 to June 2, 1778
  • Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: July 27, 1778 to March 1, 1781
Articles of Confederation
United States Constitution

Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii [edit]

Prior to becoming a territory of the United States in 1898, Hawaii was an independent country. Five sites served as its capital:

Republic of Texas [edit]

Before joining the United States under the Texas Annexation in 1845, Texas was an independent nation known as the Republic of Texas. Seven cities served as its capital:

Unrecognized national capitals[edit]

There have been a handful of nations within the current borders of the United States which were never officially recognized as legally independent sovereign entities; however, these nations did have de facto control over their respective regions during their existence.

Vermont Republic Flag of Vermont Republic.svg[edit]

Before joining the United States as the fourteenth state, Vermont was an independent republic known as the Vermont Republic. Two cities served as the capital of the Republic:

The current capital of the State of Vermont is Montpelier.

Confederate States of America CSA FLAG 28.11.1861-1.5.1863.svg[edit]

The Confederate States of America had two capitals during its existence. The first capital was established on February 4, 1861 in Montgomery, Alabama and remained there until it was moved to Richmond on May 29, 1861. The Confederate state capitals remained the same as in the Union, although as advancing Federals used the same capitals for military districts, some of the Confederate governments were relocated or they moved out of state, traveling along with rebel armies.

  • Montgomery, Alabama, February 4, 1861 – May 29, 1861
  • Richmond, Virginia, May 29, 1861 – April 3, 1865

Following the surrender of General R.E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, which ended the American Civil War on April 9, 1865, the eleven southern states which had vacated their delegations gradually had their Senators and Representatives recognized and seated by Congress. The first was Tennessee on July 24, 1866, then Arkansas on June 22, 1868, Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina on June 25, 1868, Alabama on July 14, 1868, Virginia on January 26, 1870, Mississippi on February 23, 1870, Texas on March 30, 1870 and finally Georgia on July 15, 1870.

In Williams v. Bruffy the U.S. Supreme Court held that recognition of revolution “depends entirely upon its ultimate success”.[2] Likewise in the Court's decision in Texas v. White it allowed some possibility of divisibility of the union "through revolution, or through consent of the States." But in the case of the American Civil War, Texas never left the Union. Essentially, once a territory is admitted and recognized as a state, it is in perpetuity a state in the Union.[3]

State of Franklin[edit]

The State of Franklin was an autonomous, secessionist United States territory created, not long after the end of the American Revolution, from territory that later was ceded by North Carolina to the federal government. Franklin's territory later became part of the state of Tennessee. Franklin was never officially admitted into the Union of the United States and existed for only four years.

State of Muskogee[edit]

The State of Muskogee was a short-lived Native American state in Florida. It consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. It existed from 1799 to 1803. It had one capital:

Republic of West Florida[edit]

The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic consisting of parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida and Alabama.

Republic of Indian Stream[edit]

The Republic of Indian Stream was an unrecognized independent nation within the present state of New Hampshire.

California Republic 1stBearFlag.svg[edit]

Before being annexed by the United States in 1848 (following the Mexican–American War), a small portion of north-central California declared itself the California Republic, in an act of independence from Mexico, in 1846 (see Bear Flag Revolt). The republic only existed a month before it disbanded itself, to join the advancing American army and therefore became part of the United States.

The very short-lived California Republic was never recognized by the United States, Mexico or any other nation. There was one de facto capital of the California Republic:

Historical state capitals[edit]

Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals occupied or attacked by the British during the American Revolution. State governments operated where and as they could. The City of New York was occupied by British troops from 1776 to 1783. A similar situation occurred during the War of 1812, during the American Civil War in many Confederate states, and during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692 in New Mexico.

Twenty-two state capitals have been a capital longer than their state has been a state, since they served as the capital of a predecessor territory, colony, or republic. Boston, Massachusetts, has been a capital city continuously since 1630, making it the longest-running U.S. capital. Santa Fe, New Mexico, has been a capital city the longest having become capital in 1610 and interrupted only by the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692.

