List of circumnavigations

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The MagellanElcano voyage was the first world circumnavigation in history. The Victoria, one of the original five ships, led by Elcano, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after Magellan's death.

This is a list of circumnavigations of the planet Earth. Sections are ordered by ascending date of completion of voyage.

Global circumnavigations[edit]

Seacraft[edit]

16th century[edit]

  • The 18 survivors, led by Juan Sebastián Elcano, of Ferdinand Magellan's Spanish expedition (which began with 5 ships and 200 men); 1519–1522; westward from Spain; in the Victoria. After Magellan died in the Philippines on 27 April 1521, the circumnavigation was completed under the command of the Basque Spanish seafarer Juan Sebastián Elcano who returned to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain, on 6 September 1522, after a journey of 3 years and 1 month.[1] These men were the first to circumnavigate the globe in a single expedition.
  • The survivors of García Jofre de Loaísa's Spanish expedition 1525–1536 including Andrés de Urdaneta; westward from Spain. None of Loaísa's seven ships completed the voyage, but Santa María de la Victoria reached the Moluccas before being wrecked in a Portuguese attack. Successive chiefs of the expedition (Loaísa, Elcano, Salazar, Iñiguez, De la Torre) died during the voyages. Andrés de Urdaneta and other fellow men survived, reaching the Spice Islands in 1526, to be taken prisoner by the Portuguese. Urdaneta and a few of his men returned to Spain in 1536 aboard Portuguese ships via India, the Cape of Good Hope and Portugal, and completed the second world circumnavigation in history.
  • Francis Drake; 1577–1580; westward from England; in Golden Hind; discovered the Drake Passage but entered the Pacific via the Strait of Magellan; first English circumnavigation and the second carried out in a single expedition. Drake was the first to complete a circumnavigation as captain and leader throughout the entire expedition.
  • Martín Ignacio de Loyola; 1580–1584; westward from Spain.
  • Thomas Cavendish; 1586–1588; westward from England; in Desire.
  • Martín Ignacio de Loyola; 1585–1589; eastward from Spain (via Macau, China, and Acapulco, Mexico); First person to circumnavigate the world twice, first one to do so both westwards and eastwards (1580–1584 westward and 1585–1589 eastward), and first to use overland routes in his circumnavigation.

17th century[edit]

  • The survivors of the expedition of Jacques Mahu; 1598–1601; westward from Holland; Of Mahu's five ships only two returned.
  • The survivors of the expedition of Olivier van Noort; 1598–1601; westward from Holland; Of Van Noort's four ships only two returned.
  • Francesco Carletti, Florentine merchant; 1594–1602; westward from Italy; travelled across the American continent overland, through Panama. All Carletti's other travel was by sea until he ended in the Netherlands; he travelled from there overland back to Italy. Carletti was perhaps the first to travel all legs as a passenger, not as a ship's officer or a crew member. Carletti described his journey in his autobiography, "My Voyage Around the World", translated into various languages.
  • Joris van Spilbergen; 1614–1617; westward from Holland.
  • Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire; 1615–1617; westward from Holland; in Eendraght; Discovered Cape Horn and the first expedition to enter the Pacific via the Drake Passage.
  • Jacques l'Hermite and John Hugo Schapenham; 1623–1626; westward from Holland.
  • Pedro Cubero; 1670–1679; eastward from Spain; the first maritime circumnavigation including significant travel overland.
  • William Dampier (English); 1679–1691; westward from England.
  • Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri; 1693–1698; eastward from Naples; the first tourist to circumnavigate the globe, paying his own way on multiple voyages, crossing Mexico on land.

