Churches on Gotland

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Anga Church
Garde Church
Rone Church
The development of church architecture on Gotland. Top: Anga, an unaltered Romanesque church. Middle: Garde; rebuilding started but not finished. Bottom: rebuilding complete at Rone, finished c. 1300

This is a list of churches on the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea.

Of the churches of Gotland, 93 – the vast majority – are medieval. 92 of these are located on the countryside,[1] with only Visby Cathedral remaining within the city wall of Visby, the main town of the island. However, during the Middle Ages, the amount of churches was even larger, with at least 12 churches in Visby and an additional four on the the countryside. Some of these are still visible as more or less well-preserved ruins. For further information about these ruined churches, see list of church ruins on Gotland.[2]

Gotland began to gradually abandon Norse religion and adopt Christianity during the 11th century.[3] The first churches to be built on Gotland were wooden, built in the manner of stave churches.[1] None of these have survived intact. The most well-preserved remains, today in the Swedish History Museum, are those of Hemse stave church.[2] Traces and archaeological evidence of earlier stave churches have been discovered in ten different sites on Gotland.[3]

Stone churches began to replace wooden churches during the 12th century.[1] These churches were Romanesque in style, with influences coming mainly from Denmark and western German architecture. Importantly, the construction of Lund Cathedral in Scania established a source of influences in the relative vicinity. Likewise, the 1164 establishment of the Cistercian monastery of Roma Abbey on Gotland led to strong Cistercian influences in the following period of church construction. These Romanesque churches were sometimes decorated internally with frescos. Here also, the influences came most often from the west and south, but sometimes also from Russia. Similarly, the churches were adorned with stone sculpture, notably decorated baptismal fonts. Here, too, influences came from both the west and the east. Finally, such churches also occasionally display wooden sculptures, such as triumphal crosses. These display a more markedly uniform western style, with influences coming from France or western Germany.[2]

During the Gothic era, the church portals were often decorated with sculptures, such as these at Martebo Church

During the 13th century, reconstruction works were started on several of these earlier churches. New churches were also commissioned. Gotland was enjoying a period of prosperity thanks to increasing trade, and, possibly, due to its role as a staging area for crusaders departing for the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea.[3] The churches were made larger and more elaborate. The style began to shift in favour of the Gothic, although few churches on Gotland display a pronounced Gothic style. The most elaborate parts of these churches are often the portals, notably the main southern portals. Churches from this period are furthermore often adorned with tall towers. Internally, frescos and wooden sculpture continued to enjoy popularity, as well as occasionally stained glass windows. Artistic influences came via Visby from mainly western Germany. At the end of this period, Gotland entered a period of economic decline. Following the Black Death, the invasion of Gotland by Valdemar IV of Denmark and the Battle of Visby (1361), and a general decrease in trade, many churches were left unfinished. Hence, several churches on Gotland display a peculiar form, where the choir is in Gothic style and disproportionally large in comparison with the rest of the otherwise Romanesque church. In such cases, reconstruction of the church had started with the choir but was brought to a halt before the whole reconstruction scheme could be finished.[2]

From about 1400, no new churches were erected and the general religious building activity decreases sharply. Internally, some churches receive further embellishment in the form of new altarpieces or frescos during the 15th and 16th century. Following the Reformation, a new type of altarpieces and pulpits were introduced.[2] These post-Reformation furnishings from the 17th and 18th centuries are also well represented in the churches of Gotland.[1]

The church building activity on Gotland thus took place in the period of approximately 250 years, from c. 1100 to 1350. Until the early 13th century, the pace of church building was comparable to the rest of Scandinavia. From then on, both the number and size of new churches increased significantly, until building activity came to a complete halt at the end of the Middle Ages.[3]

Only a few of the church buildings on Gotland have been significantly altered since the end of the Middle Ages,[1] which is unusual in a European context, since medieval churches were often heavily reconstructed or renovated during the 19th century. The medieval parish churches of Gotland comprise the most well-preserved set of such churches in Sweden,[3] and indeed in the whole Baltic region.[4]

During the 20th century, a small number of new churches have been built, notably in Visby.

The vast majority of the churches on Gotland belongs to the Lutheran Church of Sweden, and the Diocese of Visby.