The table below includes the following information:

  1. The state, the year in which statehood was granted, and the state's capital (as of 2010) are shown in bold.
  2. The year listed for each capital is the starting date; the ending date is the starting date for the successor unless otherwise indicated.
  3. In many cases, former capital cities of states are outside the current state borders. These cities are indicated with the abbreviated name of the state in which the city is located (as of 2010).
Historical State Capitals of the United States of America
State Capital Date Notes
Alabama[5]
Statehood in 1819
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Savannah (GA) 1733 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755 Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776 Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA) 1778
Heard's Fort (GA) 1780
Augusta (GA) 1781
Savannah (GA) 1782
Ebenezer (GA) 1782
Savannah (GA) 1784
Augusta (GA) 1786
Louisville (GA) 1796
Natchez (MS) 1798 Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington (MS) 1802
St. Stephens 1817 Capital of the Territory of Alabama.
Huntsville 1819 Capitals of the State of Alabama.
Cahawba 1820
Tuscaloosa 1826
Montgomery 1846 Capital of the State of Alabama.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America in 1861.)
Alaska[7]
Statehood in 1959
Novo-Arkhangelsk
Sitka
1808 Capital of the Russian colony of Alaska.
1867 Capital of the Department of Alaska.
1900 Capitals of the District of Alaska.
Juneau 1906
1912 Capital of the Territory of Alaska.
1959 Capital of the State of Alaska.
Arizona[8]
Statehood in 1912
Santa Fe (NM) 1848 Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1848–1850.
1850 Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla (NM) 1862 Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX) 1862 Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Fort Whipple 1864 Capitals of the U.S. Territory of Arizona.
Prescott 1864
Tucson 1867
Prescott 1877
Phoenix 1889
1912 Capital of the State of Arizona.
Arkansas[9]
Statehood in 1836
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post 1819 Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw.[10]
Little Rock 1821
1836 Capital of the State of Arkansas.[10]
(Washington was the Confederate state capital 1863–1865.)
California[11]
Statehood in 1850
Loreto (BCS) 1770 Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colonies of las Californias.
Presidio Reál de San Carlos de Monterey


