List of captive orcas

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For capture of orcas, captivity locations and issues with captivity, see Captive orcas.
Orca show at Sea World San Diego
An adult male orca with his characteristic tall dorsal fin swims in the waters near Tysfjord, Norway.

This article gives a list of captive orcas, or killer whales, large predatory marine mammals that were first captured live and displayed in exhibitions in the 1960s, or were subsequently born in captivity. They soon became popular attractions at public aquariums and aquatic theme parks due to their intelligence, trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity and sheer size.[1] As of June 2013, 45 orcas are held captive at facilities in North and South America, Europe and Asia, providing entertainment for theme park visitors.[2]

The first North Eastern Pacific orca, Wanda, was captured in November 1961 by a collecting crew from Marineland of the Pacific, and over the next 15 years, around 60 or 70 Killer Whales were taken from Pacific waters for this purpose.[3] When the US Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 effectively stopped the capture of Pacific orcas, most subsequent captures were made in Icelandic waters.[4]

Currently, the majority of orcas on display, 32 of 45, were born in captivity. Kalina, born in September 1985, was the first captive-born orca calf to survive more than a few days. In September 2001, Kasatka gave birth to Nakai, the first orca conceived through artificial insemination, at SeaWorld San Diego.[5] This technique lets park owners maintain a more healthy genetic mix in the small groups of orcas at each park, while avoiding the stress of moving orcas for breeding purposes.[6]

Listing[edit]

Name Gender Origin Status Park Birthdate
Adán m Captive born alive Loro Parque October 13, 2010
Algonquin m Captive born deceased MarineLand
April f Captive Born deceased MarineLand
Asuka f Japan deceased Izu-Mito Sea Paradise, Japan
Athena f Captive born deceased MarineLand
Baby Shamu II f Captive born deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Bjossa f North Eastern Pacific deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Bingo m Icelandic deceased Port of Nagoya Aquarium
Corky II f North Eastern Pacific alive SeaWorld San Diego
Earth m Captive born alive Kamogawa Seaworld October 13, 2008
Finna m Icelandic deceased Vancouver Aquarium
Freya f Icelandic alive Marineland Antibes
Gudrun f Icelandic deceased Seaworld Orlando
Haida II f Icelandic deceased SeaWorld San Antonio
Halyn f Captive born deceased SeaWorld San Antonio
Hoi Wai f Icelandic deceased Ocean Park Hong Kong
Hudson m Captive born deceased MarineLand
Hugo m North Eastern Pacific deceased Miami Seaquarium
Hyak II m North Eastern Pacific deceased Vancouver Aquarium
Ikaika m Captive born alive SeaWorld San Diego August 25, 2002
Inouk m Captive born alive Marineland Antibes February 23, 1999
Junior m Icelandic deceased Kamogawa Sea World
K1/Taku m North Eastern Pacific released, deceased n/a
Kalia f Captive born alive SeaWorld San Diego December 21, 2004
Kalina f Captive born deceased SeaWorld Orlando
Kamea f Captive born alive SeaWorld San Antonio December 6, 2013
Kandu V f Icelandic deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Kanduke m North Eastern Pacific deceased SeaWorld Orlando
Kasatka f Icelandic alive SeaWorld San Diego
Katerina f Captive born deceased SeaWorld Orlando
Katina f Icelandic alive SeaWorld Orlando 1976 (est.)
Kayla f Captive born alive SeaWorld Orlando November 26, 1988
Keet m Captive born alive SeaWorld San Diego February 2, 1993
Keijo m Captive born alive Marineland Antibes November 20, 2013
Keiko m Icelandic released, deceased Iceland
Kenau f Icelandic deceased SeaWorld Orlando
Keto m Captive born alive Loro Parque June 17, 1995
Kim II m Icelandic deceased Marineland Antibes
Kiska f Icelandic alive MarineLand
Kohana f Captive born alive Loro Parque May 3, 2002
Kshamenk m Argentina alive Mundo Marino
K'yosha f Captive born deceased Vancouver Aquarium
Kyuquot m Captive born alive SeaWorld San Antonio December 24, 1991
Lara f Captive born alive Kamogawa Seaworld February 8, 2001
Lolita f North Eastern Pacific alive Miami Seaquarium
Lovey f Captive born alive Kamogawa Seaworld January 11, 1998
Luna f Captive born alive Kamogawa Seaworld July 19, 2012
Lynn[7] f Captive born alive Port of Nagoya Aquarium
Malia f Captive born alive SeaWorld Orlando March 12, 2007
Makaio m Captive born alive SeaWorld Orlando October 9, 2010
Makani m Captive born alive SeaWorld San Diego February 14, 2013
Moana m Captive born alive Marineland Antibes March 16, 2011
Moby Doll m North Eastern Pacific deceased Vancouver Aquarium
Morgan f Netherlands alive Loro Parque
Nakai m Captive born alive SeaWorld San Diego September 1, 2001
Nalani f Captive born alive SeaWorld Orlando September 18, 2006
Namu m North Eastern Pacific deceased Seattle Marine Aquarium
Nandu m Icelandic deceased[8] Acuarama São Paulo, Brasil
Narnia f Russia alive Seaside Dolphinarium, Nakhodka
Neocia f Captive born deceased Marineland Canada
Nepo m North Eastern Pacific deceased Marine World Africa USA
Nootka IV f Icelandic deceased SeaWorld Orlando
Nyar f Captive born deceased SeaWorld Orlando
Orkid f Captive born alive SeaWorld San Diego September 23, 1988
Orky II m North Eastern Pacific deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Ramu III m North Eastern Pacific deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Ran 2 f Captive born alive Port of Nagoya Aquarium
Sakari f Captive born alive SeaWorld San Antonio January 7, 2010
Samoa f Icelandic deceased SeaWorld Texas
Shamu f North Eastern Pacific deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Sharkan f Icelandic deceased Marineland Antibes
Shouka f Captive born alive SeaWorld San Diego February 25, 1993
Skana f North Eastern Pacific deceased Vancouver Aquarium
Skyla f Captive born alive Loro Parque February 9, 2004
Splash m Captive born deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Spooky m Captive born deceased Marineland of the Pacific
Stella f Icelandic alive Port of Nagoya Aquarium
Sumar m Captive born deceased SeaWorld San Diego
Taima f Captive born deceased SeaWorld Orlando
Taku m Captive born deceased SeaWorld San Antonio
Takara f Captive born alive SeaWorld San Antonio
Tanouk m Icelandic deceased Izu Mito Sea Paradise
Tekoa m Captive born alive Loro Parque November 8, 2000
Tilikum m Icelandic alive SeaWorld Orlando
Trua m Captive born alive SeaWorld Orlando November 23, 2005
Tuar m Captive born alive SeaWorld San Antonio June 22, 1999
Ulises m Icelandic alive SeaWorld San Diego
Unna f Captive born alive SeaWorld San Antonio December 27, 1996
Valentin m Captive born alive Marineland Antibes February 13, 1996
Vigga f Icelandic deceased Marine World Africa USA
Wanda f North Eastern Pacific deceased Marineland of the Pacific
Wikie f Captive born alive Marineland Antibes June 1, 2001
Winnie f Icelandic deceased SeaWorld San Antonio
Yaka f North Eastern Pacific deceased Marine World Africa USA

Individuals[edit]

Living[edit]

Adán[edit]

Adán (Spanish variation of "Adam")[9] measured about 6.6 feet (2.0 m) and weighed in at 330 pounds at birth. He was born on October 13, 2010, at Loro Parque. His mother, nine-year-old Kohana, showed no maternal interest in him at birth. As a result Adán had to be bottle fed by staff until May 2011 when he was permanently moved onto fish. He had one little sister called Victoria, with whom Adan was very close to until her death. Adan spends a lot of time with the park's young female, Morgan.

Adán is a result of inbreeding between Kohana and Keto. Keto and Kohana's mother, Takara, share the same father. Keto killed a trainer in Loro Parque in 2009.[10] Adán's only full-blooded sibling, Victoria, died in 2013. Adán has been introduced to all 5 orcas living in Loro Parque.

