List of cardinal-nephews

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portrait of Ippolito de' Medici
Ippolito de' Medici, a cardinal-nephew of Pope Clement VII and illegitimate son of Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici

A cardinal-nephew is a cardinal elevated by a pope who was his uncle, or more generally, his relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries.[1] From the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, Romanum decet pontificem (1692), nearly every pope who appointed cardinals appointed at least one relative to the College of Cardinals,[n 1] including every Renaissance-era pope.[2]

Although nephews were the most common relation to be elevated to the College, other family members include (legitimate, illegitimate, or adopted) sons and grandsons, brothers, grandnephews, cousins and even uncles.[1][2] At least 15, and possibly as many as 19 cardinal-nephews were later elected pope (Gregory IX, Alexander IV, Adrian V, Gregory XI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, Eugene IV, Paul II, Alexander VI, Pius III, Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII, Benedict XIII, and Pius VII, perhaps also John XIX, Benedict IX, if they were really promoted cardinals, as well as Innocent III and Benedict XII, if in fact they were related to their elevators). One became antipope (John XXIII), and two or three were canonized (Charles Borromeo, Guarinus of Palestrina, and perhaps Anselm of Lucca, if in fact he was really elected cardinal).[n 2]

Similarly-created cardinals include cardinal-nephews of antipopes and papal relatives made cardinals by other popes.

Notes on symbols[edit]

Because statements concerning the familial ties of popes and cardinals prior to 14th century are often of much later origin, some sources regard their factual accuracy as dubious. Thus, individuals are marked with:

  • The existence of a familial relationship is disputed, when the existence of the familial relationship is disputed, or
  • The promotion to the cardinalate is disputed, when their promotion to the cardinalate is disputed.

Occupants of the curial office of the Cardinal Nephew are denoted with †.

11th century[edit]

Portrait of Pope Benedict VIII
Pope Benedict VIII elevated his cousin, brother, and nephew to the cardinalate.
Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Benedict VIII
(1012–1024)
Lotario (or Loctarius), seniore The promotion to the cardinalate is disputedcirca 1015 Cousin [5][6]
Giovanni The promotion to the cardinalate is disputed,Unknown Brother Future Pope John XIX[5][7]
Teofilatto The promotion to the cardinalate is disputed,Unknown Nephew[n 3] Future Pope Benedict IX[5][8]
John XIX
(1024–1032)
Pietro 1024[9] Cousin [5][10]
Benedict IX
(1032–1044, 1045, 1047–1048)
Giovanni before April 1044 Nephew [11]
Alexander II
(1061–1073)
St. Anselm of Lucca the promotion to the cardinalate is disputedCirca 1062 Brother or nephew [5][n 4]
Urban II
(1088–1099)
Odon de Châtillon Circa 1095 Nephew [5][n 5]

12th century[edit]

Portrait of Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX, the first cardinal-nephew elected pope
Portrait of Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III created an unprecedented four cardinal-nephews.
Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Callixtus II
(1119–1124)
Etienne de Bar the promotion to the cardinalate is disputed1120 Nephew [15][n 6]
Innocent II
(1130–1143)
Gregorio Papareschi 1134/1137 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedNephew [15][n 7]
Pietro Papareschi 17 September 1143 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedBrother [15][n 8]
Lucius II
(1144–1145)
Ubaldo 19 May 1144 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedCousin or nephew [15][n 9]
St. Guarinus of Palestrina 22 December 1144 Relative [21][n 10]
Adrian IV
(1154–1159)
Boso Breakspeare 21 December 1156 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedNephew [24][25]
Lucius III
(1181–1185)
Uberto Allucingoli the promotion to the cardinalate is disputedCirca 1182 Nephew [15][n 11]
Gerardo 18 December 1182 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedNephew [n 12]
Clement III
(1187–1191)
Lotario de' Conti 22 September 1190 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedUnknown Future Pope Innocent III[30][n 13]
Niccolò Scolari Nephew [34][n 14]
Celestine III
(1191–1198)
Bobo 20 February 1193 Relative [37][38]
Giovanni di San Paolo the existence of a familial relationship is disputedNephew [37][n 15]
Innocent III
(1198–1216)
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni 19 December 1198 Cousin Future Pope Gregory IX[40]
Giovanni dei Conti di Segni 3 June 1200[41] Cousin [40]
Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni 27 May 1206[41] Cousin [40]
Stefano Conti 5 March 1216[41] Unknown [42]

13th century[edit]