Monterey

1777
1804 Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Alta California.
1821 Capital of the Mexican province of Alta California.
1846 Capital of the U.S. military government of California.
1849 Capital of the Provisional government of California.
Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe
San Jose
1850 Capitals of the State of California
Vallejo 1852
Benicia 1853
Sacramento[d] 1854
Colorado[12]
Statehood in 1876
Denver City[13] 1859 Capitals of the extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
Golden City 1860
Denver City 1861 Capitals of the Territory of Colorado.
Colorado City 1862
Golden City 1862
Denver City
Denver[14]
1867
1876 Capital of the State of Colorado.
Connecticut
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY) 1625 Capital of the Netherlands colony of New Netherland.
Hartford 1639 Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut 1639–1686.
New-Haven 1640 Capital of the English Colony of New-Haven until its merger into the Connecticut Colony in 1662.
Boston (MA) 1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Hartford 1689 Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut.
joint capitals 1701 Hartford and New-Haven served as the "co-capitals" of the English Colony of Connecticut, with the Assembly holding its May session in Hartford and its October session in New-Haven.
1707 Hartford and New-Haven joint capitals of the British Colony of Connecticut.
1776 Hartford and New Haven joint capitals of the State of Connecticut.
Hartford 1875 Capital of the State of Connecticut.
Delaware
Statehood in 1776
Fort Kristina 1638 Capital of the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige.
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York (NY)
1655 Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664 Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
1673 Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674 Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
Philadelphia (PA) 1682 Capital of the English Colony of Pennsylvania.
New-Castle 1704 Capital of the English Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1707 Capital of the British Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1776 Capitals of the State of Delaware.
Dover 1777
Florida[15]
Statehood in 1845
Fort de la Caroline 1564 Capital of the French colony of la Caroline 1564–1565.
San Agustín
St. Augustine
1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida 1565–1763.[6]
1763 Capital of the British Colony of East Florida 1763–1783.
1783 Capital of the Spanish colony of Florida Oriental 1783–1821.
Santa María de Ochuse
Pensacola
1763 Capital of the British Colony of West Florida 1763–1783.
1783 Capital of the Spanish colony of Florida Occidental 1783–1821.
Tallahassee 1824 Capital of the Territory of Florida.
1845 Capital of the State of Florida.
Georgia[16]
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Savannah 1733 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755 Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776 Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta 1778
Heard's Fort 1780
Augusta 1781
Savannah 1782
Ebenezer 1782
Savannah 1784
Augusta 1786
Louisville 1796
Milledgeville 1807
Macon 1864
Milledgeville 1865
Atlanta 1868
Hawaii
Statehood in 1959
Lahaina 1820 Capitals of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Honolulu 1845
1894 Capital of the Republic of Hawaii.
1898 Capital of the Territory of Hawaii.
1959 Capital of the State of Hawaiʻi.
Idaho[17]
Statehood in 1890
Oregon City (OR) 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[18]
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (all of Idaho 1848–1853, southern Idaho 1853–1859.)
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia (WA) 1853 Capital of the Territory of Washington (northern Idaho 1853–1859, all of Idaho 1859–1863.)
Lewiston 1863 Capitals of the Territory of Idaho.
Boise 1865
1890 Capital of the State of Idaho.
Illinois[19]
Statehood in 1818
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN) 1800 Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia 1809 Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
1818 Capitals of the State of Illinois.
Vandalia 1820
Springfield 1839
Indiana
Statehood in 1816
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes 1800 Capitals of the Territory of Indiana.
Corydon 1813
1816 Capitals of the State of Indiana.
Indianapolis 1825
Iowa[20]
Statehood in 1846
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834 Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington 1837
1838 Capitals of the Territory of Iowa.
Iowa City 1841
1846 Capitals of the State of Iowa.
Des Moines 1857
Kansas[21]
Statehood in 1861
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Pawnee 1855 Capital of the Territory of Kansas (July 2 – July 6).
Shawnee Mission 1855 Capital of the Territory of Kansas.
Lecompton 1856 Capital de jure (pro-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
Topeka Capital de facto (anti-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
1861 Capital of the State of Kansas.
Kentucky[22]
Statehood in 1792
Williamsburg (VA) 1699 Capital of the English Colony of Virginia.
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776 Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA) 1780
Frankfort 1792 Capital of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
(The government initially met at Lexington but Frankfort was quickly named the capital. Bowling Green was the rival Confederate state capital 1861–62.)
Louisiana[23]
Statehood in 1812
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Mobile Bay (AL) 1702 Capitals of the French colony of la Louisiane.
Biloxi (MS) 1720
la Nouvelle-Orléans
Nueva Orleans
New Orleans
1722
1763 Capital of the Spanish district of Baja Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Basse-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the Territory of Orleans.
1812 Capitals of the State of Louisiana.
Donaldsonville 1830
New Orleans 1831
Baton Rouge 1849
Opelousas 1862
Shreveport 1863
New Orleans 1865
Baton Rouge 1880
Maine[24]
Statehood in 1820
Île Sainte-Croix 1604 Capitals of the French colony of l'Acadie.
Port-Royal (NS) 1605
Boston (MA) 1630 Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
1689 Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1691 Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774 Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776 Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780 Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Portland 1820 Capital of the State of Maine.
1827 Capital de facto of the State of Maine.
Augusta Capital de jure of the State of Maine.
1832 Capital of the State of Maine.
Maryland[25]
Statehood in 1776
St. Mary's City 1634 Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Maryland.
Anne Arundel's Towne
Annapolis