The churches[edit]

Note: Unless specified otherwise, the churches on Gotland are named after their locality, i.e. Kräklingbo Church is to be found in Kräklingbo settlement.

A[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Akebäck Church 1149 57°32′50″N 18°23′32″E / 57.54722°N 18.39222°E / 57.54722; 18.39222 Akebaecks-kyrka-Gotland-N.jpg [5]
Ala Church 12th to mid-13th century 57°25′08″N 18°38′07″E / 57.41889°N 18.63528°E / 57.41889; 18.63528 Ala kyrka view02.jpg [6]
Alskog Church 13th century to circa 1300 57°19′53″N 18°37′37″E / 57.33139°N 18.62694°E / 57.33139; 18.62694 Alskogs-kyrka-Gotland-total1.jpg [2]
Alva Church 12th century 57°12′27″N 18°21′41″E / 57.20750°N 18.36139°E / 57.20750; 18.36139 Gotland-Alva-Kirche 01.jpg [7]
Anga Church 13th century 57°28′49″N 18°42′23″E / 57.48028°N 18.70639°E / 57.48028; 18.70639 Anga kyrka-view2.jpg [3]
Ardre Church c. 1200 57°22′46″N 18°41′48″E / 57.37944°N 18.69667°E / 57.37944; 18.69667 Ardre-kyrka-Gotland-torn1.jpg
Atlingbo Church c. 1200 57°28′47″N 18°23′26″E / 57.47972°N 18.39056°E / 57.47972; 18.39056 Atlingbo kyrka Gotland Sverige (2).jpg

B-D[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Barlingbo Church 13th century 57°33′52″N 18°27′47″E / 57.56444°N 18.46306°E / 57.56444; 18.46306 Nordenskirker Barlingbox01.jpg
Björke Church 13th century 57°30′26″N 18°25′16″E / 57.50722°N 18.42111°E / 57.50722; 18.42111 Bjorke kyrka Gotland Sverige 2.jpg
Boge Church 13th century 57°41′13″N 18°45′46″E / 57.68694°N 18.76278°E / 57.68694; 18.76278 Boge kyrka 02.JPG
Bro Church c. 1240 to c. 1300 57°40′12″N 18°28′29″E / 57.67000°N 18.47472°E / 57.67000; 18.47472 Gotland-Bro-kyrka 01.jpg [3]
Bunge Church Early 14th century 57°51′13″N 19°01′24″E / 57.85361°N 19.02333°E / 57.85361; 19.02333 Bunge church, 2009-08-11.jpg [3]
Burs Church 13th century 57°14′44″N 18°30′31″E / 57.24556°N 18.50861°E / 57.24556; 18.50861 Burs-kyrka-Gotland-total1.jpg
Buttle Church 12th century 57°24′09″N 18°31′48″E / 57.40250°N 18.53000°E / 57.40250; 18.53000 Buttle kyrka view1.jpg
Bäl Church 13th century 57°38′41″N 18°37′58″E / 57.64472°N 18.63278°E / 57.64472; 18.63278 Bals-kyrka-Gotland-2010 11.jpg
Dalhem Church 13th century 57°33′08″N 18°32′02″E / 57.55222°N 18.53389°E / 57.55222; 18.53389 Gotland-Dalhems-kyrka 02.jpg [3]

E–F[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Eke Church 13th century 57°10′04″N 18°22′45″E / 57.16778°N 18.37917°E / 57.16778; 18.37917 Eke-kyrka-Gotland-total1.jpg
Ekeby Church 13th century 57°35′44″N 18°30′52″E / 57.59556°N 18.51444°E / 57.59556; 18.51444 Gotland-Ekeby kyrka Gesamtansicht perspective.jpg
Eksta Church 13th century 57°17′11″N 18°12′23″E / 57.28639°N 18.20639°E / 57.28639; 18.20639 Eksta kyrka.jpg
Endre Church 12th century 57°36′36″N 18°27′55″E / 57.61000°N 18.46528°E / 57.61000; 18.46528 Endre 01.jpg
Eskelhem Church c. 1200 to mid-14th century 57°29′22″N 18°12′35″E / 57.48944°N 18.20972°E / 57.48944; 18.20972 Eskelhems-kyrka-Gotland-T1.jpg [3]
Etelhem Church 1300 57°20′14″N 18°29′45″E / 57.33722°N 18.49583°E / 57.33722; 18.49583 Etlehems-kyrka-Gotland-total2.jpg
Fardhem Church c. 1170 to c. 1260 57°15′20″N 18°20′29″E / 57.25556°N 18.34139°E / 57.25556; 18.34139 Fardhems-kyrka-Gotland-kl1.jpg [3]
Fide Church 13th century 57°04′25″N 18°18′58″E / 57.07361°N 18.31611°E / 57.07361; 18.31611 Fide-kyrka-Gotland-total3.jpg
Fleringe Church 13th century 57°52′10″N 18°52′37″E / 57.86944°N 18.87694°E / 57.86944; 18.87694 Fleringe kyrka.JPG
Fole Church Inaugurated 1280 57°39′02″N 18°32′41″E / 57.65056°N 18.54472°E / 57.65056; 18.54472 Fole kyrka.JPG