Corky[edit]

Main article: Corky (killer whale)

Corky is a 47-year-old female orca at Sea World San Diego. She is the longest-held captive orca in the world and is the largest female orca in captivity. She is now the only survivor from the Northern Resident captures. At the age of three, Corky was captured in Pender Harbor off the coast of British Columbia on December 11, 1969. From there, she went to Marineland of the Pacific and lived with three other orcas in a small tank. However, the two orcas who she was captured with died after three years and she spent most of her time at Marineland with an orca bull named Orky. Corky got pregnant seven times at Marineland and all were unsuccessful.

In January 1987, during her seventh pregnancy, she and Orky were moved to SeaWorld San Diego. She settled well in the new environment, but she had problems with one of the Icelandic orcas, Kandu V. The two females fought for dominance and it peaked during a show in 1989, resulting in Kandu's death. Corky is also used as the "Welcome Whale" for new trainers and new orcas. She has also "adopted" some of the whales she has been with. She has been a surrogate mother to Sumar, Splash, Orkid, and Keet. Corky is easy to identify, mostly because of her large size for a female, her tall unbent dorsal fin, the small 'chips' in her dorsal fin, and a nick in her left dorsal fluke

Earth[edit]

Earth (アース Āsu?) was born at Kamogawa Sea World Japan on October 13, 2008. His mother is Lovey and his father is Oscar who died on December 21, 2012.

Ikaika[edit]

Ikaika swimming along in a tank at Marineland located in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada on June 11, 2007

Ikaika (pronounced ee-KY-ka which means "strong" in Hawaiian) is a male orca born at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida on August 25, 2002. He is the offspring of Tilikum (father) and Katina (mother), making him Katina's fifth calf. To decide the name of the newborn whale a poll was taken. The following names were chosen to be on the poll: Ikaika (Hawaiian for "strong"), Mottaka (Icelandic for "reception"), Ramu (in honor of the late whale by that name), Tsunami (Japanese) and Ramius (after the Captain in "The Hunt for Red October").

Ikaika was transferred to Marineland (Ontario) Ontario, Canada on a breeding loan on November 18, 2006, in exchange for three male beluga whales – Juno, Aurek, and Klondike – who joined Spooky within the Wild Arctic area of SeaWorld Orlando. Ikaika is a growing male, his flukes have started to curl under, and he is about 17 feet (5.2 m) long.[11] On November 13, 2011, Ikaika was transported to SeaWorld San Diego, where he joined six other whales; Ulises, Corky, Orkid, Kasatka, Nakai, and Kalia.

Kalia[edit]

Kalia was born at Sea World San Diego on December 21, 2004 at 9:22 a.m. in Shamu Stadium's main show pool following a little more than two hours of labor and was estimated to weigh between 300 pounds and 500 pounds and measure 6 to 7 feet.[12][13][citation needed] Her parents are Kasatka and Keet. She is also known as GreatGrandbaby Shamu. Her siblings are Takara (1991) Nakai (2001), Halyn (2005–2008) and Makani (2013). The name Kalia means "beauty" in Hawaiian. Kalia met her father for the first time when he returned to San Diego in February 2012. Kalia gave birth to a female calf on December 2, 2014 at 12:34 pm. The calf's father is Ulises.

Kasatka[edit]

Kasatka at SeaWorld San Diego lifting a trainer out of the water
Main article: Kasatka

Kasatka is a female orca who lives at SeaWorld San Diego and the mother of Takara, Nakai, Kalia and Makani. She is currently the park's dominant orca and she can be seen putting the other whales in their places including her own offspring. She was captured off the coast of Iceland on October 26, 1978, at the age of 1. Her name probably comes from the Russian word Kasatka (Russian: Кaсатка), a generic name for orcas. She is 17.7 feet (5.4 m) long and weighs around 5,950 pounds (2,700 kg). Kasatka became a grandmother for the first time when her daughter Takara gave birth to her first calf, a female born May 3, 2002, named Kohana. Takara gave birth a second time, on November 23, 2005, to a male named Trua in SeaWorld Orlando. Takara gave birth to her third calf, a female born January 7, 2010, named Sakari. Kasatka became a great grandmother on October 13, 2010 when Kohana gave birth to her first calf Adán. Kasatka gave birth to her fourth calf and second son on February 14, 2013 at 6:33 am after a one hour labor. The calf was later named Makani.

Kasatka has shown aggression to humans. In 1993 Kasatka tried to bite a trainer during a show, and again in 1999.[14] On November 30, 2006, Kasatka grabbed a trainer and dragged him underwater during their show. The trainer escaped with his life and was later in good condition despite being underwater for a "brief" amount of time.[15] Since this incident, Kasatka has been barred from performing waterworks with trainers and might not ever be reintroduced to them.

Katina[edit]

Main article: Katina (orca)
From Left: Ikaika, Katina, and Taku perform in Sea World Orlando

Katina is a female who lives in SeaWorld Orlando. She was captured near Iceland at about two years of age on October 26, 1978. She is healthy and the most successful breeding female orca in captivity. At 16 feet 4 inches (4.98 m) and about 5,600 pounds (2,500 kg), Katina is small compared to other females, but she is rather bulky.

Upon her capture, Katina was purchased by Marineland (Ontario). In 1979, Katina was bought by SeaWorld and was sent to their park in San Diego. In 1982, Katina was moved to Sea World Ohio in Aurora, Ohio with another female named Kasatka, with whom she was captured in 1978. For two years, the two would perform in the Ohio park during the summer months and then be moved back to San Diego for the winter. Finally, in 1984, Katina was transferred to the SeaWorld in Orlando.

Katina became pregnant in early spring of 1984 at SeaWorld San Diego from a male named Winston. Soon after, she was moved back to Sea World Ohio for the summer. The trainers soon realized she was pregnant, so she was moved to Orlando at the end of the summer season, where she gave birth on September 26, 1985 to a female who was named Kalina. Although ten orca calves had been born in captivity prior to Kalina, none had survived past a few weeks. Kalina was the first orca calf to be successfully born and raised in captivity. Kalina was taken from her mother at 4 years 5 months and conducted on a trip around all four SeaWorld parks. [16]

In early 1987, an adult male named Kanduke arrived in Orlando. He and Katina soon mated. Katina bore her second calf on November 4, 1988, a female named Katerina. In early 1991 at a very early age Katerina was transferred out of Orlando. Katerina died on May 5, 1999 at SeaWorld San Antonio at 10.5 years of age. A male named Tilikum came to SeaWorld in January 1992. It wasn't long before Katina was pregnant again. She gave birth to her first son on September 9, 1993, named Taku. Katina's next calf came on December 27, 1996, a female named Unna. Her fifth calf was a male born on August 25, 2002 named Ikaika. Katina gave birth to her sixth calf, a female named Nalani, on September 18, 2006. She gave birth to her seventh calf, a male named Makaio on October 9, 2010 at 7:28 p.m. The great-grandmother went into labor at 6:47 p.m. and delivered a 7-foot (2.1 m)-long, 350-pound male calf. He swam to the surface moments later for his first breath.[17] She has six grandchildren, Keet, Keto, Tuar, Skyla, Trua and Nalani, as well as four great grandchildren, Kalia, Halyn, Adán and Vicky. Kalia gave birth to Katina's first great-great grandchild, a female, on December 2, 2014.

Katina only lives with two of her seven calves (Nalani and Makaio) and two of her grandchildren (Trua and Nalani). She is always with her calf, but is also with Nalani and Kayla quite often. She is grouped with her son Makaio, Trua, Malia, Nalani and Kayla.[18]

Katina appeared on a That's My Baby episode, where she gave birth to Ikaika.

Kayla[edit]

Sequence of trainer demonstrating a nose stand on top of Kayla during the Believe show at SeaWorld, Orlando, Florida.

Kayla is a female born on November 26, 1988 at SeaWorld San Antonio. Her parents were Kenau and Orky II, both now deceased. Kayla is about 20-foot (6.1 m) long and weighs about 6,200 pounds (2,800 kg). Kayla only lived with her mother for the first two and a half years of her life. Kenau was moved to SeaWorld Orlando in January 1991, and Kayla was moved to SeaWorld Ohio in April 1991. Kayla lived there for the next eight years with another young female, named Katerina, who was just three weeks older than she was. After Katerina was moved out, another much older female named Winnie was moved in.