1694 Capital of the English Province of Maryland.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Maryland.
1776 Capital of the State of Maryland.
(Capital of the United States of America 1783–1784.)
Massachusetts
Statehood in 1776
Plimouth 1620 Capital of the English Colony of New-Plimouth 1620–1686.
Boston 1630 Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1630–1686.
1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1686–1689.
Plimouth 1688 Capital of the dissident Colony of New-Plimouth 1688–1692.
Boston 1689 Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1689–1692.
1692 Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774 Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776 Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780 Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Michigan[26]
Statehood in 1837
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (all of Michigan 1788–1800, eastern Michigan 1800–1803.)
Chillicothe (OH) 1800
Vincennes (IN) Capitals of the Territory of Indiana (western Michigan 1800–1803; all of Michigan 1803–1805, a portion of the Upper Peninsula 1805–1816.)
Corydon (IN) 1813
Detroit 1805 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (Lower Peninsula 1805–1818, all of Michigan 1818–1837.)
(Detroit was occupied by British Armed Forces 1812–1813.)
1837 Capitals of the State of Michigan.
Lansing 1847
Minnesota[27]
Statehood in 1858
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana 1765–1800.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (west of Mississippi River 1800–1804.)
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River 1805–1812.)
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (west of Mississippi River 1812–1821.)
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (east of Mississippi River 1788–1800.)
Vincennes (IN) 1800 Capital of the Territory of Indiana (east of Mississippi River 1800–1809.)
Kaskaskia (IL) 1809 Capital of the Territory of Illinois (east of Mississippi River 1809–1818.)
Detroit (MI) 1818 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Mississippi River 1818-1834, all of Minnesota 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838 Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1838–1841.)
Madison (WI) Capital of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Mississippi River 1838–1848.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841 Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1841–1846.)
Saint Paul 1849 Capital of the Territory of Minnesota.
1858 Capital of the State of Minnesota.
Mississippi[28]
Statehood in 1817
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Savannah (GA) 1733 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755 Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776 Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA) 1778
Heard's Fort (GA) 1780
Augusta (GA) 1781
Savannah (GA) 1782
Ebenezer (GA) 1782
Savannah (GA) 1784
Augusta (GA) 1786
Louisville (GA) 1796
Natchez 1798 Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington 1802
Natchez 1817 Capitals of the State of Mississippi.
Jackson 1821
Missouri
Statehood in 1821
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Saint Charles 1821 Capitals of the State of Missouri.
(A Confederate state government in exile operated from Neosho 1861–1863, and from Marshall, Texas, 1863–1865.)
Jefferson City 1826
Montana[29]
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1763–1800.)
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (east of Continental Divide 1800–1804.)
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1805–1812.)
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (east of Continental Divide 1812–1821.)
Fort Vancouver (WA) 1825 Capital de facto of the Oregon Country (west of Continental Divide 1818–1843.)
Oregon City (OR) 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1843–1848.)
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1848–1853.)
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia (WA) 1853 Capital of the Territory of Washington (west of Continental Divide 1853–1863.)
Omaha (NE) 1854 Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (east of Continental Divide 1854–1861.)
Yankton (SD) 1861 Capital of the Territory of Dakota (east of Continental Divide 1861–1863.)
Lewiston (ID) 1863 Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Bannack 1864 Capitals of the Territory of Montana.
Virginia City 1865
Helena 1875
1889 Capital of the State of Montana.
Nebraska
Statehood in 1867
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Omaha 1854 Capitals of the Territory of Nebraska.
Lancaster
Lincoln
1867
1867 Capital of the State of Nebraska.
Nevada[30]
Statehood in 1864
Fillmore (UT) 1850 Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City (UT) 1858
Carson City 1861 Capital of the Territory of Nevada.
1864 Capital of the State of Nevada.
New Hampshire[31]
Statehood in 1776
Boston (MA) 1630 Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Portsmouth 1680 Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
Boston (MA) 1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Portsmouth 1689 Capital of the dissident Province of New Hampshire.
1691 Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
1698 Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707 Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1741 Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire.
Exeter 1775 Capital of the Revolutionary War government of New Hampshire.
1776 Capitals of the State of New Hampshire.
Concord 1808
New Jersey
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY) 1625 Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland.
1652 Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth) 1665 Capital of the English Province of New Jersey.
Perth Amboy 1673 Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1673–1688.
Burlington Capital of the English Province of West Jersey 1673–1688.
Boston (MA) 1688 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1688–1689.
Perth Amboy 1689 Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1689–1702.
Burlington Capital of the English Province of West Jersey 1689–1702.
joint capitals 1702 East Jersey and West Jersey were re-united as the English Province of New Jersey in 1702. Perth Amboy and Burlington served jointly as the capital until 1784.
1707 Joint capitals of the British Province of New Jersey.
1776 Joint capitals of the State of New Jersey.
Trenton 1784 Capital of the State of New Jersey.
(Capital of the United States of America in 1784.)
New Mexico
Statehood in 1912
San Juan de los Caballeros 1598 Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís 1610
El Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez CHH) 1680 Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony-in-exile of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Pueblo Revolt 1680–1692).
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís

