List of carboxylic acids

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Carboxylic acids are often seen in many biochemical process, and many carboxylic acids have common names. In English, we add the word "acid" to the name no matter it is a common name or a systemic name. In the naming of carboxylates and carboxylate esters, we change the suffix "-ic" to "-ate".

This list is ordered by the number of carbon atoms in a carboxylic acid.

C1[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
methanoic acid formic acid HCOOH

C2[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
ethanoic acid acetic acid CH3COOH
ethanedioic acid oxalic acid HOOCCOOH
oxoethanoic acid glyoxylic acid
formylformic acid
OHCCOOH
2-hydroxyethanoic acid glycolic acid
dicarbonous acid
hydroxyacetic acid
HOCH2COOH

C3[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
propanoic acid propionic acid
ethanecarboxylic acid
CH3CH2COOH
prop-2-enoic acid acrylic acid
acroleic acid
ethylenecarboxylic acid
propene acid
vinylformic acid
CH2=CHCOOH
propanedioic acid malonic acid
methanedicarboxylic acid
HOOCCH2COOH
2-oxopropanoic acid pyruvic acid
α-ketopropionic acid
acetylformic acid
pyroracemic acid
CH3COCOOH
2-hydroxypropanoic acid lactic acid
milk acid
CH3CHOHCOOH

C4[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
butanoic acid butyric acid
propanecarboxylic acid
CH3(CH2)2COOH
2-methylpropanoic acid isobutyric acid
isobutanoic acid
(CH3)2CHCOOH
butanedioic acid succinic acid HOOC(CH2)2COOH
3-oxobutanoic acid acetoacetic acid CH3COCH2COOH
(E)-butenedioic acid fumaric acid
trans-1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid
2-butenedioic acid
trans-butenedioic acid
allomaleic acid
boletic acid
donitic acid
lichenic acid
HOOCCH=CHCOOH
(Z)-butenedioic acid maleic acid
cis-butenedioic acid
maleinic acid
toxilic acid
HOOCCH=CHCOOH
oxobutanedioic acid oxaloacetic acid
oxalacetic acid
oxosuccinic acid
HOOCCH2COCOOH
hydroxybutanedioic acid malic acid
hydroxybutanedioic acid
HOOCCH2CHOHCOOH
2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid tartaric acid
2,3-dihydroxysuccinic acid
threaric acid
racemic acid
uvic acid
paratartaric acid
HOOC(CHOH)2COOH
(E)-but-2-enoic acid crotonic acid
trans-2-butenoic acid
beta-methylacrylic acid
3-methylacrylic acid
(E)-2-butenoic acid
CH3CH=CHCOOH

C5[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
pentanoic acid valeric acid
valerianic acid
butane-1-carboxylic acid
CH3(CH2)3COOH
pentanedioic acid glutaric acid
propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
1,3-propanedicarboxylic acid
n-pyrotartaric acid
HOOC(CH2)3COOH
2-oxopentanedioic acid alpha-Ketoglutaric acid
2-ketoglutaric acid
α-ketoglutaric acid
2-oxoglutaric acid
oxoglutaric acid
HOOC(CH2)2COCOOH

C6[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
hexanoic acid caproic acid
n-caproic acid
CH3(CH2)4COOH
hexanedioic acid adipic acid
hexane-1,6-dioic acid
HOOC(CH2)4COOH
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid citric acid
3-carboxy-3-hydroxypentanedioic acid
2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid
HOC(COOH)((CH2)COOH)2
prop-1-ene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid aconitic acid
achilleic acid
equisetic acid
citridinic acid
pyrocitric acid
HOOCCH=C(COOH)CH2COOH
1-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid isocitric acid HOOCCHOHCH(COOH)CH2COOH
(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid sorbic acid CH3(CH=CH)2COOH

C7[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
heptanoic acid enanthic acid
oenanthic acid
n-Heptylic acid
n-Heptoic acid
CH3(CH2)5COOH
heptanedioic acid pimelic acid HOOC(CH2)5COOH
benzenecarboxylic acid benzoic acid
carboxybenzene
dracylic acid
C6H5COOH
2-hydroxybenzoic acid salicylic acid HOC6H4COOH

C8[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
octanoic acid caprylic acid CH3(CH2)6COOH

C9[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
nonanoic acid pelargonic acid
1-octanecarboxylic acid
CH3(CH2)7COOH
(E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoic acid cinnamic acid
trans-cinnamic acid
phenylacrylic acid
cinnamylic acid
3-phenylacrylic acid
(E)-cinnamic acid
benzenepropenoic acid
isocinnamic acid
C6H5CH=CHCOOH

C10[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
decanoic acid capric acid
decanoic acid
CH3(CH2)8COOH
decanedioic acid sebacic acid
1,8-octanedicarboxylic acid
HOOC(CH2)8COOH

C11[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
undecanoic acid hendecanoic acid CH3(CH2)9COOH

C12[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
dodecanoic acid lauric acid
dodecylic acid
dodecoic acid
laurostearic acid
vulvic acid
1-undecanecarboxylic acid
duodecylic acid
CH3(CH2)10COOH

C13[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
tridecanoic acid tridecylic acid CH3(CH2)11COOH

C14[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
tetradecanoic acid myristic acid CH3(CH2)12COOH

C15[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
pentadecanoic acid pentadecylic acid CH3(CH2)13COOH

C16[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
hexadecanoic acid palmitic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH

C17[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
heptadecanoic acid margaric acid
heptadecylic acid
CH3(CH2)15COOH

C18[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
octadecanoic acid stearic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH
(9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid oleic acid
(9Z)-octadecenoic acid
(Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid
cis-9-octadecenoic acid
cis9-octadecenoic acid
CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid linoleic acid CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid ALA
α-linolenic acid
cis, cis,cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
(6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadeca-6,9,12-trienoic acid GLA
γ-linolenic acid
gamolenic acid
CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)4COOH
(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid SDA
stearidonic acid
moroctic acid
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)5COOH

C19[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
nonadecanoic acid nonadecylic acid CH3(CH2)17COOH

C20[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
eicosanoic acid arachidic acid
eicosanoic acid
arachic acid
CH3(CH2)18COOH
(5Z,8Z,11Z)-eicosa-5,8,11-trienoic acid Mead's acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid AA
ARA
arachidonic acid
CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH

C21[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
henicosanoic acid CH3(CH2)19COOH

C22[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural Formula
docosanoic acid behenic acid CH3(CH2)20COOH
(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid DHA
cervonic acid
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)2COOH

C23[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
tricosanoic acid tricosylic acid CH3(CH2)21COOH

C24[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
tetracosanoic acid lignoceric acid CH3(CH2)22COOH

C25[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
pentacosanoic acid pentacosylic acid CH3(CH2)23COOH

C26[edit]

IUPAC name Common name Structural formula
hexacosanoic acid cerotic acid CH3(CH2)24COOH

See also[edit]