List of castles in Syria

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Key[edit]

Key
Name Name of the surviving building, either how it is popularly known in English, its medieval name or its Arabic name
Type Usually the type of castle represented by the predominant surviving fortified remains
Date Usually the dates of the principal building works relating to the surviving remains
Condition An indication as to what remains of the original castle structure
Image Building or site as it currently exists
Coordinates Location of the castle
Governorate Governorate in which the castle is located
Notes Brief description or information of note

List of castles[edit]

Name
Type
Date
Condition
Image Coordinates Governorate Notes
AleppoCitadel of Aleppo Castle 110112–13th centuries Partially restored Citadel of Aleppo.jpg 36°11′57″N 37°09′45″E / 36.19917°N 37.16250°E / 36.19917; 37.16250 (Citadel of Aleppo) Aleppo Covers an ancient tell with remains dating back to the 3rd millennium BCE.
NajmQal'at Najm Hilltop castle 110112–13th centuries Partially restored View of Qal'at Najm from the south.jpg 36°33′18″N 38°15′42″E / 36.55500°N 38.26167°E / 36.55500; 38.26167 (Qal'at Najm) Aleppo Besieged in 1820 by Ottoman forces after a local warlord had sought refuge in the castle.[1]
DamascusCitadel of Damascus Castle 100111–13th centuries Partially restored Damaskus4.jpg 33°30′42″N 36°18′7″E / 33.51167°N 36.30194°E / 33.51167; 36.30194 (Citadel of Damascus) Damascus Part of the Ancient City of Damascus World Heritage Site.[2]
BosraCitadel of Bosra Castle Partially restored Bosra-a01(js).jpg 32°31′04″N 36°28′54″E / 32.51778°N 36.48167°E / 32.51778; 36.48167 (Citadel of Bosra) Daraa Built around a Roman theatre. Part of the Ancient City of Bosra World Heritage Site.[3]
Halabiye Hilltop castle 05016th century Ruins 35°41′22″N 39°49′08″E / 35.68944°N 39.81889°E / 35.68944; 39.81889 (Halabiye) Deir ez-Zor Originally fortified by Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, refortified under the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and partially re-used after the Muslim conquest of Syria.[4]
RahbehQal'at Rahbeh Hilltop castle Ruins 35°00′18″N 40°25′24″E / 35.00500°N 40.42333°E / 35.00500; 40.42333 (Qal'at Rahbeh) Deir ez-Zor
SukkaraQal'at Sukkara Hilltop castle Ruins 36°25′38″N 40°23′56″E / 36.42722°N 40.39889°E / 36.42722; 40.39889 (Qal'at Sukkara) HasakahAl Hasakah Located in the Jebel Abd al-Aziz.
Qal'at al-MadiqQalaat al-Madiq Hilltop castle Residential area Fortress of Qalat el-Mudiq.jpg 35°25′12″N 36°23′33″E / 35.42000°N 36.39250°E / 35.42000; 36.39250 (Qal'at al-Madiq) Hama
Citadel of Hama Castle Ruins 35°08′10″N 36°44′58″E / 35.13611°N 36.74944°E / 35.13611; 36.74944 (Citadel of Hama) Hama Excavated by a Danish expedition between 1931 and 1938.[5]
Masyaf Castle Spur castle Partially restored Masyaf - Gesamtansicht.jpg 35°03′58″N 36°20′36″E / 35.06611°N 36.34333°E / 35.06611; 36.34333 (Masyaf Castle) Hama
Shaizar Spur castle Partially restored Shayzar3.jpg 35°15′55″N 36°33′59″E / 35.26528°N 36.56639°E / 35.26528; 36.56639 (Shaizar) Hama
Citadel of Homs Castle Ruins 18th century original drawing of the castle of Hims by Cassas.jpg 34°43′25″N 36°42′52″E / 34.72361°N 36.71444°E / 34.72361; 36.71444 (Citadel of Homs) Homs Built on top of an ancient tell with remains dating back to the 3rd millennium BCE.[6]
Fakhr-al-Din al-Maani Castle Hilltop castle Partially restored PalmyraCitadel.jpg 34°33′46″N 38°15′25″E / 34.56278°N 38.25694°E / 34.56278; 38.25694 (Fakhr-al-Din al-Maani Castle) Homs
hayr al-gharbiQasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi Desert castle Ruins 34°22′28″N 37°36′21″E / 34.37444°N 37.60583°E / 34.37444; 37.60583 (Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi) Homs
hayr al-sharqiQasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi Desert castle Ruins Qasr al hir al-Sharqi Rasafeh.jpg 35°4′26″N 39°4′16″E / 35.07389°N 39.07111°E / 35.07389; 39.07111 (Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi) Homs
Krak des Chevaliers Hilltop castle Partially restored Crac des chevaliers syria.jpeg 34°45′25″N 36°17′4″E / 34.75694°N 36.28444°E / 34.75694; 36.28444 (Krak des Chevaliers) Homs Part of the Crac des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din World Heritage Site.[7]
Shmemis Hilltop castle Ruins Shmemis1.jpg 35°02′13″N 37°00′49″E / 35.03694°N 37.01361°E / 35.03694; 37.01361 (Shmemis) Homs
Bani Qahtan Castle Hilltop castle Ruins 35°23′44″N 36°09′15″E / 35.39556°N 36.15417°E / 35.39556; 36.15417 (Bani Qahtan Castle) Latakia
Mahalibeh Castle Hilltop castle Partially restored 35°30′28″N 36°05′14″E / 35.50778°N 36.08722°E / 35.50778; 36.08722 (Mahalibeh Castle) Latakia
Salah ed-DinQal'at Salah ed-Din Spur castle Partially restored Saladinsburg 12.jpg 35°35′45″N 36°03′26″E / 35.59583°N 36.05722°E / 35.59583; 36.05722 (Qal'at Salah ed-Din) Latakia Part of the Crac des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din World Heritage Site.[7]
Nimrod Fortress Hilltop castle 100113th century Nimrod-S-268.jpg 33°15′10″N 35°42′53″E / 33.25278°N 35.71472°E / 33.25278; 35.71472 (Nimrod Fortress) Quneitra The castle is located in the Golan Heights which is currently under Israeli occupation.
RaqqahCitadel of Ar-Raqqah Castle 120113th century Destroyed 35°56′4″N 39°00′5″E / 35.93444°N 39.00139°E / 35.93444; 39.00139 (Citadel of Ar-Raqqah) RaqqahAr-Raqqah The citadel was completely removed and built over in the 1950s.[8]
Ja'barQal'at Ja'bar Hilltop castle 110112th century Partially restored CaberKalesi.jpg 35°53′51″N 38°28′51″E / 35.89750°N 38.48083°E / 35.89750; 38.48083 (Qal'at Ja'bar) RaqqahAr-Raqqah Originally situated on a hilltop overlooking the Euphrates Valley but now turned into an island by the flooding of Lake Assad.[9]
Chastel Blanc Hilltop castle Partially restored Chastel Blanc.jpg 34°49′14″N 36°07′01″E / 34.82056°N 36.11694°E / 34.82056; 36.11694 (Chastel Blanc) Tartus
Chastel Rouge Partially restored Yahmour3.jpg 34°48′44″N 35°58′14″E / 34.81222°N 35.97056°E / 34.81222; 35.97056 (Chastel Rouge) Tartus
KahfAl-Kahf Castle Spur castle 110112th century Ruins 35°02′27″N 36°04′58″E / 35.04083°N 36.08278°E / 35.04083; 36.08278 (Al-Kahf Castle) Tartus In 1192, Rashid ad-Din Sinan, also known as the Old Man of the Mountain, died in Al-Kahf Castle, which was an Ismaili stronghold during the 12th century.[10]
Qala'at Khawabi Spur castle Residential area 34°58′22″N 36°00′06″E / 34.97278°N 36.00167°E / 34.97278; 36.00167 (Qala'at Khawabi) Tartus
Margat Spur castle 100111–12th centuries Partially restored Marqab-crusader-castle-donjon.jpg 35°09′08″N 35°57′0″E / 35.15222°N 35.95000°E / 35.15222; 35.95000 (Margat) Tartus Headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria.
TartusCitadel of Tartus Castle Residential area 34°53′36″N 35°52′35″E / 34.89333°N 35.87639°E / 34.89333; 35.87639 (Citadel of Tartus) Tartus