Santa Fe
1692 Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1821 Capital of the Mexican province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1824 Capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1846 Capital of the U.S. military government of New Mexico 1846.
1846 Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1846–1850.
1850 Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla 1862 Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX) 1862 Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Santa Fe 1912 Capital of the State of New Mexico.
New York
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York
1625 Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (Novum Belgium).
1652 Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664 Capital of the English Province of New York.
1673 Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674 Capital of the English Province of New York.
Boston (MA) 1688 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
New-York 1689 Capital of the dissident government of New-York.
1691 Capital of the English Province of New York.
1707 Capital of the British Province of New York.
1776 Capitals of the State of New York.
Kingston 1777
Hurley 1777
Poughkeepsie 1777
New York 1788 Capital of the State of New York.
(Capital of the United States of America 1785–1788 and 1789–1790.)
Albany 1797 Capital of the State of New York.
North Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Charlestown (SC) 1670 Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
New Bern 1712 Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776 Capitals of the State of North Carolina.
Fayetteville 1789
Raleigh 1794
North Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1836–1838.)
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838 Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841
Saint Paul (MN) 1849 Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1849–1858.)
Omaha (NE) 1854 Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River or White Earth River 1854–1861.)
Yankton (SD) 1861 Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck 1883
1889 Capital of the State of North Dakota.
Ohio
Statehood in 1803
Marietta 1788 Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Chillicothe 1800
1803 Capitals of the State of Ohio.
Zanesville 1810
Chillicothe 1812
Columbus 1816
Oklahoma
Statehood in 1907
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post (AR) 1819 Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw[10] (south of the parallel 36°30' north 1819–1824, southeastern Oklahoma 1824–1828.)
Little Rock (AR) 1821
Tahlequah 1838 Capital of the Cherokee Nation.
Tuskahoma 1838 Capital of the Choctaw Nation.
Tishomingo 1855 Capital of the Chickasaw Nation.
Wewoka 1866 Capital of the Seminole Nation.
Okmulgee 1867 Capital of the Creek Nation.
Pawhuska ? Capital of the Osage Nation.
Guthrie 1889 Capital of the Territory of Oklahoma.
1907 Capitals of the State of Oklahoma.
Oklahoma City 1910
Oregon[32]
Statehood in 1859
Champoeg 1841 De facto Capital of the Oregon Country
Oregon City 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[18]
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem 1851
Corvallis 1855
Salem 1855
1859 Capital of the State of Oregon.
Pennsylvania[33]
Statehood in 1776
Philadelphia 1682 Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1707 Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1776 Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1776, 1777, 1778–1783, and 1790–1800.)
Lancaster 1799 Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1777.)
Harrisburg 1812 Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island
Statehood in 1776
Providence 1636 Capital of the English Colony of Providence 1636–1663.
Portsmouth 1639 Capital of the English Colony of Aquidneck Island 1639–1644.
1644 Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island 1644–1663.
Providence 1663 Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Boston (MA) 1686 Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Providence 1689 Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
five capitals 1776 From 1776 to 1853, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations rotated among the county seats of the state's five counties: Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, South Kingstown, and Bristol.
joint capitals 1854 From 1854 to 1899, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations alternated sessions between Providence and Newport.
Providence 1900 Capital of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
South Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL) 1565 Capital of the Spanish colony of la Florida.[6]
Charlestown 1670 Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707 Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
1712 Capital of the British Province of South Carolina.
1776 Capitals of the State of South Carolina.
Columbia 1786
South Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765 Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800 Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804 Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805 Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812 Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI) 1834 Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River 1834–1836.)
Belmont (WI) 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River 1836–1838.)
Burlington (IA) 1837
1838 Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River 1838–1846.)
Iowa City (IA) 1841
Saint Paul (MN) 1849 Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River 1849–1858.)
Omaha (NE) 1854 Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River 1854–1861.)
Yankton 1861 Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck (ND) 1883
Pierre 1889 Capital of the State of South Dakota.
Tennessee[34]
Statehood in 1796
New Bern (NC) 1712 Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776 Capital of the State of North Carolina.
Rocky Mount 1790 Capitals of the Territory South of the River Ohio.
White's Fort
Knoxville
1791
1796 Capital of the State of Tennessee.
Kingston 1807 Capital of the State of Tennessee for one day in 1807 to fulfill treaty obligations with the Cherokee Nation.
Knoxville 1807 Capitals of the State of Tennessee.
Nashville 1812
Knoxville 1817
Murfreesboro 1818
Nashville 1826
Texas
Statehood in 1845
Los Adaes (LA) 1729 Capitals of the Spanish colony of Tejas.
San Antonio de Béxar (now San Antonio) 1772
Saltillo (COA) 1824 Capitals of the Mexican province of Coahuila y Tejas.
Monclova (COA) 1833
Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos) 1836 Capitals of the Republic of Texas.
Galveston 1836
Harrisburgh 1836
Velasco 1836
Columbia 1836
Houston 1837
Austin 1839
1845 Capital of the State of Texas.
Utah
Statehood in 1896
Salt Lake City 1849 Capital of the extralegal State of Deseret.
Fillmore 1850 Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City 1858
1896 Capital of the State of Utah.
Vermont[35]
Statehood in 1791
Westminster 1777 Capitals of the Republic of New Connecticut.
Windsor 1777
1777 Capital of the Vermont Republic.
1791 Capitals of the State of Vermont.
Montpelier 1805
Virginia[36]
Statehood in 1776
Jamestown 1619 Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation
Williamsburg
1698
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776 Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond 1780 Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America 1861–1865.)
(A rival pro-Union state government operated from Wheeling 1861–1863 and from Alexandria 1863–1865.)
Washington[37]
Statehood in 1889
Oregon City (OR) 1843 Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[18]
1848 Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem (OR) 1851
Olympia 1853 Capital of the Territory of Washington.
1889 Capital of the State of Washington.
West Virginia
Statehood in 1863
Jamestown (VA) 1619 Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation (VA)
Williamsburg (VA)
1698
1707 Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776 Capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA) 1780
Wheeling 1861 Capital of the rival pro-Union government of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
1863 Capitals of the State of West Virginia.
Charleston 1870
Wheeling 1875
Charleston 1885
Wisconsin[38]
Statehood in 1848
Marietta (OH) 1788 Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN) 1800 Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia (IL) 1809 Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
Detroit (MI) 1818 Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont 1836 Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA) 1837
Madison 1838
1848 Capital of the State of Wisconsin.
Wyoming[39]
Statehood in 1890
Lewiston (ID) 1863 Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Yankton (SD) 1864 Capital of the Territory of Dakota.
Cheyenne 1869 Capital of the Territory of Wyoming.
1890 Capital of the State of Wyoming.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^[a] Even though the urbanized area of Carson City is about 15 miles (24 km) from the California border, the larger Consolidated Municipality of Carson City does form part of the Nevada state border. Similarly, the City and Borough of Juneau extends eastward to British Columbia, although the urbanized area of Juneau is about 35 miles (56 km) from the Canadian border. See:[1]
^[b] Congress was forced to move from Philadelphia due to a riot of angry soldiers. See: Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783
^[c] President James Madison fled to the home of Caleb Bentley in Brookeville, Maryland following the burning of Washington on August 24–25, 1814. As such, the town claims to have been the "U.S. Capital for a Day" despite the fact that Congress never met there. See: "A Brief History". Town of Brookeville, Maryland. 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
^[d] Due to flooding in Sacramento, San Francisco served as a temporary capital from January 24, 1862 to May 15, 1862. See "California’s State Capitols 1850–present". .