Portrait of Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV, a cardinal-nephew of Gregory IX, himself a cardinal-nephew of Innocent III, who was a cardinal-nephew of Clement III
Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Gregory IX
(1227–1241)
Rinaldo Conti 18 September 1227 Unknown Future Pope Alexander IV[40][43][n 16]
Niccolò dei Conti di Segni the promotion to the cardinalate is disputedDecember 1228 Nephew [46][n 17]
Riccardo Annibaldeschi di Molaria 1238 Unknown [48]
Innocent IV
(1243–1254)
Guglielmo Fieschi 28 May 1244 Nephew [40][43]
Ottobono Fieschi December 1251 Nephew Future Pope Adrian V[40][43]
Urban IV
(1261–1264)
Anchero Pantaleone 22 May 1262 Nephew [40]
Gregory X
(1271–1276)
Vicedomino de Vicedominis 3 June 1273 Unknown Future pope-elect, died before proclamation[40][49]
Giovanni Visconti the promotion to the cardinalate is disputed1275 Unknown [50][n 18]
Nicholas III
(1277–1280)
Latino Malabranca Orsini 12 March 1278 Nephew [40]
Giordano Orsini Brother [40][52]
Honorius IV
(1285–1287)
Giovanni Boccamazza 22 December 1285 Relative [40]
Nicholas IV
(1288–1292)
Pietro Colonna 16 May 1288 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedRelative [53][n 19]
Boniface VIII
(1294–1303)
Benedetto II Caetani between 23 January and 13 May 1295 Nephew [40][57]
Giacomo Tomasi Caetani (Iacopo Tommasi) 17 December 1295 Unknown [40][57]
Francesco Caetani Unknown [40][57]
Leonardo Patrasso 2 March 1300 Uncle [40]

14th century[edit]

The façade of the Palais des Papes
The Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) produced an unprecedented number of cardinal-nephews.
Portrait of Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V, the first Avignon Pope, created an unprecedented four or five cardinal-nephews on the same day.
Portrait of Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI created more cardinal-nephews than any other pontiff.
Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Clement V
(1305–1314)
Berenger Fredoli 15 December 1305 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedNephew, son of Guillaume de Frédol [58][59]
Arnaud Frangier de Chanteloup Close relative, possible nephew [58]
Arnaud de Pellegrue Relative, possible nephew [58]
Raymond de Got Nephew, son of Arnaud Garcie de Got [58]
Guillaume Arrufat Relative, possible nephew [58]
Raymond Guillaume des Forges 19 December 1310 Nephew, son of Marquise de Got [58]
Bernard Jarre (or Garve) Relative [58]
Arnaud d'Aux 23 December 1312 Relative [60]
Berenguer Fredol the existence of a familial relationship is disputedGrandnephew [58][61]
John XXII
(1316–1334)
Jacques de Via 17 December (or 18), 1316 Nephew, son of Marie Duese [58]
Gauscelin Jean d'Euse Relative[62] [58]
Bertrand du Pouget the existence of a familial relationship is disputedRelative, possible nephew [58][63]
Arnaud de Via 20 June 1317 Nephew, son of Marie Duese [58]
Raymond Le Roux 19 December (or 20), 1320 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedClose relative, possible nephew [58][64]
Jacques Fournier 18 December 1327 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedUnknown relative Future Pope Benedict XII)[65]
Imbert Dupuis the existence of a familial relationship is disputedRelative, possible nephew [58][66]
Benedict XII
(1334–1342)
Guillaume Court 18 December 1338 the existence of a familial relationship is disputedRelative, mother's side [58][67]
Clement VI
(1342–1352)
Aymeric de Chalus 20 September 1342 Cousin [68]
Hugues Roger Brother [58][69]
Adhémar Robert Cousin or nephew [58]
Gérard Lagarde (or Domar) Cousin [58]
Bernard de la Tour Nephew [58]
Guillaume de la Jugée (Guillaume II Roger) Nephew, son of Guillaumette Rogier [58][69]
Nicolas de Besse 19 May 1344 Nephew, son of Dauphine Roger [70]
Pierre-Roger de Beaufort 28 May (or 29), 1348 Nephew Future Pope Gregory XI[58][69][71]
Raymond de Canillac 17 December 1350 Nephew [58]
Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, seniore Cousin [72]
Pierre du Cros Nephew or cousin [58]
Innocent VI
(1352–1362)
Andouin Aubert 15 February 1353 Nephew, son of Guy Aubert [58]
Pierre de Salvete Monteruc 23 December 1356 Nephew of mother's side [58]
Etienne Aubert, iuniore 17 September 1361 Grandnephew [58]
Urban V
(1362–1370)
Angelic de Grimoard 18 September 1366 Brother [58]
Pierre d'Estaing 7 June 1370 Relative [73]
Gregory XI
(1370–1378)
Jean de Murat de Cros 30 May 1371 Nephew or cousin [58]
Jean de La Tour Brother-in-law of niece [74]
Pierre de la Jugée (or Jugie) 20 December 1375 Cousin [58]
Gui de Maillesec Nephew on mother's side [75]
Gérard du Puy Cousin or nephew [58]
Urban VI
(1378–1389)
Francesco Moricotti Prignani 18 September 1378 Nephew [76]
Filippo Carafa della Serra 18 September 1378 Relative [77]
Francesco Renzio 21 December 1381 Distant relative [77][78]
Pietro Tomacelli Distant relative Future Pope Boniface IX[77][78]
Tommaso Orsini ca.1383 Relative [77]
Rinaldo Brancaccio 17 December 1384 Relative [77]
Marino Bulcani Distant relative, nephew of cardinal Francesco Renzio [77][79]
Boniface IX
(1389–1404)
Enrico Minutoli 18 December 1389 Distant relative [80]
Cosimo Migliorati Distant relative Future Pope Innocent VII (1404–1406)[80]
Baldassare Cossa 27 February 1402 Relative Future Antipope John XXIII[80][81]