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

  • Ellen MacArthur; 2001; monohull; circumnavigated singlehandedly as the then fastest woman.
  • Mike Golding; 2001; First person to circumnavigate non-stop in both eastward and westward directions. 1993 World record for a westward circumnavigation, 161 days, Group 4. 2001 Vendee Globe Race 7th position.
  • Tony Gooch 2002–2003; First person to make solo non-stop circumnavigation(177 days) from west coast of North America. Victoria BC, Canada.
  • Charl DeVilliers; 2004; First deaf person to perform a solo circumnavigation.
  • Bruno Peyron and crew; 2005; aboard maxi catamaran Orange II; set the then current windpowered circumnavigation record, 50 days, 16 hours, 20 minute.
  • Ellen MacArthur; 2005; trimaran B&Q/Castorama; then the fastest singlehanded circumnavigation (71 days), is still the fastest woman in 2010. See also 2001.
  • Donna Lange; 2005–2007; Eastward via the southern ocean with three stops.[8]
  • Dee Caffari; 2005-2006; first woman to perform a solo westward non-stop circumnavigation, in 178 days.[9]
  • Spanish frigate Álvaro de Bazán (F101); 2007; First circumnavigation of the globe by a Spanish warship in 142 years.
  • Aron MEDER, (26 years old Hungarian sailor), 2006-2009 solo circumnavigation with a 19 ft (36 years old) daily sailboat. East to West.
  • RMS Queen Mary 2; 2007 world cruise; at 148,528 gross ton, the world's largest passenger ship to circumnavigate the globe.
  • Fernando Garcia Herran; 2006–2008; Circumnavigation North Atlantic Route.
  • Earthrace; 2008; wave-piercing trimaran, with two 540 horsepower multi-fuelled engines; current world record holder for a motorized vessel (disputed with USS Triton, 1960), in 60 days 23 hours and 49 minutes.
  • Francis Joyon; 2008; 95 ft (29 m) trimaran IDEC; current fastest singlehanded multihull circumnavigation, in 57 days 13 hours 34 minutes 06 seconds.
  • Natasza Caban; 2007–2009; boat "Tanasza"; Polish woman, born 1977, East to West, Hawaii to Hawaii through the Panama Canal.
  • Michael Perham; 2009; then youngest person (aged 16–17 years) to perform a singlehanded circumnavigation (with stops, through Panama Canal).
  • Franck Cammas and a crew of 10; 20 March 2010; French trimaran Groupama 3; current absolute fastest maritime circumnavigation, in a time of 48 days, 7 hours 44 minutes and 52 seconds.
  • Cdr Dilip Donde (Indian Navy); 2009-2010; First Indian to carry out a solo circumnavigation; stopped in four ports - Fremantle, Lyttelton, Port Stanley and Cape Town
  • Jessica Watson; 2009-2010; youngest person (aged 16) to perform a solo non-stop circumnavigation (past Cape Horn).
  • Reid Stowe; 2007-2010; eastbound circumnavigation, 1152 days; longest time spent at sea without resupply or touching land.
  • Minoru Saito; 2008-2011; oldest person (aged 77) to perform a singlehanded circumnavigation (westbound, past Cape Horn, with stops). He has made eight singlehanded circumnavigations; after the seventh (which was non-stop) at age 71 he was already the oldest.
  • Laura Dekker; 2011–2012; youngest person (aged 15–16 years) to perform a singlehanded circumnavigation (with stops, through Panama Canal).
  • In 2012, PlanetSolar became the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe.
  • Maria Victor; 2007-2013; first woman of African descent (Barbados) to perform a circumnavigation (with stops, past Cape of good Hope, through Panama Canal).
  • British sailor Jeanne Socrates; 2012-2013; oldest woman (aged 70) to single-handedly sail around the world, non-stop without outside assistance.,[10] also making her first woman to make solo non-stop unassisted circumnavigation from west coast of North America (Victoria BC, Canada). Oldest, in 2010-2011 (aged 68), to sail single-handedly around the world, with stops. Both were eastbound via Cape Horn.[11]
  • Abhilash Tomy (Indian Navy) 2012-2013; First Indian to sail solo, nonstop around the world without outside assistance. Sailed south of the five Great Capes.

On April 13, 2014 G. Kennedy McLeod, Jr. USA completed a solo circumnavigation of the world in s/v Far Star,a Southern Cross 39, at Prickly Bay, Grenada where he crossed his outbound track of 2010 which took him through the Panama Canal, the Pacific and Indian Oceans, around South Africa and Cape of Good Hope, across the South Atlantic to arrive at Grenada.

Fastest nautical circumnavigations of the globe[edit]

(Ordered by ascending date of completion of voyage)