In November 1999, Kayla and Winnie were both transferred to SeaWorld San Antonio. Kayla and Winnie joined a female named Haida II and her son Kyuquot. A young male named Keto arrived in March 2001. Haida II died on August 1 of that year, making Winnie the new dominant female. Winnie died on April 11, 2002. Kayla became the new dominant orca in the stadium and was until her relocation to Orlando in 2006. After the death of Winnie, only three whales were left in the park: Kayla, Kyuquot, and Keto. A young female by the name of Unna was moved to the park in December 2002 to settle down Kyuquot and Keto, because the two maturing males were constantly fighting over Kayla. In November 2006, Kayla was transferred to Sea World Orlando leaving behind a mate Keet, and their daughter Halyn was raised by Unna immediately after Kayla's transfer. Once Kayla arrived, she immediately gave up her dominant role to Katina, who has been the dominant female there since 1988.

Kayla gave birth to her first calf on October 9, 2005, a female named Halyn. Halyn was moved to a special animal care facility to be hand raised. Kayla likely rejected her calf because she had never been exposed to a young calf before and did not know how to deal with one. Halyn lived in Animal Care in a different part of the park, and in May joined her family at Shamu Stadium. Halyn's father is Keet. On June 15, 2008, Halyn died unexpectedly.[19]

Kayla appears to "hover" over water after launching a trainer into the air. The new "Believe" stage is seen in the background. (June 2007)

Keet[edit]

Keet is a bull orca who was born on February 2, 1993 in SeaWorld San Antonio. The word "Keet" means orca in the Tlingit language. His parents are Kalina and Kotar. Keet currently measures about 19 feet (5.8 m) and weighs 7,000 pounds (3,200 kg). Keet is also known as Grandbaby Shamu because his mother is the first orca to be born and raised under human care successfully.

When he was 1 year and 8 months of age, his mother was moved to SeaWorld Orlando in Florida to support her next pregnancy, Keet's brother Keto in 1995. Katerina, his aunt, was moved in from SeaWorld Ohio. In 1995, his father, Kotar, died. On May 5, 1999, Katerina died. Five months later, two females named Kayla and Winnie were moved in. In November 1999, he was moved to SeaWorld San Diego in California. There, he met his brother, Keto, and his playmate, Sumar. All three whales were moved to SeaWorld Ohio in February 2000. On February 15, 2001, Keet was returned to California; Sumar followed three days later, while Keto was relocated to SeaWorld San Antonio in Texas. Keet's best friends were the bull Ulises and a maturing male named Splash. On April 24, 2004, Keet was moved to his birthplace, meeting Kyuquot, Unna, Kayla, Keto, Tuar, and Tekoa.

Keet is a gentle and agile performer. On December 21, 2004, he became a father for the first time when Kalia, his daughter, was born at Sea World San Diego. On October 9, 2005, his mate Kayla gave birth to his second daughter Halyn, at SeaWorld San Antonio. Keet is the lowest ranking adult orca in the dominance chain at Seaworld Texas. He is very sweet and is often used as a "starter whale" for new trainers along with a younger male named Tuar. On June 15, 2008, SeaWorld announced Halyn died unexpectedly; a necropsy was performed and the test results have been announced. [19]

Keet moved back to Seaworld San Diego on February 27, 2012 and he has been reunited with 3 of his old friends Corky, Ulises and Orkid. He met his first daughter Kalia at the age of 7 when he returned. Keet became a grandfather on December 2, 2014 when Kalia gave birth to an unnamed female calf.

Keijo[edit]

Keijo is a newborn bull orca who was born in captivity at Marineland Antibes on November 20, 2013. "Keijo (Finnish for "Elf" or "Supernatural Being")[20] weighs about 330 pounds (Jan 2014). His father is Wikie's half-brother Valentin".[9] He is doing extremely well.

Kiska[edit]

Kiska is an Icelandic female residing at Marineland of Canada, and the only orca residing there. She was captured in 1979[9] along with King, Caren and a female who remained unnamed. Kiska and the female were sold to Marineland of Canada while King and Caren went to Kamogawa Sea World. The female was transferred to Kamogawa and died soon after.

Kohana[edit]

Kohana was a female born at SeaWorld San Diego on May 3, 2002. She was the second orca to be conceived through artificial insemination. Her parents are Takara and Tilikum. On April 25, 2004, Kohana and her mother were moved to SeaWorld Orlando. On February 13, 2006, Kohana was moved to Loro Parque in Spain with three other orcas: Tekoa, Keto, and Skyla. She often floats at the acrylic glass to interact with visitors. She is intelligent and eager, and learns quickly.[21]

On October 13, 2010, Kohana gave birth to her first calf (a male) named Adán, in the parks "Orca Ocean" killer whale exhibit, after a four-hour labor. The calf weighed around 150 kilograms (330 lb), and was two meters long (6.5 ft). Kohana's calf is the first killer whale born in Loro Parque.[22] On August 3, 2012, Kohana gave birth to her second calf (a female) named Victoria (or Vicky).[23] Like her older brother, Victoria was rejected by Kohana.[citation needed] On June 16, 2013 Victoria suddenly died at the age of 10 months. Vicky's cause of death was later revealed to be intestinal problems.

Kshamenk[edit]

Kshamenk (pronounced sha-MEN-k) is a male orca that was taken from the wild off the coast of Argentina in 1992.[9][24] The population he comes from is unknown. He was approximately 5 years old at the time, making him roughly 26 years old. Initial reports said that Kshamenk, along with three members of his pod, had stranded and been "rescued" by Mundo Marino. However, it was later revealed that Mundo Marino had "force stranded" the whales by placing a large net between the whales and the shore. When the tide went out, the whales were left stranded on the beach. One was released, one died on the way to the aquarium, one beat himself to death on the walls of his enclosure, and one, Kshamenk, survived.[25]

When Kshamenk arrived at Mundo Marino he was kept with a female orca, "Belen." They performed in the orca show together for eight years. Kshamenk impregnated Belen in 1998 but the female calf was stillborn 16 months later. Belen died shortly after in February 2000, leaving Kshamenk alone.[25] After a veterinary evaluation in 2006, Kshamenk was considered non-releasable.

In November 2001 Six Flags Worlds of Adventure, located in Aurora, Ohio, filed a request to import Kshamenk with the National Marine Fisheries Service. 35 anti-captivity organizations including, the Wild Earth Foundation, Humane Society of the United States, Cetacean Society International, and Earth Island Institute, opposed the transfer of Kshamenk in favor of his rehabilitation and release. In July 2002 the Secretary of the Environment of Argentina and CITES Argentina denied the request of Mundo Marino to export the whale. In Argentina it is illegal to export native fauna, and as a wild born orca, Kshamenk is a part of the commonwealth.

Kshamenk still resides at Mundo Marino. On February 14, 2013, Kshamenk became a father via artificial insemination to Makani, a male calf born to Kasatka at Seaworld San Diego, and to a female calf named Kamea, born to Takara at SeaWorld San Antonio on December 6, 2013.

Lolita[edit]

Main article: Lolita (orca)

Lolita (Low lita), originally known as Tokitae (Toki tay), is an orca at the Miami Seaquarium. She was a member of the L pod. When she was about four years old she was captured on August 8, 1970 at Penn Cove, Puget Sound, off the coast of Washington, and is now the oldest captive orca. The Penn Cove Capture became controversial due to the large number of wild orcas that were taken (seven) and the number of deaths that resulted: four juveniles died, as well as one adult female who drowned when she became tangled in a net while attempting to reach her calf.