15th century[edit]

Portrait of Pope Paul II
Paul II, cardinal-nephew of Eugene IV, who was cardinal-nephew of Gregory XII
Pope Pius II names his nephew Francesco Piccolomini (future Pope Pius III) cardinal.
Portrait of Cesare Borgia, Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romani, and Niccolò Machiavelli
Cesare Borgia (far left) and Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní (center left), two of Pope Alexander VI's ten cardinal-nephews, depicted with Niccolò Machiavelli (center right)
Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Innocent VII
(1404–1406)
Giovanni Migliorati 12 June 1405 Nephew [82]
Gregory XII
(1406–1415)
Antonio Correr 9 May 1408 Nephew, son of Filippo Correr [82]
Gabriele Condulmer Nephew, son of Beriola Correr Future Pope Eugene IV[83]
Angelo Barbarigo 19 September 1408 Nephew, son of Caterina Correr [83]
Martin V
(1417–1431)
Prospero Colonna 24 May 1426
published 8 November 1430
Nephew, son of Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna [82]
Eugene IV
(1431–1447)
Francesco Condulmer 19 September 1431 Nephew [83]
Pietro Barbo 1 July 1440 Nephew, son of Polissena Condulmer Future Pope Paul II[83]
Nicholas V
(1447–1455)
Filippo Calandrini 20 December 1448 Half-brother [82]
Callixtus III
(1455–1458)
Luis Juan del Mila y Borja 20 February 1456
published 17 September 1456
Nephew [82]
Rodrigo Borja Nephew Future Pope Alexander VI[82]
Pius II
(1458–1464)
Francesco Piccolomini 5 March 1460 Nephew Future Pope Pius III[82]
Niccolò Fortiguerra Relative on mother's side [82]
Giacomo Ammannati-Piccolomini 18 December 1461 Adopted [82]
Paul II
(1464–1471)
Marco Barbo 18 September 1467 Unknown [82]
Giovanni Battista Zeno 21 November 1468 Unknown [82]
Giovanni Michiel Unknown [82]
Sixtus IV
(1471–1484)
Pietro Riario 16 December 1471 Unknown [82]
Giuliano della Rovere Unknown Future Pope Julius II[82]
Girolamo Basso della Rovere 10 December 1477 Unknown [82]
Raffaele Riario Unknown [82]
Cristoforo della Rovere Unknown [82]
Domenico della Rovere 10 February 1478 Unknown [82]
Innocent VIII
(1484–1492)
Lorenzo Cybo de Mari 9 March 1489 Unknown [82]
Giovanni de' Medici Relative Future Pope Leo X[84]
Pantaleone Cybo 9 March 1489
Never published
Nephew [85]
Niccolò Cybo Nephew [85]
Alexander VI
(1492–1503)
Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor 31 August 1492 Son of cousin [82]
Cesare Borgia 20 September 1493 Son Resigned 18 August 1498[86]
Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore Brother-in-law of daughter, Gerolama Borgia [87]
Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el menor 19 February 1496 Grandnephew [82]
Amanieu d'Albret 20 March 1500 Brother-in-law of Cesare Borgia [88]
Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní Grandnephew [82]
Francisco de Borja 28 September 1500 Disputed relationship [89]
Juan de Vera Relative [89]
Juan Castellar y de Borja 31 May 1503 Cousin of Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor [90]
Francisco Lloris y de Borja Grandnephew [90]

16th century[edit]

