List of capitals of Burma

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The current capital of Burma (Myanmar) is Naypyidaw. The following is a list of political capitals of notable states in Burmese history from the 9th century to the present. The list is generally organized in dynastic and chronological orders. National capitals are shown in bold.

List of capitals[edit]

State Capital Period Duration Notes
Pagan Kingdom Pagan (Bagan) 23 December 849 – 17 December 1297 447 years, 359 days [note 1]
Myinsaing Kingdom Myinsaing, Mekkhaya and Pinle 17 December 1297 – 1302/03? 4+ years [note 2]
Myinsaing and Pinle 1302/03? – 13 April 1310 7+ years [note 3]
Pinya Kingdom Pinle 13 April 1310 – 11 February 1313 2 years, 304 days [1]
Pinya 11 February 1313 – September 1364 51 years, 6+ months [2]
Sagaing Kingdom Sagaing 16 May 1315 – April 1364 48 years, 10+ months [3][2]
Ava Kingdom Sagaing April – September 1364 4+ months [2]
Pinya September 1364 – 26 February 1365 5+ months [4]
Ava (Inwa) 26 February 1365 – 22 January 1555 189 years, 330 days [5]
Prome Kingdom Prome (Pyay) c. November 1482 – 19 May 1542 59 years, 6+ months [6]
Hanthawaddy Kingdom Martaban (Mottama) 4 April 1287 – 1363 76+ years [note 4]
Donwun 1363 – 1369 ~6 years [note 5]
[7]
Pegu (Bago) 1369 – January 1539 169+ years [7]
Pegu June 1550 – 12 March 1552 1 year, 8+ months [5]
Mrauk-U Kingdom Launggyet 18 April 1429 – 16 November 1430 1 year, 212 days [8]
Mrauk-U 16 November 1430 – 2 January 1785 354 years, 47 days [note 6]
[9]
Toungoo Dynasty Toungoo (Taungoo) 16 October 1510 – 1539 28–29 years [10][11]
Pegu 1539 – 30 April 1550 ~11 years [12]
Toungoo 11 January 1551 – 12 March 1552 1 year, 61 days [5]
Pegu 12 March 1552 – 19 December 1599 47 years, 282 days [13]
Ava 19 December 1599 – 14 May 1613 13 years, 146 days [note 7]
Pegu 14 May 1613 – 25 January 1635 21 years, 256 days [14]
Ava 25 January 1635 – 23 March 1752 117 years, 58 days [15]
Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom Pegu November 1740 – 6 May 1757 16 years, 6 months [16][17]
Konbaung Dynasty Shwebo 29 February 1752 – 26 July 1760 8 years, 148 days [18]
[19]
Sagaing 26 July 1760 – 23 July 1765 4 years, 362 days [20]
Ava 23 July 1765 – 13 May 1783 17 years, 294 days [21]
Amarapura 13 May 1783 – 22 November 1821 38 years, 193 days [22]
Ava 22 November 1821 – 10 February 1842 20 years, 80 days [23]
Amarapura 10 February 1842 – 23 May 1859 17 years, 102 days [24]
Mandalay 23 May 1859 – 29 November 1885 26 years, 190 days [25]
British Burma Mawlamyaing (Moulmein) and
Sittwe (Akyab)
24 February 1826 – 20 December 1852 35 years, 341 days [note 8]
Mawlamyaing
Sittwe
Yangon (Rangoon)
20 December 1852 – 31 January 1862 9 years, 42 days [note 9]
Yangon 31 January 1862 – 7 March 1942 80 years, 35 days [note 10]
Yangon 3 May 1945 – 4 January 1948 2 years, 246 days
Japanese Burma Yangon 7 March 1942 – 3 May 1945 3 years, 57 days
Burma Yangon 4 January 1948 – 6 November 2005 57 years, 306 days
Naypyidaw 6 November 2005 – present 8 years, 8 months and 6 days