  • Operation Sandblast; 1960; USS Triton; first underwater circumnavigation, and fastest mechanically powered circumnavigation (disputed with Earthrace, 2008), in 60 days 21 minutes.
  • Jon Sanders; 1986–1988; holds the world record for completing a single-handed, non-stop, triple circumnavigation, in 658 days 21 hours and 18 minutes.
  • Jean Luc Van Den Heede (French); 2004; fastest westward single-handed circumnavigation, 122 days 14 hours 3 minutes 49 seconds.
  • Adrienne Cahalan (Australian); February–March 2004; fastest woman to complete a circumnavigation (crew of "Cheyenne") 58 days 9 hours 32 minutes 45 seconds.
  • Earthrace; 2008; wave-piercing trimaran, with two 540 horsepower multi-fuelled engines; current world record holder for a motorized vessel (disputed with USS Triton, 1960), in 60 days 23 hours and 49 minutes.
  • Francis Joyon (French); Nov 2007–Jan 2008; current fastest single-handed circumnavigation, in 57 days, 13 hours, 34 minutes, 6 seconds.
  • Franck Cammas and a crew of 10; 20 March 2010; French sail-powered trimaran Groupama 3; previous absolute (wind or mechanically powered) fastest maritime circumnavigation, in a time of 48 days, 7 hours 44 minutes and 52 seconds.
  • Loïck Peyron and crew of fourteen sailors; Nov 2011–Jan 2012; the Maxi trimaran Banque Populaire V; current absolute (wind or mechanically powered) fastest maritime circumnavigation,in 45 days 13 hours 42 minutes 53 seconds of sailing. Average speed of 26.51 knots (30.51 MPH), covering a total distance of 29 002 miles.

Aircraft[edit]

In 1999, Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones achieved the first non-stop balloon circumnavigation in Breitling Orbiter 3.
  • United States Army Air Service, 1924, first aerial circumnavigation, 175 days, covering 44,360 kilometres (27,560 mi).
  • Friedrich Karl von Koenig-Warthausen, in a Klemm L.20, circumnavigated the globe solo, between August 1928 and November 1929.
  • LZ-127 Graf Zeppelin, 1929, piloted by Hugo Eckener set a record for the fastest aerial circumnavigation, 21 days, which was also the first circumnavigation in an airship.
  • On 1 July 1931, pilot Wiley Post and navigator Harold Gatty completed their circumnavigation of the world in a Lockheed Vega aeroplane, Winnie Mae, in 8 days, 15 hours and 51 minutes; the record for fastest circumnavigation was once again held by an aeroplane.
  • In 1932, Wolfgang von Gronau flew around the world in a twin-engine Dornier seaplane, Gronland-Wal D-2053, in nearly four months, making 44 stops en route. He was accompanied by co-pilot Gerth von Roth, mechanic Franzl Hack, and radio operator Frtiz Albrecht.[12]
  • In 1933, Wiley Post repeated his circumnavigation by aeroplane, but this time solo, using an autopilot and radio direction finder. He made the first solo aerial circumnavigation in a time one day faster than his previous record: 7 days, 19 hours, 49 minutes, in which he covered 25,110 kilometres (15,600 mi).
  • Richarda Morrow-Tait became the first woman pilot to fly around the world, accompanied by navigator Michael Townsend, in a year and a day, from 18 August 1948 to 19 August 1949.
  • In 1949, the United States Air Force B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II made the first non-stop aerial circumnavigation in 94 hours and 1 minute. Four in-air refuelings were required for the flight, which covered 37,743 kilometres (23,452 mi).
  • Geraldine Mock, 1964, first woman to complete a solo aerial circumnavigation.
  • Don Taylor, 1976, first general aviation circumnavigation by homebuilt aircraft.
  • Dick Smith, 1982–1983, first solo circumnavigation by helicopter.
  • Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, 1986, Voyager, first non-refueled circumnavigation in an airplane, 9 days, 3 minutes and 44 seconds.
  • In 1992 an Air France Concorde achieved the fastest non-orbital circumnavigation in 32 hours 49 minutes and 3 seconds.
  • Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones, 1999, first non-stop balloon circumnavigation in Breitling Orbiter 3, 19 days, 1 hour and 49 minutes, covering 42,810 kilometres.
  • Colin Bodill, 2000, first circumnavigation by a Microlight in 99 days. Also held fastest circumnavigation by microlight until broken. Aircraft used was a Mainair Blade.[13]
  • Polly Vacher, 2001, in the smallest aircraft flown in a solo circumnavigation by a woman, via Australia and the Pacific.
  • Steve Fossett, 2 July 2002, first solo balloon circumnavigation.
  • Steve Fossett, 3 March 2005, GlobalFlyer, first non-stop, non-refueled solo circumnavigation in an airplane, 67 hours, covering 37,000 kilometres.
  • Steve Fossett, 11 February 2006, GlobalFlyer, longest non-stop, non-refueled solo flight (with circumnavigation) in an airplane, covering 42,469.5 kilometres (26,389.3 mi), in 76 hours and 45 minutes.[14][15]
  • Rahul Monga and Anil Kumar, 2007, Fastest circumnavigation in a microlight, 79 days. Team from the Indian Air Force to commemorate the 75 Anniversary of the founding of the Indian Air Force. Aircraft used was a Flight Design CTSW. They covered 40,529 km in a total flight time of 247 Hours and 27 Minutes.[16][17]
  • Riccardo Mortara, Gabriel Mortara, and Flavien Guderzo, 2010, flying a Rockwell Sabreliner 65, completed the 36,770 km minimum distance around the world in 57 hours 54 minutes. current record for fastest aerial circumnavigation;
  • Jack Wiegand, 2013, then youngest pilot to circumnavigate the globe, solo (21).[18]
  • Amelia Rose Earhart joined by co-pilot Shane Jordon, completed a global circumnavigation flight on July 11th, 2014.
  • Australian pilot Ryan Campbell completed a global circumnavigation flight on September 7th, 2013 making him the then youngest person (19 year, 7 months, 25 days) to fly around the world.
  • Matt Guthmiller completed a global circumnavigation flight on July 14th, 2014 making him the youngest person (19 years, 7 months, 15 days) to ever fly around the world.