Portrait of Pope Leo X with future Pope Clement VII and Cardinal Luigi de' Rossi
Pope Leo X with his cousins Giulio de' Medici (left, future Pope Clement VII) and Luigi de' Rossi (right), whom he appointed as cardinals
Portrait of Pope Paul III with Alessandro Farnese and Ottavio Farnese
Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma
Portrait of RAnuccio Farnese
Ranuccio Farnese was made cardinal by Paul III at the age of 15.
Portrait of Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo, one of the few canonized cardinal-nephews
Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Julius II
(1503–1513)
Clemente Grosso della Rovere 29 November 1503 Unknown [91]
Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere Unknown [91]
Marco Vigerio della Rovere 1 December 1505 Distant relative [91]
Leonardo Grosso della Rovere Cousin [91]
Sisto Gara della Rovere 11 September 1507 Unknown [91]
Leo X
(1513–1521)
Giulio de' Medici 23 September 1513 Cousin Future Pope Clement VII[86]
Innocenzo Cybo Unknown [91]
Luigi de' Rossi 1 July 1517 Cousin [92]
Francesco Armellini Pantalassi de' Medici Adopted as son [92]
Franciotto Orsini Son of Orso Orsini di Monteredondo [92]
Giovanni Salviati Son of Lucrezia de' Medici [92]
Niccolò Ridolfi Son of Contessina de' Medici [92]
Clement VII
(1523–1534)
Niccolò Gaddi 3 May 1527 Related through Catherine de' Medici [93]
Ippolito de' Medici 10 January 1529 Illegitimate son of Giuliano de' Medici [94]
Paul III
(1534–1549)
Alessandro Farnese 18 December 1534 Grandson [86][91]
Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora Grandson [91]
Niccolò Caetani 22 December 1536
published 13 March 1538
Son of cousin [91]
Tiberio Crispo 19 December 1544 Brother, on his mother's side, of pope's daughter Costanza Farnese, possibly natural son of Paul III [95]
Ranuccio Farnese 16 December 1545 Grandson [91]
Giulio Feltre della Rovere 27 July 1547 Relative [96]
Julius III
(1550–1555)
Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte 30 May 1550 Adopted [91]
Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte 20 November 1551 Cousin [91]
Fulvio della Corgna Nephew on his mother's side [97]
Roberto de Nobili 22 December 1553 Grandnephew [91]
Girolamo Simoncelli Grandnephew [91]
Paul IV
(1555–1559)
Carlo Carafa 7 June 1555 Unknown [98]
Diomede Carafa 20 December 1555 Relative [91]
Alfonso Carafa 15 March 1557 Grandnephew [99]
Pius IV
(1559–1565)
Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni 31 January 1560 Cousin of Charles Borromeo [100]
St. Charles Borromeo Nephew [91][101]
Mark Sittich von Hohenems (or Marco Sittico d'Altemps 26 February 1561 Nephew [91][102]
Alfonso Gesualdo Brother-in-law of Charles Borromeo [103]
Gianfrancesco Gàmbara Stepbrother of Charles Borromeo [103]
Francesco Alciati 12 March 1565 Relative [104]
Guido Luca Ferrero Cousin of Charles Borromeo [104]
Gianfrancesco Commendone Relative [104]
Pius V
(1566–1572)
Michele Bonelli 6 March 1566 Grandnephew [105]
Girolamo Rusticucci 17 May 1570 Relative [106]
Gregory XIII
(1572–1585)
Filippo Boncompagni 2 June 1572 Unknown [107]
Filippo Guastavillani 5 July 1574 Unknown [91]
Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora 12 December 1583 Relative through his sister Costanza, wife of pope's son [108]
Sixtus V
(1585–1590)
Alessandro Peretti di Montalto 13 May 1585 Unknown [91][109]
Gregory XIV
(1590–1591)
Paolo Emilio Sfondrati 19 December 1590 Unknown [110]
Flaminio Piatti 6 March 1591 Relative [111]
Innocent IX
(1591)
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce 18 December 1591 Grandnephew [91]
Clement VIII
(1592–1605)
Pietro Aldobrandini 17 September 1593 Nephew [112][113]
Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini Nephew [114]
Silvestro Aldobrandini 17 September 1603 Grandnephew [91]
Giovanni Battista Deti 3 March 1599 Relative [115]
Bonifazio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini Adopted while already a cardinal on 3 April 1601 [115]

17th century[edit]