[2]

Follingbo Church 13th century 57°34′56″N 18°23′0″E / 57.58222°N 18.38333°E / 57.58222; 18.38333 Follingbo-kyrka-Gotland-Total.jpg
Fröjel Church 12th century 57°20′08″N 18°11′23″E / 57.33556°N 18.18972°E / 57.33556; 18.18972 Fröjel kyrka.JPG
Fårö Church 14th century 57°54′56″N 19°08′0″E / 57.91556°N 19.13333°E / 57.91556; 19.13333 Gotland-Fårö-kyrka 01.jpg Film-maker Ingmar Bergman is buried in the church cemetery

G[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Gammelgarn Church 12th century 57°24′16″N 18°48′16″E / 57.40444°N 18.80444°E / 57.40444; 18.80444 Gammelgarns kyrka view01.jpg Defensive tower from the 12th century adjacent (pictured) Gammelgarns kyrka kastal01.jpg
Ganthem Church 12th century 57°30′57″N 18°34′54″E / 57.51583°N 18.58167°E / 57.51583; 18.58167 Ganthems kyrka Gotland Sverige 5.jpg
Garde Church c. 1130 to c. 1310 57°19′01″N 18°34′55″E / 57.31694°N 18.58194°E / 57.31694; 18.58194 Garda View 01.jpg [3]
Gerum Church 13th century 57°17′40″N 18°19′46″E / 57.29444°N 18.32944°E / 57.29444; 18.32944
Gnisvärd Chapel 1839 57°30′26″N 18°06′44″E / 57.50722°N 18.11222°E / 57.50722; 18.11222 Gnisvärds kapell (3) Gotland.jpg [8]
Gothem Church 13th to early 14th century 57°34′31″N 18°44′06″E / 57.57528°N 18.73500°E / 57.57528; 18.73500 Gotland GothemKirche 13.jpg [3]
Grötlingbo Church First half of the 13th to mid-14th century 57°08′01″N 18°20′47″E / 57.13361°N 18.34639°E / 57.13361; 18.34639 Grotlingbo kyrka.JPG [3]
Guldrupe Church 12th century 57°25′49″N 18°25′35″E / 57.43028°N 18.42639°E / 57.43028; 18.42639 Guldrupe kyrka old3.jpg