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sourdel 2010
  2. ^ Ancient City of Damascus, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, retrieved 16 March 2011 
  3. ^ Ancient City of Bosra, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, retrieved 23 August 2011 
  4. ^ Burns 2009
  5. ^ Shaw & Jameson 1999, p. 167
  6. ^ King 2002, p. 42
  7. ^ a b Crac des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, retrieved 24 August 2011 
  8. ^ Heidemann 2006, p. 122
  9. ^ Bounni 1977
  10. ^ Willey 2005, p. 234

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bounni, Adnan (1977), "Campaign and exhibition from the Euphrates in Syria", The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 44: 1–7, JSTOR 3768538 
  • Burns, R. (2009), The monuments of Syria. A guide, London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 160–161, ISBN 9781845119478 
  • Heidemann, Stefan (2006), "The Citadel of al-Raqqa and Fortifications in the Middle Euphrates Area", in Kennedy, Hugh, Muslim Military Architecture in Greater Syria: From the Coming of Islam to the Ottoman Period, History of Warfare 35, Leiden: Brill, pp. 122–150, ISBN 9004147136 
  • King, G.R.D. (2002), "Archaeological Fieldwork at the Citadel of Homs, Syria: 1995–1999", Levant 34: 39–58, doi:10.1179/007589102790217336 
  • Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert (1999), A Dictionary of Archaeology, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0631174233 
  • Sourdel, D. (2010), "Ķalat Nadjm", in Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P., Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Leiden: Brill Online, OCLC 624382576 
  • Willey, Peter (2005), Eagle's Nest: Ismaili Castles in Iran and Syria, Institute of Ismaili Studies, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 9781850434641