The tomb of Pope Gregory XV
The tomb of Pope Gregory XV and his cardinal-nephew Ludovico Ludovisi
Portrait of Camillo Pamphili
Camillo Astalli-Pamphili, painted by Velasquez
Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Paul V
(1605–1621)
Scipione Borghese Caffarelli 18 July 1605 Nephew [116]
Giambattista Leni 24 November 1608 Distant relative [117]
Tiberio Muti 2 December 1615 Unknown [118]
Gregory XV
(1621–1623)
Ludovico Ludovisi 15 February 1621 Nephew [116]
Marcantonio Gozzadini 21 July 1621 Cousin [116]
Urban VIII
(1623–1644)
Francesco Barberini 2 October 1623 Nephew [116]
Lorenzo Magalotti 7 October 1624 Brother in law [116]
Antonio Marcello Barberini Brother [116]
Antonio Barberini 30 August 1627 Nephew [116]
Francesco Maria Macchiavelli 6 December 1641 Relative [119]
Innocent X
(1644–1655)
Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili 14 November 1644 Son of Innocent X's sister-in-law Olimpia Maidalchini Resigned 21 January 1647[116]
Francesco Maidalchini 7 October 1647 Nephew of Olimpia Maidalchini [120]
Camillo Astalli 19 September 1650 Cousin of Olimpia Maidalchini Deprived of the title of nipote in February 1654[121]
Alexander VII
(1655–1667)
Flavio Chigi, seniore 9 April 1657 Nephew [116]
Antonio Bichi Unknown [122]
Clement IX
(1667–1669)
Giacomo Rospigliosi 12 December 1667 Nephew [116]
Clement X
(1670–1676)
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni 24 January 1664
(by Pope Alexander VII)
Adopted while already a cardinal [123][124][125]
Vincenzo Maria Orsini 22 February 1672 Relative Future Pope Benedict XIII[126]
Innocent XI
(1676–1689)
Carlo Stefano Anastasio Ciceri 2 September 1686 Distant relative [127]
Alexander VIII
(1689–1691)
Pietro Ottoboni 7 November 1689 Grandnephew [128]
Giovanni Battista Rubini 13 February 1690 Unknown [116]

18th century[edit]

Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Clement XI
(1700–1721)
Annibale Albani 23 December 1711 Unknown [129]
Fabio Olivieri 6 May 1715 Cousin [130]
Innocent XIII
(1721–1724)
Bernardo Maria Conti 16 June 1721 Brother [131]
Clement XII
(1730–1740)
Neri Maria Corsini 14 August 1730 Nephew [132]
Giovanni Antonio Guadagni 24 September 1731 Nephew on mother's side, son of Maddalena Corsini [133]
Clement XIII
(1758–1769)
Carlo Rezzonico 11 September 1758 Nephew[134] [135]
Pius VI
(1775–1799)
Giovanni Carlo Bandi 29 May 1775 Uncle [132]
Barnaba Chiaramonti 14 February 1785 Relative on his mother's side Future Pope Pius VII[136]
Romualdo Braschi-Onesti 18 December 1786 Nephew [137]

19th century[edit]

Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Leo XIII
(1878–1903)
Giuseppe Pecci 12 May 1879 Brother [138]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Until Pope Innocent XII, the only exceptions were popes who did not appoint the cardinals at all (Pope Pius III, Pope Marcellus II, Pope Urban VII, Pope Leo XI) and Pope Adrian VI (who appointed only one cardinal).
  2. ^ Miranda, citing older authors such as Alphonsus Ciacconius, says that Pope Anastasius IV (Corrado della Suburra) was probably a nephew of his elevator Honorius II;[3] however, modern scholars are in agreement that Corrado was created by Paschalis II, and deny or do not mention his relationship with Honorius II.[4]
  3. ^ Nephew to both Benedict VIII and John XIX
  4. ^ Several modern sources do not mention his cardinalate.[12]
  5. ^ The source for the statement that Odon was nephew of Urban II is Ferdinando Ughelli (1594–1670), considered reliable by Klewitz because he was able to verify Ughelli's other statements concerning that cardinal.[13] Date of his promotion is given according to Hüls, who does not mention this relationship.[14]
  6. ^ Etienne de Bar, who was nephew of Callixtus II and bishop of Metz 1120–1163, is commonly identified with cardinal Stephanus of S. Maria Cosmedin, who appears in the papal bulls between 1120–1128, but Ganzer considers it erroneous that de Bar was a cardinal.[16] Hüls also reject this identification and adds that cardinal Stephanus of S. Maria in Cosmedin was probably brother of cardinal Giovanni of Crema.[17]
  7. ^ Brixius and Zenker say nothing of his origins, including any relationship to Innocent II[18]
  8. ^ His relationship with Innocent II is not attested in the contemporary sources and nothing is known about his life except his first name (Petrus) and cardinalatial title (bishop of Albano).[19]
  9. ^ Others deny his relationship with Lucius II.[20]
  10. ^ There is a consensus that he was related to Lucius II,[22] with the exception of Maleczek, who says that this is not attested in the contemporary sources.[23]
  11. ^ Several sources doubt his promotion to the cardinalate indicating that he is confused with Cardinal Uberto Crivelli, future Pope Urban III, since they both are listed as cardinals of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso at the same time (1182-1185).[26] Cardella[27] affirms his cardinalate, but raises the possibility of confusion with Uberto Crivelli.
  12. ^ Both Maleczek[28] and Miranda[29] say that although many sources consider him a kinsman of Lucius III, this relationship is not proven.
  13. ^ The tradition of identifying Innocent III as nephew of Clement III may result from an onomastic confusion.[31][32] Maleczek does not mention a relationship.[33]
  14. ^ In older historiography, he is listed as Niccolò Boboni, nephew of Celestine III, created by this pope in 1191,[35][36] but Kartusch and Maleczek cite two contemporary documents in which pope Celestine III explicitly calls him nephew of his predecessor Clement III.
  15. ^ Maleczek says that the theory that Giovanni di San Paolo was nephew of Celestine III is based on the very uncertain identification of the future cardinal with a papal subdeacon who served as legate in France ca. 1191 and is attested as nephew of Celestine III; therefore, the status of Giovanni di San Paolo as cardinal-nephew remains uncertain.[39]
  16. ^ More recent genealogical research has cast the doubts on the tradition identifying him as nephew of Gregory IX.[44] Maleczek indicates that he was "probably" a relative of Gregory IX.[45]
  17. ^ Miranda adds that his promotion to the cardinalate is disputed. Paravicini Bagliani says that he was never promoted to the cardinalate.[47]
  18. ^ Miranda adds that his promotion is dubious. Eubel explicitly denies that he was ever a cardinal.[51]
  19. ^ Gihon[54] and Miranda[55][56] do not mention this relationship.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bunson, Matthew. 1995. "Cardinal Nephew." The Pope Encyclopedia. Crown Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0-517-88256-6.
  2. ^ a b Vidmar, John. 2005. The Catholic Church Through The Ages: A History. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4234-1.
  3. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 1127”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  4. ^ (Brixius, p. 36 and 78; Klewitz, p. 128; Hüls, p. 128 and 201; Zenker, p. 46–48)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Miranda, S. 1998. "11th Century (999–1099)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  6. ^ Authors which affirm his cardinalate do not mention any documentary proof to attest his existence and promotion (cf. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: consistory of 1015; retrieved on 15 September 2009; and Cardella, vol. I pt 1, p. 93). His name does not appear in the papal registers of that time (cf. Regesta Imperii Online. Abhandlung II. Band 5 (Papstregesten 911-1024) and Abhandlung II. Band 5 (Papstregesten 1024-1058); retrieved on 15 September 2009; Ph. Jaffè: Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, vol. I, Leipzig 1885, p. 506-529; P. F. Kehr: Italia Pontificia, vol. I, Berlin 1906; J. P. Migne: Patrologia Latina, vol. 139 col. 1577-1638, vol. 141 col. 1115-1156 and 1343-1370) and is not mentioned in the genealogies of the family of Pope Benedict VIII, cf. Medieval Lands; retrieved on 15 September 2009; L.Brook, Popes and Pornocrats:Rome in the early middle ages Foundations (Vol. 1, no. 1, Jan 2003), p. 5-17; F. Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages, Vol. 4 pt. 1, London 1905, p. 6 and 19. Therefore, the existence of this cardinal remains uncertain.
  7. ^ According to his biography in Udo Tavares (1992). "Johannes XIX., Papst". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German) 3. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 220–224. ISBN 3-88309-035-2. ; and Wikisource-logo.svg Kirsch, J. P. (1913). "Pope John XIX (XX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  he was a layman at the time of his election to the papacy
  8. ^ According to Genealogie-Mittelalter; retrieved on 1 September 2009; he was a layman when elected pope. Biographical entries by Wikisource-logo.svg Mann, Horace (1913). "Pope Benedict IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  and Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz (1975). "Benedikt IX., Papst". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German) 1. Hamm: Bautz. cols. 484–485. ISBN 3-88309-013-1. ; do not mention his cardinalate
  9. ^ For the date of promotion see Regesta Imperii Online. Abhandlung III. Band 5 (Papstregesten 1024-1058) nr 71; retrieved on 15 September 2009
  10. ^ Genealogie-Mittelalter: Petrus von Silva Candida; retrieved on 15 September 2009
  11. ^ Hüls, p. 138 no. 1
  12. ^ Hüls, Ganzer, Klewitz, Robinson.
  13. ^ Klewitz, p. 115 no. 4 and pp. 159–160.
  14. ^ Hüls, pp. 103–104.
  15. ^ a b c d e Miranda, S. 1998. "12th Century (1099–1198)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  16. ^ Ganzer, pp. 79–80.
  17. ^ Hüls, pp. 232–233.
  18. ^ Brixius, p. 42, and Zenker, p. 49.
  19. ^ Brixius, pp. 45 and 93, and Zenker, p. 49.
  20. ^ Brixius, p. 103, and Maleczek, p. 248 note 283.
  21. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of December 1144". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  22. ^ Brixius, p. 51; Zenker, pp. 41 and 218; and Robinson, p. 51.
  23. ^ Maleczek, p. 248 note 283.