H-K[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Hablingbo Church Late 12th century to c. 1320 57°11′14″N 18°15′45″E / 57.18722°N 18.26250°E / 57.18722; 18.26250 Hamlingbo kyrka.JPG [3]
Hall Church Second quarter of the 13th century 57°53′31″N 18°42′57″E / 57.89194°N 18.71583°E / 57.89194; 18.71583 Halls-kyrka-Gotland-lk1.jpg [2]
Halla Church c. 1200 to the 14th century 57°30′39″N 18°29′50″E / 57.51083°N 18.49722°E / 57.51083; 18.49722 Nordenskirker Halla(01).jpg [2]
Hamra Church Mid-13th century to early 14th century 56°58′33″N 18°18′48″E / 56.97583°N 18.31333°E / 56.97583; 18.31333 Hamra kyrka sydöst.JPG [3]
Hangvar Church 13th century 57°50′21″N 18°41′18″E / 57.83917°N 18.68833°E / 57.83917; 18.68833 Hangvar-kyrka-Gotland-2010 03.jpg [2]
Havdhem Church First half of 12th century to mid-13th century 57°09′45″N 18°19′23″E / 57.16250°N 18.32306°E / 57.16250; 18.32306 Havdhems kyrka, Gotland.jpg [2]
Hejde Church 13th century 57°24′46″N 18°20′45″E / 57.41278°N 18.34583°E / 57.41278; 18.34583
Hejnum Church 13th century 57°40′48″N 18°37′55″E / 57.68000°N 18.63194°E / 57.68000; 18.63194 Hejnums-kyrka-Gotland-portal1.jpg
Hellvi Church 13th century 57°46′30″N 18°53′42″E / 57.77500°N 18.89500°E / 57.77500; 18.89500 Hellvi-kyrka-Gotland-total1.jpg
Hemse Church 13th century 57°13′58″N 18°22′22″E / 57.23278°N 18.37278°E / 57.23278; 18.37278 Hemse kyrka.JPG Original location of Hemse stave church
Hogrän Church 13th century 57°30′16″N 18°18′28″E / 57.50444°N 18.30778°E / 57.50444; 18.30778 Hogrän.JPG
Hörsne Church 13th century 57°33′30″N 18°35′50″E / 57.55833°N 18.59722°E / 57.55833; 18.59722 Hoersne-kyrka-Gotland-laanghus1.jpg
Klinte Church 13th century 57°22′42″N 18°13′55″E / 57.37833°N 18.23194°E / 57.37833; 18.23194 Klinte kyrka Gotland.jpg
Kovik Chapel 1963 57°24′33″N 18°09′53″E / 57.40917°N 18.16472°E / 57.40917; 18.16472 Koviks kapell (2) Gotland.jpg
Kräklingbo Church 13th century 57°26′42″N 18°42′40″E / 57.44500°N 18.71111°E / 57.44500; 18.71111 Kraklingbo church view01.jpg
Källunge Church 12th to 14th century 57°36′28″N 18°35′04″E / 57.60778°N 18.58444°E / 57.60778; 18.58444 Kaellunge-kyrka-Gotland-total2.jpg [3]

L-M[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Lau Church Mid-13th century to c. 1300 57°16′58″N 18°37′12″E / 57.28278°N 18.62000°E / 57.28278; 18.62000 Lau kyrka view01.jpg [3]
Levide Church Late 12th century to mid-13th century 57°16′55″N 18°15′59″E / 57.28194°N 18.26639°E / 57.28194; 18.26639 Levide kyrka.jpg [2]
Linde Church End of the 12th century to early 13th century 57°16′46″N 18°22′47″E / 57.27944°N 18.37972°E / 57.27944; 18.37972 Linde-kyrka-Gotland-fraan-vaest.jpg [2]
Lojsta Church 13th century 57°18′46″N 18°23′02″E / 57.31278°N 18.38389°E / 57.31278; 18.38389 Lojsta 004.jpg
Lokrume Church 13th century 57°41′16″N 18°32′19″E / 57.68778°N 18.53861°E / 57.68778; 18.53861 Lokrume kyrka, Gotland.jpg
Lummelunda Church 13th century 57°46′11″N 18°27′19″E / 57.76972°N 18.45528°E / 57.76972; 18.45528 Lummelunda (3).JPG
Lye Church 12th to 14th century 57°17′52″N 18°31′34″E / 57.29778°N 18.52611°E / 57.29778; 18.52611 Nordenskirker Lyex01.jpg Contains the best-preserved set of medieval stained glass windows in the Nordic countries [3]
Lärbro Church Finished c. 1340 57°47′13″N 18°47′37″E / 57.78694°N 18.79361°E / 57.78694; 18.79361 Gotland-Lärbro kyrka Gesamtansicht.jpg Defensive tower from the 12th century adjacent (pictured) Kastal Lärbro kyrka Gotland.jpg [3]
Martebo Church Mid-13th century to c. 1310 57°44′55″N 18°29′31″E / 57.74861°N 18.49194°E / 57.74861; 18.49194 Martebo 001.jpg [3]
Mästerby Church c. 1200 to mid-14th century 57°28′11″N 18°18′14″E / 57.46972°N 18.30389°E / 57.46972; 18.30389 Maesterby-kyrka-Gotland-T1.jpg [3]