Spacecraft[edit]

  • On 12 April 1961 Yuri Gagarin made the first human flight in space, and completed the first orbit of the Earth, in Vostok 1, in 108 minutes.
  • The second and third orbital circumnavigations, the first two to have multiple orbits, were made by Gherman Titov (17.5 orbits, a little over a day, for the Soviet Union) and John Glenn, in Friendship 7 (3 orbits, almost five hours, for the USA, first American orbital flight), respectively.
  • The first woman to circumnavigate the Earth in orbit, and to also do so multiple times, was Valentina Tereshkova, who made forty-eight orbits between 16 and 19 June 1963, aboard Vostok 6.
  • Frank F. Borman II, James A. Lovell Jr., and William A. Anders, 21–27 December 1968, first human circumnavigation of the Earth-Moon system, 10 orbits around the moon in about 20 hours, aboard Apollo 8; total trip to the moon and back was more than 6 Earth days.
  • Sally K. Ride, Ph.D., 18–24 June 1983, the first American woman to circumnavigate the Earth in orbit, the youngest American to date to do so (aged 32 years, 23 days), and the first American woman to do so multiple times; she flew 97 orbits during STS-7 aboard [Space Shuttle Challenger|Space Shuttle Challenger].

Mixed transportation (including on foot and various other human powered)[edit]

  • In 1881, King Kalākaua traveled around the world, over land and sea, thus becoming the first reigning monarch to complete such a journey.
  • Thomas Stevens was the first person to circle the globe by bicycle. The feat was accomplished between 1884 and 1886. While impressive at the time, a good portion of the trip was by steamer due to technical and political reasons.
  • Nellie Bly traveled around the world with public steamboats and trains in 72 days (from November 14, 1889 to January 25, 1890), a world record, resembling the Around the World in Eighty Days novel.
  • George Matthew Schilling is reputed to have walked around the world between 1897 and 1904, though this feat was unverified.
  • Dumitru Dan was the first person to have walked around the world, in 1910–1923 (he kept walking even on the boats' deck).
  • Clärenore Stinnes and Carl-Axel Söderström were the first persons to drive around the world in a car between 25 May 1927 and 24 June 1929.
  • Beginning in Montreal, Ben Carlin circumnavigated the world in a modified Ford GPA Jeep between 1950 and 1958, becoming the first person to circumnavigate the world by amphibious vehicle.
  • David Kunst walked around the world between 20 June 1970 and 10 October 1974.
  • Arthur Blessitt walked around the world carrying a 45 lb (20 kg) wooden cross, covering 38,102 miles (61,319 km) through 315 countries, between 1969 and 2008.
  • Heinz Stucke has been cycling around the world since 1962.
  • Sir Ranulph Fiennes, Charles Burton and their team circumnavigated 'vertically' via the two poles on the Transglobe Expedition.
  • Rick Hansen, a world-class paraplegic athlete, became the first person to travel around the world in a wheelchair on 22 May 1987, covering over 40,000 km through 34 countries on four continents.[19]
  • Robert Garside is credited by Guinness World Records as the first person to run around the world between 1997 and 2003, taking 2,062 days to cover 30,000 miles (48,000 km) across 29 countries and 6 continents.[20]
  • Jesper Olsen travelled 26,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) in 2004, completed circumnavigation solely on foot (except for airplane or boats over the seas).
  • Colin Angus circumnavigated the northern hemisphere solely by human power in 2006 but did not qualify under the Guinness guidelines as a human powered circumnavigation. His attempt, however, was recognized by National Geographic.[21]
  • Jason Lewis completed the first true human-powered circumnavigation of the globe in 2007, covering 46,505 miles (74,843 km) in both the southern and northern hemispheres and reaching two antipodal points, gaining accreditation from Guinness World Records[22] and Adventurestats by Explorersweb.[23]
  • Mark Beaumont broke the record for cycling around globe in 2008. He began his attempt on 5 August 2007 and completed the 18,297-mile (29,446 km) journey across 4 continents and 21 countries 194 days and 17 hours later on 15 February 2008.[24]
  • Ed Gillespie (environmental communicator and Co-Founder of "Futerra") travelled around the world without flying between March 2007 and March 2008 [25]
  • Rosie Swale-Pope travelled 32,000 kilometres (20,000 mi) in 2008 completed circumnavigation solely on foot (except for airplane or boats over the seas).
  • Garry Sowerby holds four world records for circumnavigation in an automobile.[26][27][28]
  • Erden Eruç completed the first solo human-powered circumnavigation traveling by rowboat, sea kayak, foot and bicycle from 10 July 2007 to 21 July 2012.[29] Erden crossed the equator two times, passed over 12 antipodal points, and logged 66,299 kilometres (41,196 mi).[30][31]