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948.
  2. ^ Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan, Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession, p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
  3. ^ Texas v. White, 74 U.S. 700 (1868) at Cornell University Law School Supreme Court collection.
  4. ^ The State of Muskogee, State Flags of Florida, Cultural, Historical and Information Programs, Office of Cultural and Historical Programs website, Florida Department of State, Government of Florida, retrieved October 31, 2007.
  5. ^ Capitals of Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Updated October 29, 2001. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g The Spanish name la Florida originally referred to all of the American continent north of Mexico. As other European nations colonized North America, the extent of la Florida shrank to encompass only the Spanish territorial claims in the southeastern portion of the present United States.
  7. ^ Frequently Asked Questions About Alaska. Statewide Library Electronic Doorway. Updated September 21, 2004. Accessed June 9, 2005; based on Alaska Blue Book 1993–94, 11th ed., Juneau, Department of Education, Division of State Libraries, Archives & Museums. ExploreNorth: The History of Sitka. Department of Community and Economic Development, Alaska Community Database Online. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  8. ^ Capitals before the Capitol. Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  9. ^ Educational Materials: Facts. Arkansas Secretary of State. Accessed June 9, 2005. Washington State Park 19th century village in SW Arkansas. Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, Confederate Capital Old Division of State Parks. 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  10. ^ a b c The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. The region was organized as the Territory of Arkansaw on July 4, 1819, but the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Arkansas on June 15, 1836. The name was historically pronounced /ˈɑrkənsɔː/, /ɑrˈkænzəs/, and several other variants. In 1881, the Arkansas General Assembly passed the following concurrent resolution (Arkansas Statutes, Title 1, Chapter 4, Section 105):

    Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.