N-R[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Norrlanda Church 13th century 57°30′05″N 18°39′34″E / 57.50139°N 18.65944°E / 57.50139; 18.65944 Norrlanda kyrka 1.JPG
När Church 13th century 57°15′26″N 18°37′30″E / 57.25722°N 18.62500°E / 57.25722; 18.62500 Naer-kyrka-Gotland-total2.jpg
Näs Church 13th century 57°06′36″N 18°15′44″E / 57.11000°N 18.26222°E / 57.11000; 18.26222
Othem Church Mid-13th century 57°44′50″N 18°44′19″E / 57.74722°N 18.73861°E / 57.74722; 18.73861 Othem church, 2009-08-11.jpg [3]
Roma Church 13th century 57°31′42″N 18°26′31″E / 57.52833°N 18.44194°E / 57.52833; 18.44194 Roma kyrka.Gotland.SV.jpg Not to be confused with the ruined Roma Abbey nearby [3]
Rone Church 13th century 57°12′32″N 18°26′28″E / 57.20889°N 18.44111°E / 57.20889; 18.44111 Rone-kyrka-Gotland-total1.jpg
Rute Church 13th century 57°50′01″N 18°55′24″E / 57.83361°N 18.92333°E / 57.83361; 18.92333 Rute church, 2009-08-11.jpg

S-T[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Sanda Church 1300 57°25′45″N 18°13′24″E / 57.42917°N 18.22333°E / 57.42917; 18.22333 Sanda kyrka.jpg
Silte Church 13th century 57°13′15″N 18°14′12″E / 57.22083°N 18.23667°E / 57.22083; 18.23667
Sjonhem Church 12th century 57°29′08″N 18°31′14″E / 57.48556°N 18.52056°E / 57.48556; 18.52056 Sjonhems-kyrka-Gotland-kor1.jpg
Slite Church 1960 57°42′26″N 18°47′45″E / 57.70722°N 18.79583°E / 57.70722; 18.79583 Slite Kyrka 02.JPG
Sproge Church 13th century 57°15′13″N 18°12′39″E / 57.25361°N 18.21083°E / 57.25361; 18.21083 Sproge-kyrka-Gotland-N1.jpg
Stenkumla Church 13th century 57°32′51″N 18°16′06″E / 57.54750°N 18.26833°E / 57.54750; 18.26833 Gotland-Stenkumla-Kirche 01.jpg
Stenkyrka Church Inaugurated 1255 57°29′28″N 18°31′14″E / 57.49111°N 18.52056°E / 57.49111; 18.52056 Stenkyrka kyrka, Gotland 1.jpg [3]
Stånga Church Mid-13th century to mid-14th century 57°16′59″N 18°27′57″E / 57.28306°N 18.46583°E / 57.28306; 18.46583 Stånga01.jpg
Sundre Church 13th century 56°56′09″N 18°10′54″E / 56.93583°N 18.18167°E / 56.93583; 18.18167 Sundre Kirche.JPG Defensive tower adjacent (pictured) Gotland-Sundre kyrka Kastal.jpg [3]
Tingstäde Church First half of the 13th to the early 14th century 57°44′10″N 18°36′53″E / 57.73611°N 18.61472°E / 57.73611; 18.61472 Tingstade kyrka.jpg [3]
Tofta Church 13th century 57°31′17″N 18°10′07″E / 57.52139°N 18.16861°E / 57.52139; 18.16861 Tofta-Kyrka-S.jpg
Träkumla Church Inaugurated 1287 57°33′37″N 18°18′46″E / 57.56028°N 18.31278°E / 57.56028; 18.31278 Trakumla kyrka Gotland Sverige 4.jpg [9]

V-Ö[edit]