  24. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Boso (Breakspear)" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  25. ^ Zenker, pp. 149–150; Robinson, pp. 254–255; c.f. Brixius, pp. 113–114
  26. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (note 6)". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009. Kartusch, p. 198 note 4, concluded that he should be removed from the list of the cardinals promoted by Lucius III. See also Ganzer, p. 174
  27. ^ L. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, Rome 1792, I, pt. 2, pp. 142–143.
  28. ^ Maleczek, p. 78.
  29. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “consistory of 1182”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  30. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Pope Innocent III" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  31. ^ Michele Maccarrone, "Innocenzo III prima del pontificato," Archivo della R. Deputatazione romana di Storia patria, 1943, p. 66.
  32. ^ H. Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo", II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana", Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, 1975, p. 371.
  33. ^ Maleczek, pp. 101–104.
  34. ^ Kartusch, pp. 284-28; Maleczek, pp. 97–98.
  35. ^ Cardella, L. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, Rome 1792, I, pt. 2, p. 189.
  36. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 1191”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  37. ^ a b Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 1193”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  38. ^ Maleczek, p. 111
  39. ^ Maleczek, p. 114.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Miranda, S. 1998. "13th Century (1198–1303)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  41. ^ a b c Maleczek, pp. 289–290
  42. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 1216 (X)”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  43. ^ a b c Williams, George L. 2004. Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5. p. 32.
  44. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, pp. 47–48.
  45. ^ Maleczek, p. 132 note 43.
  46. ^ Eubel, Vol. I, pp. 6 and 43; Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of December 1228”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  47. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, pp. 98, 531–532.
  48. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 1237”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  49. ^ Levillain, 2002, p. 657.
  50. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 1275”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  51. ^ Eubel, Vol. I, p. 9.
  52. ^ Williams, 2004, p. 37.
  53. ^ DeCormenin, Louis Marie, and de Lahaye, vicomte de Louis-Marie. 1857. A Complete History of the Popes of Rome (PDF link).
  54. ^ James L. Gihon. p. 25. Eubel, vol. I, p. 11.
  55. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Masci". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  56. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Colonna". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  57. ^ a b c Williams, 2004, p. 38.
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Miranda, S. 1998. "14th Century (1303–1404)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  59. ^ Contemporary accounts edited by G. Mollat: Vitae paparum avenionensium, I, Paris 1914, pp. 25 and 55, say that out of ten new cardinals created on the first consistory of Clement V only four were papal relatives and do not mention Berengar among them. Sophia Menache: Clement V, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 41-42 and 50, does not consider him a relative of Clement V.
  60. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 23 December 1312 (III)". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  61. ^ He was nephew of Berenger Fredol, whose relationship with Clement V is disputed.
  62. ^ According to G. Mollat: Vitae paparum avenionensium, vol. II, Paris 1928, p. 720 note 2, there was no blood relationship between Cardinal Gauscelin de Jean and John XXII but cardinal's uncle was married with pope's sister. See also Genealogies of John XXII and of the family de Jean (pp. 4 and 14).
  63. ^ G. Mollat: Vitae paparum avenionensium, vol. II, Paris 1928, p. 725, says that the statement about his relationship with John XXII resulted from an error.
  64. ^ G. Mollat: Vitae paparum avenionensium, vol. II, Paris 1928, p. 751 note 1, says that his relationship with John XXII is not proven.
  65. ^ G. Moroni Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni vol V, p. 5, says that he was son of Guillaume and of the sister of John XXII, and therefore, his nephew on his mother side, but this is certainly erroneous, see Genealogy of John XXII (p. 4). Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 18 December 1327 (IV)." Florida International University; Retrieved 25 June 2009; says that he was relative of John XXII but gives this information with a question mark.
  66. ^ G. Mollat: Vitae paparum avenionensium, vol. II, Paris 1928, p. 768 note 2, says that his relationship with John XXII is not proven and that documents from the register of John XXII attest only that he was born at Montpellier.
  67. ^ According to G. Mollat (ed.), Vitae paparum avenionensium, vol. II, Paris 1928, p. 816-817, his relationship with Benedict XII is not proven and is unlikely because pope Benedict XII legislated against nepotism and forbade his family to live at Avignon. Karsten Plöger: England and the Avignon popes: the practice of diplomacy in late medieval Europe, MHRA, 2005, p. 27, also say that Benedict XII opposed nepotism and did not promote any of his relatives to the cardinalate.
  68. ^ Miranda, S. “Consistory of 20 September 1342”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  69. ^ a b c Williams, 2004, p. 42.
  70. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 19 May 1344”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  71. ^ Biraben, Jean-Noël. Ed. Levillain, Philippe. 2002. "Plague." The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92228-3. p. 1222.
  72. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 17 December 1350”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  73. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 7 June 1370”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  74. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 30 May 1371”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  75. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 20 December 1375”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  76. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 18 September 1378". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  77. ^ a b c d e f Martin Souchon: Die Papstwahlen in der Zeit des grossen Schismas, vol. 1, Braunschweig 1898, p. 22
  78. ^ a b Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 21 December 1381". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  79. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 17 December 1384”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  80. ^ a b c Martin Souchon: Die Papstwahlen in der Zeit des grossen Schismas, vol. 1, Braunschweig 1898, p. 51
  81. ^ Michael Hanst (1992). "Johannes XXIII. (Baldassare Cossa), Gegenpapst". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German) 3. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 233–237. ISBN 3-88309-035-2. 