    And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.

    Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the native Indians and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.

    Citizens of the State of Kansas often pronounce the Arkansas River /ɑrˈkænzəs/ in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state.

  11. ^ Ebbert (Chief Editor), Brian S.; E. Dotson Wilson, Chief Clerk of the Assembly (2006). California's Legislature. Sacramento, California: State of California. pp. 157–165. Retrieved 2006-10-03. 
  12. ^ Early Capitol and Legislative Assembly Locations Colorado State Archives, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour. Updated June 20, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  13. ^ From December 3, 1859, to December 3, 1861, Denver City was formally the City of Denver, Auraria, and Highland.
  14. ^ On November 15, 1902, the City of Denver became the City and County of Denver.
  15. ^ Florida State History. Florida Division of Historical Resources.
  16. ^ Jackson, Edwin L. Story of Georgia's Capitols and Capital Cities. Carl Vinson Institute of Government. University of Georgia. 1988
  17. ^ Chronological History of Idaho. Idaho Office of the Governor. Created 2000. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  18. ^ a b c Clarke, S.A. (1905). Pioneer Days of Oregon History. J.K. Gill Company. 
  19. ^ Past Capitols; based on Illinois Bluebook, 1975–1976. Created March 5, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  20. ^ Sabin, Henry. Making of Iowa, chapter 24: Locating a Capital. Originally published 1900 by A. Flanagan Co. of Chicago and New York; published online by Iowa History Project, posted August 25, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  21. ^ Harding, Eldon. Stories from the Kansas State Capital: Choosing a Capital City--Why Topeka?. Kansas State Historical Society. April 2001. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  22. ^ Kentucky's State Capitols. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  23. ^ Note: The Louisiana Capitals information may be incorrect or incomplete. See http://www.state.la.us/about_history2.htm and elsewhere.
  24. ^ Students Questions Frequently Ask. Maine State Senate. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  25. ^ Historical Chronology. Maryland State Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  26. ^ Michigan in Brief State of Michigan. Updated March 7, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  27. ^ Saint Paul's 150th birthday. City of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  28. ^ Bunn, Mike and Clay Williams, Capitals and Capitols: The Places and Spaces of Mississippi's Seat of Government. Mississippi History Now. Mississippi Historical Society Online. Posted September 2003. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  29. ^ Lambert, Kirby. Montana's crown jewel of architecture: The Montana state capitol Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Montana Historical Society. Summer 2002. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  30. ^ Rocha, Guy Nevada State Archives Historical Myth a Month: Myth #28, Las Vegas: Nevada's Next State Capital. Updated July 14, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005; originally published as Sierra Sage, Carson City/Carson Valley, Nevada. May 1998 edition.
  31. ^ New Hampshire Senate Page For Kids. New Hampshire General Court. Accessed June 9, 2005. New Hampshire History in Brief. New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources. Created 1989. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  32. ^ Oregon Legislative Assembly History. Oregon State Archives. Accessed February 17, 2012.
  33. ^ The History of Pennsylvania's Capital. Pennsylvania Department of Education. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  34. ^ Capital Cities. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. 2002. Accessed March 12, 2006.
  35. ^ Early History of Montpelier, Vermont. Vermont Historical Society. Accessed June 9, 2005; adapted from Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints of History, 1977, 1996, and Montpelier Heritage Group, Three Walking Tours of Montpelier, Vt., 1991.
  36. ^ About Our Capital. Virginia General Assembly. Accessed July 20, 2006.
  37. ^ The History of Olympia. City of Olympia. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  38. ^ Cravens, Stanley H."Capitals and Capitols in Early Wisconsin". Wisconsin Blue Book, 1983–1984 edition.
  39. ^ Saban, Mary Thompson, Wyoming Sage: Brief History of Wyoming. Updated January 17, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.

Further reading[edit]

  • Christian Montes. American Capitals: A Historical Geography (University of Chicago Press; 2014) 394 pages; scholarly study of geographic and other factors that have shaped the designation of capitals in all 50 states

External links[edit]