Name Main construction period Coordinates Image Notes References
Vall Church 13th century 57°31′14″N 18°20′42″E / 57.52056°N 18.34500°E / 57.52056; 18.34500 Valls-kyrka-Gotland-Kor1.jpg
Vallstena Church 13th century 57°36′35″N 18°38′12″E / 57.60972°N 18.63667°E / 57.60972; 18.63667 Vallstena kyrka Gotland.jpg
Vamlingbo Church Mid-13th century to c. 1320 56°58′10″N 18°13′49″E / 56.96944°N 18.23028°E / 56.96944; 18.23028 Vamlingbo kyrka.jpg [3]
Viklau Church 12th century 57°27′56″N 18°27′23″E / 57.46556°N 18.45639°E / 57.46556; 18.45639 Viklau04.jpg One of Sweden's most well-known medieval sculptures, the Viklau Madonna, originally belonged to the church (now in the Swedish History Museum)
Visborg Church 1969 57°37′28″N 18°17′06″E / 57.62444°N 18.28500°E / 57.62444; 18.28500 Visborgskyrkan..jpg
Visby Cathedral Inaugurated 1225 57°38′30″N 18°17′51″E / 57.64167°N 18.29750°E / 57.64167; 18.29750 Visby Sankta Maria Side view01.jpg Officially Visby St. Mary's Cathedral (Swedish: Visby S:ta Maria domkyrka) [10]
Visby Catholic Church 1982 57°38′31″N 18°17′43″E / 57.64194°N 18.29528°E / 57.64194; 18.29528 Gotland-Visby Catholic Church 01.jpg Of the Catholic Church; officially the Church of the Body of Christ [11]
Vänge Church 12th century 57°27′07″N 18°30′41″E / 57.45194°N 18.51139°E / 57.45194; 18.51139 Vange-kyrka-Gotland-2010 02.jpg
Väskinde Church 13th century 57°41′26″N 18°25′22″E / 57.69056°N 18.42278°E / 57.69056; 18.42278 Väskinde kyrka.JPG
Västergarn Church 1200 57°26′27″N 18°09′03″E / 57.44083°N 18.15083°E / 57.44083; 18.15083 Västergarn kyrka.JPG
Västerhejde Church 1200 57°34′50″N 18°14′53″E / 57.58056°N 18.24806°E / 57.58056; 18.24806 Vasterhejde-kyrka-Gotland-2010-02.jpg
Väte Church 14th century 57°26′56″N 18°21′50″E / 57.44889°N 18.36389°E / 57.44889; 18.36389
Öja Church First half of 13th century to mid-14th century 57°02′07″N 18°18′0″E / 57.03528°N 18.30000°E / 57.03528; 18.30000 Öja kyrka2.jpg Houses a famous Gothic triumphal cross (pictured): Oeja kyrka Triumpfkreuz - Kopf Christi.jpg
Östergarn Church 13th century 57°25′18″N 18°51′31″E / 57.42167°N 18.85861°E / 57.42167; 18.85861 Östergarns kyrka östfasad.JPG

Additional information[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Kyrkor" (in Swedish). Gotland County Administrative Board. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lagerlöf, Erland, ed. (1973). Gotlands kyrkor (in Swedish). Uddevalla: Rabén & Sjögren. ISBN 9129410355. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Andrén, Anders (2011). Det Medeltida Gotland. En arkeologisk guidebok [Medieval Gotland. An archaeological guide book.] (in Swedish). Lund: Historiska Media. ISBN 978-91-85873-83-8. 
  4. ^ Hansson, Joakim (2005). "Lost values & unused possibilities in the medieval churches in Gotland". Meno istorija ir kritika (MIK). 1/2005: 60–72. ISSN 1822-4547. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Akebäcks kyrka" (in Swedish). Church of Sweden. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  6. ^ Söderberg, Bengt G. (1978). Kyrkorna på Gotland: The churches of Gotland (in Swedish). Visby: Gotlandskonst. 
  7. ^ Lindgren, Mereth (1995). Karlsson, Lennart, ed. Signums svenska konsthistoria: Den romanska konsten (in Swedish). Lund: Signum. ISBN 91-87896-23-0. 
  8. ^ "Gnisvärds kapell" (in Swedish). guteinfo.com. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "Träkumla kyrka" (in Swedish). Church of Sweden. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "Historik". Visby S:ta Maria Domkyrka (in Swedish). Church of Sweden. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  11. ^ "Om kyrkan" (in Swedish). Kristi Lekamens församling i Visby. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Lagerlöf, Erland, ed. (1973). Gotlands kyrkor (in Swedish). Uddevalla: Rabén & Sjögren. ISBN 9129410355. 
  • Roosval, Johnny (1911). Die Kirchen Gotlands: ein Beitrag zur mittelalterlichen Kunstgeschichte Schwedens (in German). Stockholm: Norstedt. 

External links[edit]