  82. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Miranda, S. 1998. "15th Century (1404–1503)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  83. ^ a b c d Williams, 2004, p. 47.
  84. ^ Williams, 2004, p. 71.
  85. ^ a b Thomson, 1980, pp. 62–64.
  86. ^ a b c Hsia, Ronnie Po-chia. 2005. The World of Catholic Renewal, 1540–1770. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84154-2. p. 102.
  87. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 20 September 1493 (II)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  88. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 20 March 1500 (VIII)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  89. ^ a b Miranda, S. 1998 "Consistory of 28 September 1500 (IX)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  90. ^ a b Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 31 May 1503 (IX)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Miranda, S. 1998. "16th Century (1503–1605)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  92. ^ a b c d e Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 1 July 1517 (V)". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  93. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 3 May 1527 (I)". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  94. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 10 January 1529 (VI)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  95. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 19 December 1544”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  96. ^ Trollope, 1876, p. 51.
  97. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of November 20, 1551 (III)”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  98. ^ Williams, 2004, p. 83.
  99. ^ Williams, 2004, p. 86.
  100. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 31 January 1560”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  101. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Pope Pius IV" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  102. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Frascati" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  103. ^ a b Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 26 February 1561 (II)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  104. ^ a b c Miranda, S. 1998. Consistory of 12 March 1565." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  105. ^ Lemaitre, Nicole. Ed. Levillain, Philippe. 2002. "Pius V." The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92228-3. p. 1178.
  106. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of May 17, 1570 (III)”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  107. ^ Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 142.
  108. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of December 12, 1583 (VII)”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  109. ^ Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 92.
  110. ^ Tizon-Germe, Anne-Cécile. Ed. Levillain, Philippe. 2002. "Gregory XIV." The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92228-3. p. 666.
  111. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 6 March 1591 (II)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  112. ^ Levillain, 1981, p. 1129.
  113. ^ Trollope, 1876, p. 52.
  114. ^ Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 81.
  115. ^ a b Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 3 March 1599". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  116. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Miranda, S. 1998. "17th Century (1605–1700)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  117. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 24 November 1608”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  118. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 2 December 1615". Florida International University. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
  119. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of December 16, 1641 (VII)”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  120. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of October 7, 1647 (IV)”. Florida International University. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
  121. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 19 September 1650”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  122. ^ Levillain, 2002, p. 467.
  123. ^ Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 153.
  124. ^ Williams, 2004, p. 119.
  125. ^ Levillain, 2002, p. 468.
  126. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of February 22, 1672 (III)”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  127. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 2 September 1686”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  128. ^ Standen, Edith A. 1981. "Tapestries for a Cardinal-Nephew: A Roman Set Illustrating Tasso's "Gerusalemme Liberata." Metropolitan Museum Journal. 16: 147–164.
  129. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 23 December 1711 (VI)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  130. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 6 May 1715". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  131. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 16 June 1721 (I)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  132. ^ a b Miranda, S. 1998. "18th Century (1700–1799)." Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  133. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. “Consistory of 24 September 1731”. Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  134. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of September 11, 1758 (I)". Florida International University. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  135. ^ Levillain, 1981, p. 1179.
  136. ^ Kazimierz Dopierała, Księga papieży, Pallotinum, Poznań 1996, pp. 373–374; Damian Hungs: Papst Pius VII
  137. ^ Levillain, 1981, p. 1184.
  138. ^ Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 12 May 1879". Florida International University. Retrieved 25 June 2009.

References[edit]

  • (German) Brixius, Johannes M. 1912. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130–1181. Berlin.
  • (Latin) Eubel, Konrad 1913. Hierarchia Catholica, vol. I-IX. Münster.
  • (German) Ganzer, Klaus 1963. Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelater. Tübingen.
  • (German) Hüls, Rudolf 1977. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049–1130. Tübingen.
  • (German) Kartusch, Elfriede 1984. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227. Vienna.
  • (German) Klewitz, Hans-Walter. 1957. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Darmstadt.
  • (German) Maleczek, Werner 1984. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216. Vienna.
  • (Italian) Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. 1972. Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie dal 1227 al 1254, 2 vols. Padova.
  • Robinson, I.S. 1990. The Papacy 1073–1198. Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge University Press.
  • Thomson, John A. F. 1980. Popes and Princes, 1417–1517: Politics and Polity in the Late Medieval Church. Boston: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-901027-1.
  • Trollope, Thomas Adolphus. 1876. The papal conclaves, as they were and as they are. Chapman and Hall.
  • Williams, George L. 2004. Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5.
  • (German) Zenker, Barbara. 1964. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159. Würzburg.