When she first arrived at Miami Seaquarium, Lolita was put in the 'Whale Bowl'. Miami Seaquarium had another orca, Hugo, who lived in a different tank, called the 'Celebrity Bowl', which now houses manatees. The two orcas would vocalize to each other, and Hugo was later moved into the Whale Bowl with Lolita. At first, they were aggressive with each other, but then became more compatible with each other and more aggressive towards their trainers. Lolita and Hugo mated several times, and it was reported that Lolita was pregnant from this. However, she never delivered a live offspring. In 1980, during a show, Hugo slammed his head into a tank wall, causing a brain aneurysm, breaking the glass on the side of the tank (which ripped off his 'nose', or rostrum), and had to have his rostrum sewn back on. Later, he died and Lolita was left all alone. Hugo's body was thought to have been put in the Miami Dade dump. Lolita does not live with any other orcas currently. She vocalizes in captivity, in the unique calls used only by her pod. She is still apparently healthy. She is a large orca, measuring 22 feet (6.7 m) long and weighing 7,800 pounds (3,500 kg). This makes her one of the largest female orcas in captivity. Since Lolita arrived at the Miami Seaquarium, she has lived in their Whale and Dolphin Stadium, where she performs 1–2 shows daily. Lolita is the subject of the documentary Lolita: Slave to Entertainment released in 2008.[26] Various groups consider that Lolita should be released into the wild.[27][28][29]

Whale activists have proceeded to sue the U.S. government in federal court in Seattle, claiming that Lolita, captured from Puget Sound waters in 1970, should be accorded the same protection status granted to other Southern Resident orcas in 2005, as members of an endangered species.[30]

Lovey[edit]

Lovey (ラビー Rabī?) was born on January 11, 1998, at Kamogawa Sea World, to mother Stella and father Bingo/Thor. She was the first orca calf born successfully in Japan (there had been five calves born before her, but none lived for more than ten days). The only other orca at KSW at the time of her birth was Oscar, who would mate with her later on, once she was older. Her first calf was a male born on October 13, 2008 named Earth. "Earth measures about 11.5 feet and weighs in at around 1,543 pounds (2011).".[9] Lovey's stage name is Oyako, meaning "parent and child" in Japanese. On July 19, 2012, Lovey gave birth to her second calf, a female named Luna.[31] "Luna measures about 7.8 feet and weighs in at around 620 pounds (November 2012). Her father is Oscar."[9]

During August 2013, Lovey became ill, but made a quick recovery.

Lynn[edit]

Lynn (リン Rin?) is a female calf residing at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium in Japan. She currently measures 330 centimetres (130 in) long and weighs 630 kilograms (1,390 lb).[32] Lynn was born on November 13, 2012 to mother Stella and father Bingo.[33][34] Unlike most orcas, Lynn was born head first, as was her older sister Ran 2. A public naming contest was held from March 20 to May 6, 2013. The park received a total of 19,384 applicants and 5,062 individual names, and settled on Lynn.[35] Initial western reports named her as Rin, the direct but inaccurate Hepburn romanization of her name in katakana. Later content provided by the aquarium confirmed the correct transcription as Lynn.[7][36]

Malia[edit]

Kayla and Malia performing in One Ocean at Seaworld Orlando in the side by side segment:

Malia was born to Taima and Tilikum at SeaWorld Orlando on March 12, 2007. She was Taima's third calf and her name means "calm and peaceful" in Hawaiian. She is learning new behaviors all the time and is used in shows daily alongside the other young orcas at SeaWorld Orlando. Malia's mother Taima died in June 2010 after a difficult labor that resulted in a stillborn male calf. Her eyepatches are long and skinny, and she has no marks, rakes, or chips in her tail fluke.

Makaio[edit]

Katina and her calf Makaio

Katina delivered her 7th calf on October 9, 2010 after a short 41-minute labor. The father is Tilikum. It was announced on November 3, 2010 that the calf was a healthy boy. The calf has interacted with all the other members of the pod except Tilikum, and plays well with them. His name was decided by a poll with three names to vote for on SeaWorld Orlando's official Facebook page. The names were Nico, Greek for "Victory," Makaio, the Hawaiian form of the name Matthew, meaning "Gift of God," or Haruki, Japanese for "Shining Brightly." Makaio was the name chosen. He can be seen in SeaWorld's new killer whale show One Ocean.

Makani[edit]

Kasatka's fourth calf is a male, born on Valentine's Day 2013 at 6:33 a.m. Makani cleverly swam to the surface seconds after he was born to take his first breath. His name was chosen by a poll. The choices were "Hako", Norse for "chosen son", "Valentino", Italian for "strong", and "Makani", Hawaiian for "the wind". His name was announced on June 14, 2013. His siblings are Kalia, Nakai, and Takara. His father is Kshamenk at Mundo Marino.[37] Makani can already swim upside down and wave his fluke. Makani can also do complex behaviors. Makani's father, Kshamenk, is an Argentinian transient orca (origin unknown) orca and his mother, Kasatka, is a resident Icelandic orca, making him a hybrid of the two vastly different ecotypes.[38] Other such hybrids include the late Taima, her deceased sister Katerina, her three calves and Kamea.

Moana[edit]

On March 16, 2011, Wikie gave birth to Moana, her first calf in Marineland Antibes. Initially, it was stated that the calf was a girl so they had a naming contest on Facebook and Moana won which means "ocean" in Maori, but a report in July confirmed that she was in fact a he. Marineland confirmed that his name will not be changed. It is also confirmed that Ulises of Sea World San Diego is the father. The calf was conceived via artificial insemination.[39]

Moana became a big brother when his mother gave birth to Keijo on November 20, 2013.

Nakai[edit]

On September 1, 2001, Nakai was born to Kasatka who was impregnated through semen collected from Tilikum. Unlike most orcas, he was born head first. He was the first orca to be conceived through artificial insemination. As of June 2010, he weighed 3,350 pounds (1,520 kg) and was 12 feet 8 inches (3.86 m) long. Currently, he lives at SeaWorld San Diego with nine other whales, including his mother, his half sister Kalia and his half brother Ikaika.[40][41] In late September 2012, Nakai sustained a serious injury to his chin. SeaWorld stated that the injury occurred during "contact with the pool's environment".[42][43]

Nalani[edit]

Nalani performing with Trua in the all new show at Seaworld Orlando One Ocean

Nalani is a young female orca who currently resides to SeaWorld Orlando, where she was born on September 18, 2006. Her parents are Katina and Taku (who is, due to inbreeding, also her brother). She is Katina's sixth calf, and was Taku's second. She is a very loving and curious youngster, but was very dependent on her mother in the first few years. She is learning fast, as she is used in shows regularly alongside Trua, Malia, Kayla, and Katina. An easy way to identify Nalani is how plump she is. She's chubby, like her mom and dad/brother, has round eyepatches, has a straight dorsal fin, and is the longest baby at Sea World Orlando.

Orkid[edit]

Orkid was born September 23, 1988 in SeaWorld San Diego, California. Orkid's parents are Kandu V (her mother), and Orky II (her father). She was the first killer whale born in the San Diego Sea World Park. Orky II died only three days after Orkid was born. She was named Orkid, in memory of her father (most likely a combination of "Orky" and "kid"). In August 1989, Kandu V charged Corky II, during a live show. The blow broke Kandu V's jaw, and severed an artery in Kandu's head; apparently in an act of trying to assert her dominance over Corky II. As a result, she began spouting blood with every breath she took. Forty five minutes later Kandu V sank to the bottom of the pool and died, bleeding to death. Orkid witnessed this; for weeks after the incident, she would circle the tanks calling out and vocalizing. However, she was raised by Corky, and later befriended a male named Splash. Orkid has been artificially inseminated many times, but has so far not gotten pregnant. Orkid is highly intelligent (having been affectionately nicknamed by trainers 'The Rocket Scientist'), and knows hundreds of behaviors. Only the most senior trainers are to work with her, as she has shown aggression toward trainers in the past. After an incident in 2006 where she dragged a trainer to the bottom of the show pool, Orkid has been barred from performing waterworks with trainers.

Sakari[edit]

Sakari was born on January 7, 2010, at Sea World San Antonio. Her mother is Takara and her father is Tilikum. Siblings on her mother's side include Kohana, Trua and Kamea. "Sakari" means "sweet" in the Inuit language.

Shouka[edit]

Born in 1993 in Antibes, France, the female killer whale's first nine years were spent with her parents and siblings. In 2002, she was moved to Six Flags Discovery Kingdom (Marine World Africa USA) in Vallejo, California. She was the only orca at the park. She shared her tank with a bottle nosed dolphin named Merlin for 7 years until 2011 when he was relocated to a different tank in the park. Shouka gained more publicity in 2009 after activists launched a campaign to relocate her back to her home in France, or at least somewhere where she would not be alone. In July 2012, Shouka began to display "off behavior" during one of her performances. She lifted a trainer into the air and knocked her trainer back into an open door area that leads to the back of the stage. Even after the trainer was gone, Shouka leaped two more times onto the stage. It was the first time Shouka had been captured being aggressive towards her trainers by a spectator during a public performance. Six Flags moved Shouka to Seaworld San Diego the next month in August 2012. It is hoped that she will add diversity to the park's breeding program.