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The date of fortification (6th waxing of Pyatho 211 ME) per Zatadawbon Yazawin (Zata 1960: 41) given as the date of foundation. Zata (Zata 1960: 53) says the city of Arimaddana was founded in 190 CE (Sunday, 15th waxing of Tagu 112 Pyu Era) while the palace was moved to Thiri Pyissaya in 390 (Thursday, 1st waxing of Pyatho 312 Pyu Era). Hmannan Yazawin (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 185–188) gives 107 CE as the date of foundation of Pagan. According to scholarship, Pagan was founded in mid-to-late 9th century, and fortified in the late 10th century at the earliest. (Aung-Thwin 2005: 185): radiocarbon dating shows the earliest human settlement in Pagan dates only to c. 650 CE. (Aung-Thwin 2005: 38): radiocarbon dating of Pagan's surviving walls yields dates no earlier than 980 CE, with more likely dates c. 1020 CE. It means the Pyu Era dates claimed by Zata may have been Burmese Era dates. If true, Pagan was founded on 16 March 751 (15th waxing of Old Tagu 112 ME) and the palace was moved to Thiri Pyissaya on 12 December 950 (1st waxing of Pyatho 312 ME).
    (Than Tun 1959: 119–120): King Kyawswa was dethroned on 17 December 1297 (13th waxing of Pyatho 659) according to inscriptional evidence. Chinese records show that the dethronement occurred in June-July 1298.
  2. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 369) states that King Yazathingyan, ruler of Mekkhaya, died in his 5th year of reign (1302–1303). But (Than Tun 1959: 123) quotes an inscription which says two brothers Yazathingyan and Thihathu were still alive after the eldest brother Athinhkaya died on 13 April 1310.
  3. ^ (Than Tun 1959: 123) and (Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 254): 13 April 1310
  4. ^ (Pan Hla 2004: 25–26) says per Mon records King Wareru proclaimed independence on Thursday, 6th waning of Tagu 648 ME (16 March 1286). But 648 ME is most probably a typographical error. The date is more likely 6th waning of Tagu 649 ME (4 April 1287) since Mon records themselves say Wareru, who was born on 20 March 1253, came to power at age 34 (35th year). Moreover, Burmese records recognize Full moon of Tabodwe 649 (18 January 1288), which Pan Hla conjectures as the date of coronation.
  5. ^ (Phayre 1967: 66) says King Saw Zein moved his capital to Pegu soon after he came to power in Thadingyut 685 ME (2 September 1323 to 30 September 1323). (Pan Hla 2004: 39–41) only states Saw Zein first had to reacquire Pegu but does not mention a move. According to Pan Hla, Saw Zein' successor ascended the throne at Martaban in 1330. As for the move to Donwun, (Pan Hla 2004: 57–59) gives 1363 citing Mon sources, and states that Burmese sources give 10 years earlier, 1353.
  6. ^ The founding date of Mrauk-U appears differently in different sources. The Burmese encyclopedia (Myanma Swezon Kyan Vol. 9 1964: 425) gives the date as Sunday, 1st waxing of Natdaw 792 (16 November 1430). But (Harvey 1925: 139) gives 1433, and (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1999: 13) gives Sunday, 1st waxing of Tawthalin 792 (20 August 1430).
  7. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 172–173): The Burmese chronicles do not state that King Anaukpetlun officially moved the capital to Pegu. But Anaukpetlun arrived at Pegu in early May 1613 as part of his war operations and hosted the first function at his temporary palace on 14 May 1613 (10th waning of Kason 975). He did not go back to Ava afterwards.
  8. ^ Mawlamyaing/Moulmein was the capital of the Tenesserim Division while Sittwe/Akyab was that of the Arakan Division of British India. The start date is counted from the date of signing of the Treaty of Yandabo. Arakan, Tenasserim and Pegu were united as British Burma within British India on 31 January 1862.
  9. ^ Yangon/Rangoon became the capital of Pegu Division after the Second Anglo-Burmese War.
  10. ^ Yangon became the capital of the Province of Burma of British India on 31 January 1862.

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 370): Wednesday, 15th waxing of Tabaung 674 = 11 February 1313
  2. ^ a b c (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 393–394): Sagaing fell in Kason 726 (2 April to 1 May 1364) and Pinya in Tawthalin 726 (28 August to 26 September 1364).
  3. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 375): 12th waxing of Nayon 677 ME = 16 May 1315
  4. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 396): 6th waxing of Tabaung 726 = 26 February 1365
  5. ^ a b c (Thaw Kaung 2010: 107)
  6. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 213): 5th waxing of Nayon 904 = 19 May 1542
  7. ^ a b Harvey 1925: 368
  8. ^ (Sandamala Linkara Vol. 2 1999: 11): Thursday, 1st waning of Kason 791 = 18 April 1429
  9. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 2 2004: 2-25): Sunday, 8th waning of Pyatho 1146 = 2 January 1785
  10. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 179): Full moon of Tazaungmon 872 = 16 October 1510
  11. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 196): 901 ME = 30 March 1539 to 28 March 1540
  12. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 257): Wednesday, 1st waning of Kason 912 = 30 April 1550
  13. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 102): Sunday, 4th waxing of Pyatho 961 = 19 December 1599
  14. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 223): 7th waxing of Tabodwe 996 = 25 January 1635
  15. ^ (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 392): 8th waxing of Old Tagu 1113 = 23 March 1752
  16. ^ (Zata 1960: 44): Natdaw 1102 ME = 19 November 1740 to 17 December 1740
  17. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 128): 4th waning of Kason 1119 = 6 May 1757
  18. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 52): Full moon of Tabaung 1113 = 29 February 1752
  19. ^ Buyers: King Naungdawgyi
  20. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 278): Tuesday, 7th waxing of Wagaung 1127 = 23 July 1765
  21. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 1 2004: 395): Tuesday, 13th waxing of Nayon 1145 = 13 May 1783
  22. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 2 2004: 223): Thursday, 13th waning of Thadingyut 1183 = 22 November 1821
  23. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 3 2004: 33): 1st waxing of Tabaung 1203 = 10 February 1842
  24. ^ (Maung Maung Tin Vol. 3 2004: 193): Monday, 7th waning of Kason 1221 = 23 May 1859
  25. ^ Htin Aung 1967: 263

Bibliography[edit]

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