Takara[edit]

Takara (Japanese for "treasure") was born on July 9, 1991, at SWC to Kasatka and Kotar. She was the second "Baby Shamu" born at SWC, after Orkid in 1988. She gave birth to her first calf, a female named Kohana on May 3, 2002. Kasatka was by her side during the labor and she and Takara helped assist Kohana to the surface to take her first breath. She was conceived via artificial insemination, the father being Tilikum, a bull orca living on the other side of the country at SeaWorld Orlando. Takara is an average sized female measuring 17.3-foot (5.3 m), and weighs 5,100 LBs.

Takara and Kohana were transferred to SeaWorld Orlando in 2004. A year later, Takara gave birth to her second calf, a male named Trua, fathered by Taku. Kohana was later transferred out of Sea World Orlando to Loro Parque, a Spanish amusement park in the Canary Islands.

Takara was transferred to SeaWorld San Antonio in February 2009 in a supposed effort to improve space at SeaWorld Orlando. The move angered many since it separated her from her son, Trua. However, other SeaWorld visitors and workers reported that she would often act aggressively toward Trua. It was later confirmed she was pregnant at the time (again from Tilikum). On January 7, 2010, Takara gave birth to another female calf in the main tank of the "Shamu Theatre" at Sea World San Antonio. On March 16, 2010 she was named Sakari which is an Inuit word for "sweet".[44] Takara became a grandmother on October 12, 2010 when her calf Kohana gave birth to her first calf Adán on October 12, 2010. Kohana had also given birth to Victoria on August 3, 2012. Victoria died on June 16, 2013 when she was 10 months old of intestinal issues. Takara delivered her fourth calf on December 6, 2013 at 12:08 am Central Time. The calf is a healthy baby girl named Kamea.

Tilikum[edit]

Main article: Tilikum (orca)
Tilikum at SeaWorld Orlando (2009)
Tilikum performing during Believe at Seaworld Orlando (2011)

Tilikum (sometimes misspelled Tillikum) is a bull orca who lives at SeaWorld Orlando. He was involved in 3 human deaths since being placed in captivity. He was captured near Iceland in November 1983 at about two years of age. Tilikum measures 22.5 feet (6.9 m) long and weighs 12,000 pounds (5,400 kg).[45] His pectoral fins are 7 feet (2.1 m) long, his flukes curl under, and his 6.5 feet (2.0 m)-tall dorsal fin is collapsed completely to his left side. He is the largest orca in captivity and also the most successful sire in captivity, with 21 offspring, 11 of which are still alive.[citation needed] In the Chinook Jargon of the Northwest, the name means "friends, relations, tribe, nation, common people."[46]

Tilikum was first sent to live at Sealand of the Pacific near Victoria, British Columbia. While living in British Columbia, Tilikum sired his first calf when he was about eight or nine years old. His first son, Kyuquot, was born to Haida II on December 24, 1991. Just a few months prior to the birth of Kyuquot, Tilikum was involved in an incident which resulted in the death of a female trainer. Seaworld requested an emergency transfer of Tilikum to their facility. Tilikum was moved to his current location at SeaWorld Orlando, Florida on January 9, 1992. Sealand of the Pacific closed soon thereafter.

Since his arrival at SeaWorld, Tilikum has sired many calves with many different females. His first calf, born in Orlando, was to Katina. Katina gave birth to Taku on September 9, 1993. Taku died on October 17, 2007. Tilikum's other calves are: Nyar (born 1993, died 1996), Unna (1996), Sumar (1998–2010), Tuar (1999), Tekoa (2000), Nakai (2001), Kohana (2002), Ikaika (2002), Skyla (2004), Malia (2007), Sakari (2010) Makaio (2010)and Kamea (2013). In 1999, Tilikum began training for artificial insemination (AI). In early 2000, Kasatka who resides at SeaWorld San Diego was artificially inseminated using his sperm. She gave birth to Tilikum's son, Nakai, on September 1, 2001. On May 3, 2002, another female in San Diego, named Takara, bore Tilikum's calf through artificial insemination. Tilikum is also the first successful, surviving grandfather orca in captivity with the births of Trua (2005), Nalani (2006), Adán (2010) and Victoria (2012).

Tilikum was at the scene of a death on July 6, 1999. A 27-year-old male intruder was found floating naked in Tilikum's pool, with the coroner's official report stating he had died from a combination of hypothermia and drowning, though that is highly skeptical. He had visited SeaWorld the previous day, stayed after the park closed, and evaded security to enter the orca tank.[47] Investigators determined that the man had been bitten by Tilikum either before or after death.[citation needed] The man's body had been badly mutilated, and his genitals had been completely bitten off.

On February 24, 2010 Tilikum was involved in a third incident, when he killed a 40-year-old experienced trainer. The trainer was drowned following a popular Dine with Shamu show as at least two dozen tourists looked on from above a whale tank and from an underwater viewing area. Employees used nets and threw food at the whale in an attempt to distract him but one worker said it only made the animal more agitated.

Moving from pool to pool in the complex, they eventually captured Tilikum and released Ms Brancheau's body. A SeaWorld executive confirmed what witnesses saw, that the trainer was pulled into the water by Tilikum.[48][49] At present, Tilikum still lives in SeaWorld Orlando, and has returned to performing. Contrary to numerous claims that he is kept alone and separated from the remaining whales, he has in fact been kept with his grandson Trua on numerous occasions, and can often be seen performing alongside of him during the show finales. Tilikum is kept separate from Katina and Kayla because they have been known to rake him. Tilikum is the subject of a critical documentary film Blackfish, which premiered at the Sundance Film Festival. Many believe he should be released resulting in protests towards SeaWorld.[50]

Trua[edit]

Trua, who lives at Seaworld Orlando

Trua is a male orca born at SeaWorld Orlando on November 23, 2005. His parents are Takara and Taku. Takara and Kohana (his sister) had just been moved to SeaWorld Orlando when she and Taku met. At the time of Trua's birth, Kohana was by Takara's side and thus acted as the midwife. Trua currently lives at Sea World Orlando with six other orcas: Katina (matriarch), Tilikum, Kayla, Nalani, Malia and Makaio. Trua had been learning waterworks before they were stopped in 2010.[51] Trua's mother Takara was moved to SeaWorld San Antonio on February 5, 2009. Trua is easily identified because of his three dots and belly freckles. Trua has a dot in his eyepatch, and two dots on his neck. His freckles earned him the nickname, "Freckles".

Ulises[edit]

Main article: Ulisses

Ulises is the oldest male orca in captivity. He is 19 feet 6 inches (5.94 m) and weighing 9,200 pounds (4,200 kg).[40] He is currently living at SeaWorld San Diego in California with 10 other whales. He is often nicknamed, "Uli" or "Uli Bear." He was captured in 1980 in Iceland and lived at several European parks including Barcelona Zoo, before being transported to SeaWorld San Diego in 1994.[52][53] He became a father in 2011, when his son Moana was born through artificial insemination to Wikie at Marineland Antibes, France.[39] In December 2014, a young female named Kalia gave birth to Ulises's second calf, a female, at SeaWorld San Diego.

Unna[edit]

Unna is a female orca. She was born on December 27, 1996 at SeaWorld Orlando. Her parents are Katina (mother) and Tilikum. She is Katina's fourth calf and also Tilikum's, and was the second calf to be born to the pair. Unna lived with her mother, father, siblings, and other whales at her birthplace in Orlando for the first six years of her life. In August 2002, Katina gave birth to her fifth calf, a male named Ikaika. Unna was there to assist her mother during the labor. In December 2002, Unna was transferred to SeaWorld San Antonio, because the park only had three whales at the time: two males who were fighting over one female. In late April 2006, Unna gave birth to a stillborn calf. Unna recovered well from her stillbirth.[19] She currently lives with five other whales, Takara, Kyuquot, Tuar, Sakari and Kamea.

Deceased[edit]

Baby Shamu II[edit]

Baby Shamu II was born at SeaWorld San Diego in California on January 5, 1986. Her parents were Kenau the mother and Winston the father. Because she was the second orca born at a SeaWorld park, she was nicknamed Baby Shamu II. The original Baby Shamu, aka Kalina, was her older half-sister, though Kalina had a different mother. Baby Shamu II was never given a real name as she died on January 16, 1986, just 12 days after she was born. The cause of death was a heart defect. Baby Shamu II was half Icelandic orca and half Southern Resident orca. She was 7 feet (2.1m) long and she weighed 135 kg (297 lb).

Bingo[edit]

Bingo was a 31-year-old male orca who lived at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium. He was captured in Iceland in 1984 and is the father of Lovey, Lara, Sarah, Ran II and Lynn. He passed away on August 2, 2014 of a respiratory illness.

Gudrun[edit]

Gudrun (Goo drun) was an Icelandic female orca who lived at Dolfinarium Harderwijk in the Netherlands[54] and at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida. Gudrun was caught close to the coast of Iceland on October 25, 1976. She was kept in captivity in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk in the Netherlands, where she was the main attraction. In 1987, Gudrun was moved to SeaWorld Orlando in Florida, United States. Gudrun gave birth to Taima on July 11, 1989 at 16:45 EST during a thunderstorm. Gudrun gave birth to Nyar on December 31, 1993. Nyar suffered with illness often. She was so both mentally and physically ill, it was reported that Gudrun tried to drown her during several shows. Nyar died at two years old in April 1996. On February 21, 1996 Gudrun went into labour with her last calf, which was fathered by Tilikum. After 20 hours of labor, Gudrun was unable to deliver the calf. She died four days later on February 25.

In 1982, Gudrun was the subject of an experiment in two-communications, designed to see if she could learn new words and incorporate them into her vocabulary.[55]

Hoi Wai[edit]

Hoi Wai was a female Orca captured near Iceland in October 1977. Initially brought to the Saedyrasafnid Aquarium in Iceland, she was moved in late October 1977 to the Dolfinarium Harderwijk in the Netherlands. Initially named Peanuts, she was moved to the Windsor Safari Park, where she was to stay until being moved to Ocean Park Hong Kong early in 1979, and where she was renamed Suzie Wong. Due to a dispute between SeaWorld and the safari park she was transferred to Clackton Pier in August 1978 for the remainder of her training. Unfortunately a storm on New Year's Day 1979 damaged Clackton Pier, and she was sent back to Windsor Safari Park until the end of January.[56][57][58]

On January 27, 1979 Suzie Wong was finally moved to Ocean Park Hong Kong, where she was renamed Hoi Wai, and would perform until her death on April 21, 1997 due to intestinal bleeding.[56][59] Hoi wai was about 5 metres (16 ft) long and weighed about 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb).[60] Her skeleton is preserved at Cape D'Aguilar Marine Reserve, near Shek O.[61]

Hyak[edit]

Hyak was about a year old when he was captured in Pender Harbour, British Columbia, Canada on April 24, 1968. He was captured with six other pod members, including Corky II and Natsidalia, who was thought to be his mother. He was probably from the A5 Pod. The captured whales were kept at Pender Harbour for some weeks before being transferred, and Natsidalia did not survive. Hyak was transferred to the Vancouver Aquarium, where he was kept with Skana, an orca captured the previous year. After Skana died in 1980, the aquarium purchased four new orcas captured in Iceland, and two of them—Finna and Bjossa—were transferred to the Vancouver Aquarium. Hyak and Bjossa produced a calf in 1987, but it only survived a short time. He sired another calf on Bjossa—K'yosha, but he did not live to see the calf's birth, as he died of pneumonia in February 1991. K'yosha only lived a few months beyond her father's death.[62]

Junior[edit]

Junior was captured in Icelandic waters in November 1984. After a short stay at the Saedrysafnid Aquarium he arrived at Marineland Ontario in Canada on November 15, 1986. He did not settle in well at his new home, was hard to train, and did not get on well with his fellow orca tankmates. So Junior was put in a small tank in Marineland's warehouse, with no natural sunlight or air, and with noisy overhead fans. From time to time he shares his small tank with several dolphins. Marineland tried to keep Junior's conditions a secret, but members of the public released photos and films. Junior died in 1994.

K1/Taku[edit]

K1 was also named Taku. He was captured in August 1973 in Pedder Bay, British Columbia. While several other orcas that were caught with him were sold to other marine parks, K1 was too big to be sold. He was released on October 27, 1973 with a radio tag attached to his dorsal fin. Two nicks were cut by Dr Michael Bigg[citation needed] into his dorsal fin to make it easier to identify and find him. He was given the adoption name of Taku. K1 reunited with his pod and was seen many times. K1 disappeared in 1997 and was presumed to have died at the age of 41, as his year of birth was believed to be 1955. K1 was a full blooded Southern Resident orca. He was 23 feet (7.0 m) long.

Kalina[edit]

Kalina (September 26, 1985 – October 4, 2010) was the first captive-born orca calf to survive more than a few days. Unlike most orcas, she was born head first. Kalina's mother is an Icelandic female named Katina, and her father, Winston (also known as Ramu III) was a Pacific Southern Resident, making Kalina an Atlantic/Pacific hybrid – a unique situation that would not have occurred in the wild. Kalina measured 17 feet 9 inches (5.41 m) and weighed approximately 6,300 pounds (2,900 kg).

Kalina first appeared in shows at SeaWorld Orlando in 1987, billed as "Baby Shamu", performing with her mother. On February 12, 1990, Kalina was transferred to SeaWorld Ohio. She was moved again in October of that year to SeaWorld San Diego, and again on May 30, 1991 to SeaWorld San Antonio. In October 1994, Kalina was moved back to SeaWorld Orlando, where she lived with eight other killer whales, including her mother and a half sister.

Kalina gave birth to her first calf, a male named Keet, on February 2, 1993 at Sea World Texas. Kalina was only seven and a half years old at the time of Keet's birth – an extremely young age for an orca to become a mother. Kalina became pregnant again shortly after Keet's birth, and was moved back to SeaWorld Orlando in October 1994, where she gave birth to her second calf, another male, Keto on June 17, 1995. She gave birth to another male, Tuar, on June 22, 1999. Kalina bore her fourth calf and first daughter, on February 9, 2004, named Skyla. Skyla is now at Loro Parque along with Keto. Kalina was a gentle whale, learned quickly, and was used a lot in shows. She was used as a "starter whale" for new trainers. On Monday October 4, 2010, less than four months after Taima's death, Kalina died of Preacute Bacteremia Septicemia at the age of 25. [63]

Kandu V[edit]

Kandu V was a dominant female Icelandic orca, caught in 1977 and kept at SeaWorld San Diego in California. On August 21, 1989, she attempted to rake a newcomer orca, Corky II, during a live show. She struck Corky behind her dorsal fin,[64] the resulting impact fracturing Kandu's upper jaw and severing major arteries. The crowd was quickly ushered out, and after a 45-minute hemorrhage, Kandu V died. Her daughter, Orkid, was 11 months old at the time of the accident.[65]

Kanduke[edit]

Kanduke (can-duke) was captured from T pod in British Columbia, Canada, in August 1975. When captured, he was about 14 ft long (4.3 m) and weighed about 2,600 pounds (1,200 kg), which made him about 4–5 years old. His mother is thought to be T7. He was sent to Sealand, Victoria, and then sold to Marineland, Canada. In January 1987, he was sold and moved to SeaWorld Orlando. While at Marineland, he did 'water work' with his trainers, but once at SeaWorld he was described as a "moody and unpredictable" whale and the 'water work' was stopped. At SeaWorld Orlando, Kanduke often fought with a younger Icelandic male named Kotar. The aggression became increasingly serious. After an incident in which Kotar bit Kanduke's penis and caused an infection and show cancellations, the exhibitors decided to move the smaller whale to the newly opened SeaWorld San Antonio. On September 20, 1990 Kanduke died of St. Louis encephalitis, which is transmitted by mosquitoes.[66] The cause of his death was later determined using information from his necropsy report provided by the Freedom of Information act. This disease is non-existent in wild killer whales because they don't spend enough time on the surface for mosquitoes to bite them. However, in captivity, the behavior of "logging" (i.e. just floating at the surface) puts killer whales at risk for mosquito born illnesses. Kanduke has since become a grandfather with the births of Sumar, Tekoa, and Malia.

Keiko[edit]

Keiko is weighed as he is loaded into his specially made transport tank at the Oregon Coast Aquarium, on September 9, 1998.
Main article: Keiko (orca)

Keiko (1976 – December 12, 2003) was an orca who starred in the first of three Free Willy movies. Keiko died on December 12, 2003 after beaching himself during the night, pneumonia was later determined as the probable cause of death. Keiko was captured near Iceland in 1979 and sold to the Icelandic aquarium in Hafnarfjörður. Three years later, he was sold to Marineland Canada, where he first started performing for the public and developed skin lesions indicative of poor health. He was then sold to Reino Aventura (now named Six Flags Mexico), an amusement park in Mexico City, in 1985. He was the star of the movie Free Willy in 1993.

The publicity from his role in Free Willy led to an effort by Warner Brothers Studio to find him a better home. Donations from the studio and Craig McCaw led to the establishment of the Free Willy Keiko Foundation[67] in February 1995. With donations from the foundation and millions of school children, the Oregon Coast Aquarium in Newport, Oregon spent over US$7 million to construct facilities to return him to health with the hope of returning him to the wild. He was airlifted by UPS to his new home on January 7, 1996, with a length of 24 feet (7.3 m) and weighing 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb). During his years in Oregon, he gained over a ton in weight.

On September 9, 1998, he was flown to Klettsvik Bay in Vestmannaeyjar in Iceland, and gradually reintroduced to the wild, returning to the open sea in July 2002. Keiko died on December 13, 2003, at the age of 27 years. Following requests from fans of the orca and Free Willy, the Oregon Coast Aquarium held a memorial service for him on February 20, 2004. 700 people attended the service, at which the aquarium's veterinary chaplain said, "Keiko was not one of our kind, but nonetheless was still one of us." There is a memorial site for Keiko set up by the locals in Halsa, Norway, where the famous orca spent the last year of his life.[68]

Kenau[edit]

Kenau died in 1991 while pregnant with her third calf, whose father was Kotar. The calf fetus was male.[69] Kenau was Kayla's mom.

Kim II[edit]

Kim II was a male orca who was captured at the age of 2 in October 1982 with Freya, Haida II and Nootka IV in Iceland. He was then sold to Marineland Antibes with Freya for reproduction. He sired many calves : Shouka, Inouk, Wikie and Valentin. Kim II was 6,3m long and weighted 5 tons. He was very close to his daughter Shouka but she was sent to Six Flags, later to SeaWorld San Diego. Kim II died on November 23, 2005 of pneumonia.

Moby Doll[edit]

Main article: Moby Doll

Moby Doll was the second captive orca displayed in a public aquarium exhibit. The 15-foot (4.6m) long, 1-ton male was captured in 1964 near East Point, Saturna Island in British Columbia after being harpooned and shot. He was towed to Vancouver and displayed publicly until he died three months after his capture. Moby Doll was popular locally and abroad and scientists took advantage of this first opportunity to study an orca and orca sounds up close.[70]

Namu[edit]

Main article: Namu (orca)

Namu was only the third orca captured and displayed in an aquarium exhibit, and was the subject of a film that changed some people's attitudes toward orcas. In June 1965, William Lechkobit found a 22-foot (6.7m) male orca in his floating salmon net that had drifted close to shore near Namu, British Columbia. The orca was sold for $8,000 to Ted Griffin, a Seattle public aquarium owner.[71] Griffin swam and performed with Namu in the Seattle exhibit and Namu survived one year in captivity before dying in his pen on July 9, 1966.[72]

Neocia[edit]

Neocia was born in October 1992, a female calf of Nootka and Kandu. Also known as 'Baby October', she was separated from her mother at the age of 3 and kept in a smaller tank at Marineland Canada with three other young orcas.[73] She was often moved because of her aggressive behavior toward the other orcas in an attempt to dominate them. Neocia was impregnated by her own father Kandu, however this pregnancy miscarried.[74] Neocia died at the age of 12 after losing her appetite and "not acting normally".[75]

Nepo[edit]

Nepo was captured with several other orcas on December 11, 1969. He and a capture mate Yaka were sold to a place called Marineworld Africa in California. The two orcas joined another female Kianu who had been at the park since 1968. Kianu wanted Nepo all to herself and she would attack Yaka whenever the other female was with Nepo. Nepo who was very close to Yaka protected her from Kianu's attacks. It got so bad that Kianu was transferred to a park in Japan. Nepo and Yaka continued to bond and even starred in the 1977 horror film Orca. Nepo died from pneumonia on July 10, 1980. Yaka stayed by his side as he took his final breaths. Even when trainers arrived to take Nepo's body away Yaka refused to leave him, and it took the trainers a while to separate the whales. Nepo was about 15 years old.

Nyar[edit]

Nyar was born at SeaWorld Orlando Florida on New Year's Eve (December 31) 1993. She was born to parents Gudrun and Tilikum. Nyar suffered from many health problems. Sometimes trainers would have to separate Gudrun and Nyar because the mother would try to drown her daughter. They had some bonding moments together. Nyar was not able to perform in shows as she was a very slow learner. She was even put with her father Tilikum sometimes. He was very gentle with her. Nyar died on April 1, 1996. She was 2 years 4 months and 1 day old. The cause of death was Immune System Failure. Nyar's name means "Summer" in Hungarian (spelled Nyár).

Orky II[edit]

Orky II was captured in April 1968, is well remembered as the father of Orkid and Kayla. He spent many of his years in captivity at Marineland of the Pacific. Corky II accompanied him, and the two were thought to be cousins, as they were both from the same pod. He fathered all seven of Corky II's unsuccessful calves, too. Orky was transferred to Sea World California along with Corky II in the year 1986. There, he was soon put to the bottom of the dominancy ladder. Orky was involved in one trainer incident in 1987, where he accidentally breached on a miscue and landed on a trainer (John Sillick) while the trainer was riding Corky II as a stunt. While in service to Sea World, Orky mated with two of their females, Kandu V and Kenau. Kandu bore her first successful calf, Orkid, three days before he died on September 26, 1988. She was named in his memory: Orky's Kid. About two months later, Kenau also gave birth to her calf, another female who was later named Kayla. Orky's death was brought on by acute pneumonia and chronic wasting, which meant he lost a lot of weight before he died. His dorsal fin flopped completely over to his right rather than the left. His pectorals were huge and his flukes were curled completely. His enormous size can be seen in both of his daughters, who have grown up to be quite large females. Orky's only living (captive) relatives are Orkid and Kayla. At one time Orky was actually called "Snorky". At almost 22 feet long and 11,000 pounds, he was one of the largest whales ever held in any aquarium.

Samoa[edit]

Main article: Samoa (orca)

Samoa was a female captured off Iceland in 1983. Samoa was reported to have died due to complications of giving birth. However, her necropsy revealed she had a rare Saksenaea Vasiformis fungal infection which likely caused the stillbirth and her death.[76] On March 14, 1992, while held at SeaWorld Texas, Samoa went into premature labour, and died giving birth to a female calf a few hours later. The calf was stillborn. It was the first reported death of a SeaWorld orca while giving birth. The age of Samoa at the time of her death was estimated to be 12-14.

Shamu[edit]

Main article: Shamu

Captured by Ted Griffin in Puget Sound in 1965, Shamu was intended to be a companion for the orca Namu in Griffin's Seattle aquarium. Shamu was however quickly leased and eventually sold to SeaWorld San Diego. She performed in several SeaWorld shows and Kenau the mother and Winston eventually died on August 23, 1971. The name Shamu has since been used for many different orcas in SeaWorld shows.

Skana[edit]

Skana was one of the first pod of Orcas captured, on February 15, 1967, in Yukon Harbor, Washington. The entire Southern Resident K Pod, at that time 15 members, was captured. Three died during capture, and five were transferred to the Seattle Aquarium for sale, including Skana, Ramu I and Kandu I. The others were released. Skana was believed to be six years old at the time of her capture. She was sold and transferred to the Vancouver Aquarium on March 10, 1967. She was by herself in Vancouver until the end of 1968, when the recently captured Hyak II arrived. She died on October 5, 1980, at the approximate age of 19 years, from a mycotic infection.[77]

Splash[edit]

Splash was born in 1989 in Marineland in Canada, transferred to SeaWorld San Diego at the age of 3 and died there in 2005. He was a well loved animal. "He was the one that bonded the best with the trainers," said veterinarian Reidarson.[78] Splash was prone to seizures, and at one point had to have the teeth in his lower jaw removed due to a violent seizure injury. Splash was among the park's most sickly animals. "We brought him back from life-threatening illnesses many times," Reidarson recalled.[78] In 1994, Splash smashed face-first into the wall of his tank, ripping a book-sized patch of skin along his jaw that had to be repaired surgically. Splash died of an infection. Ex SeaWorld trainer John Hargrove, who worked closely with Splash, suggested that Splash died so young partly due to consuming large quantities of sand, presumably because of the boredom of captivity.[79]

Spooky[edit]

Spooky was the second calf born to parents Corky II and Orky II at Marineland of the Pacific on Halloween of 1978 (October 31). Unlike most orcas, he was born head first. He earned his name just for the holiday. Spooky was in good health at first, but it wasn't to last. Due to the circular tank the orcas were kept in, Corky had trouble nursing her son. Trainers took over and bottle fed Spooky hoping to help him survive. Spooky died 11 days later on November 10, 1978 from pneumonia and colitis. Spooky's breed was 100% Northern Resident orca.

Sumar[edit]

Sumar (May 14, 1998 – September 7, 2010) was a male orca born at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida. His mother was Taima and he was her first calf. Just six months after birth, an incident happened when, during a show, his mother attacked him, pushing him against the glass, trying to make him fall. The crowd was evacuated and the show canceled. The trainers tried to move Taima to another tank and finally separated her from her son. Since then, the two of them have been always separated and Kalina and Katina became his surrogate mothers until he was transferred to SeaWorld San Diego in California on March 8, 1999. Afterwards, he spent a few months at now-closed SeaWorld Ohio before being transferred back to the San Diego park.

He was considered very gentle with other orcas[80] and trainers. At the time of his death he was one of three males at the park, and was seen as a possible breeding male in the future; Nakai, the younger male, is still too young to breed, and the older male Ulises seems to have a low sperm count. Sumar was approaching full size for a typical bull orca when he died: his dorsal fin was more and more leaning to its left and his flukes were beginning to curl under. He was about 4.6 m (17 feet) long and weighed around 5,300 pounds (2,400 kg). He was often used for shows in the park.[81] The theme of a June 2010 episode of Cupcake Wars was Sumar's twelfth birthday.[82]

Sumar died at SeaWorld in San Diego, California, on Tuesday, September 7, 2010, at the age of 12. Trainers noticed that the whale was not feeling well on Monday, September 6, 2010 which resulted in veterinarians being notified, blood samples drawn, and antibiotics administered. Despite measures taken by Sumar's veterinarian team, Sumar became increasingly ill by Tuesday. He died shortly before 1:45 PM (Pacific time). Sumar's death prompted the canceling of the park's orca shows for the day. His death was determined to be as a result of a twisted intestinal tract (intestinal volvulus). He was set to be the next captive breeding bull orca, after his father Tilikum.

Taima[edit]

Taima (pronounced Ty EE Ma) (July 11, 1989 – June 6, 2010) was a transient/Icelandic hybrid female orca who lived at Sea World Orlando in Florida. Her name purportedly means crash of thunder in a Native American language. [83] She was born tail-first around 16:45 EST during a thunderstorm.

Taima was born to mother Gudrun and father Kanduke. In 1990, Kanduke died at the age of 20 from St. Louis encephalitis; Gudrun gave birth to Taima's half-sister Nyar in 1993. Nyar suffered frequent illness and it was reported that Gudrun tried to drown her during several shows. Trainers believe that this confused Taima, as she witnessed this and thought this was how to raise a calf. She was later reported to have performed this on her own calves, Sumar, Tekoa, and Malia. Gudrun died in 1996 from stillbirth complications, and Nyar died from an illness a few months later in April.

On May 14, 1998, Taima gave birth to a male calf named Sumar. They were separated when he was about eight months old because of the aggression between them. On one occasion while performing, Taima started biting Sumar, and throwing him out of the pool, onto the trainer's platform. She then slid out herself and started biting him. The show was stopped, and Taima was pulled to the other swimming pool. A few months later Sumar was transferred to SeaWorld San Diego in California.

On November 8, 2000, at 3:47 pm, Taima gave birth to a male named Tekoa. He began feeding overnight and was estimated to be 7 feet (2.2 m) long and weigh 350 pounds (160 kg). During the birth, Kalina assisted Taima and helped the calf to the surface for its first breath. Tekoa was sent to SeaWorld San Antonio in 2004, and was later sent to Loro Parque in Tenerife in February 2006, where he remains today. After Tekoa's attack, Taima was separated from all other whales except Tilikum, until she gave birth again to her first daughter Malia in 2007. Seaworld announced on May 18, 2010 that Taima was pregnant again. She gave birth March 12, 2007 to Malia. "At birth Malia (Hawaiian for "calm and peaceful") measured about 6 feet and weighed in at around 350 pounds. Her father is Tilikum."[9]

Taima died from complications to a stillborn calf on June 6, 2010. Preliminary indications suggested that her death was caused by placenta previa, a condition in which the placenta is delivered before the calf.

Taku[edit]

Taku (September 9, 1993 – October 17, 2007) was a male orca, who was born at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida. After birth, Taku spent most of his time with his mother Katina or Nyar, his younger half-sister. Three years later, Katina gave birth again to a female, Unna. On August 25, 2002, Katina gave birth to her fifth calf: a male, Ikaika. Unna was later moved to SeaWorld San Antonio in December 2002. Afterwards, Ikaika and Taku bonded to the point where Ikaika swam in mother-calf-position with Taku. On November 18, 2006 Taku was moved to SeaWorld San Antonio whereas Ikaika was moved to Marineland Canada in Ontario.

Takara soon became pregnant. On November 23, 2005 around 21:50 EST (4:50 PM), Takara went into labor with her second calf. Her daughter Kohana was at her side. Thirty-two minutes later around 22:22 EST (5:22 PM), Takara gave birth to a male calf (Taku's son/first calf) who was later to be named Trua. Taku sired another calf in 2006 with his mother Katina – Nalani, who was also his sister the first successful inbred calf.[84]

Taku died unexpectedly on October 17, 2007, at the age of 14 and weighing over 7,000 pounds (3,200 kg) and at 22 feet (6.7 m) long. Trainers were notified that Taku had been acting differently the Wednesday before his death.[85][86] A NMFS Marine Mammal Inventory Report lists the cause of death as "severe multifocal interstitial pneumonia"; however there are also peer reviewed sources which have reported, based on necropsy results, the cause of death as West Nile Virus contracted via a mosquito bite.[87][88]

Vigga[edit]

Vigga (Little Sweetheart) was born in 1977 near Iceland, and brought to Marine World Africa USA Park, then located in Redwood City California, in 1980. Vigga shared her tank at the park with another female orca, Yaka, who had lost her mate Nepo a few months before Vigga was introduced to the park. Yaka and Vigga lived together at Marine World until Yaka died in 1997 at age 32. She made the move with Yaka to the Park's new quarters in Vallejo California in 1986. Vigga was over 16 feet long and weighed 5,000 pounds. Vigga died on Monday, August 14, 2000 at approximately 8 p.m.

Wanda[edit]

Wanda (aka 'The Newport Specimen') was captured by Marineland of the Pacific, now closed, in Newport Beach on November 18, 1961.[89] She was the first killer whale to be captured and displayed in captivity. She died on November 20, 1961, approximately 42 hours after her capture in Newport Harbor (approximately 36 hours after being placed into Marineland's tank).[90][91][92]

Winston[edit]

Main article: Ramu III

Winston, originally known as Ramu, was captured near Coupeville, Washington in 1970 and lived in Windsor Safari park and SeaWorld San Diego. He died in 1986. He was the father of the original Baby Shamu, Kalina.

Yaka[edit]

Yaka (Pronounced: Yah-Kah) (1969–1997), was a Pacific Northwest killer whale. She died on October 29, 1997 after 27 years in captivity. She was 32 years old, the third oldest orca in captivity at the time. The cause of her death was supposedly pneumonia. She came to Marine World Africa USA located in Redwood City California in December 1969 together with male Nepo after being captured off the coast of British Columbia . Nepo and Yaka starred in the 1977 horror film Orca. Nepo died in July 1980, leaving Yaka alone. In November 1980, the Icelandic female killer whale Vigga became her tank mate. Yaka was 10 years older than Vigga. They made the move together when the park relocated to Vallejo, California in 1986. Vigga died 3 years after Yaka in August 2000.

Yaka was a member of the A5 Pod, as is Corky.

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]