Significant non-global circumnavigations[edit]

Seacraft[edit]

Fictional circumnavigations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

There should be references inside each article, according to a general policy for list articles. In addition further references can be located here.

  1. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. The Basque History of the World. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 63
  2. ^ Long, David Foster (1988). "Chapter Nine". Gold braid and foreign relations : diplomatic activities of U.S. naval officers, 1798–1883. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. pp. 207ff. ISBN 978-0-87021-228-4. Retrieved April 29, 2012. Lay summary (February 1990). 
  3. ^ Mark Schrader
  4. ^ a b c The Museum of Yachting Retrieved March 27, 2013
  5. ^ VELUX 5 Oceans Race (BOC Challenge) Official Website Retrieved March 27, 2013
  6. ^ Roger Martin Design Retrieved March 27, 2013
  7. ^ "Vendee Globe Website"
  8. ^ Donna Lange Completes Circumnavigation | Cruising World
  9. ^ wrong-way sailor back on UK soil, BBC News. Retrieved 21 May 2006.
  10. ^ http://www.sail-world.com/Australia/Sailor-Jeanne-Socrates,-worlds-oldest-non-stop-female-circumnavigator/111746
  11. ^ Ealing grandmother's world record sail (From Ealing Times)
  12. ^ Round-the-World Flights, from WingNet. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
  13. ^ http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records-10000/fastest-circumnavigation-by-microlight/
  14. ^ Fossett flies to non-stop record, from BBC News. Retrieved 11 February 2006.
  15. ^ Steve lands as an uninvited guest!, from Virgin Global Flyer. Retrieved 11 February 2006.
  16. ^ http://www.worldrecordacademy.com/travel/fastest_round_the_world_trip_world_record_set_by_IAF_70818.htm
  17. ^ http://indianairforce.nic.in/expedition/expedition_detail.php#exeiti
  18. ^ http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/12000/youngest-person-to-fly-solo-around-the-world
  19. ^ Still making a difference: Hansen continues to inspire while raising understanding and money, By Darah Hansen, Vancouver Sun, 18 May 2007.
  20. ^ Around-World Runner Honoured from the New York Post
  21. ^ Human-Powered Circumnavigation
  22. ^ Guinness World Records (6 October 2007). "Human Powered Circumnavigations". 
  23. ^ Adventurestats by Explorersweb. "Global HPC - Human Powered Circumnavigations". Explorersweb. 
  24. ^ Scot Smashes World Cycle Record
  25. ^ "Low Carbon Travel"
  26. ^ http://www.digihitch.com/canada20.html
  27. ^ Green gimmick leads to striking narratives; Car becomes historian for green projects - Motoring - The Western Star
  28. ^ In Search of Nova Scotia's 25 Funkiest Things | novascotia.ca
  29. ^ "Media Kit -> Project Summary Document". Around-n-Over (PDF file linked from "http://www.around-n-over.org/media/mediakit.htm"). 22 Aug 2012. Retrieved 4 Dec 2013. 
  30. ^ Around-n-Over
  31. ^ The Ocean Rowing Society
  32. ^ "CCGS Hudson". 
  33. ^ Clark, Miles. Russian Voyage. National Geographic Magazine, june 1994. p. 114 a 138.
  34. ^ Purves, Libby (30 April 1993). "Obituary: Miles Clark". The Independent (London). 
  35. ^ The Phoenician Ship Expedition
  36. ^ "Ousland : nearly back to Oslo". International Polar Foundation. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  37. ^ "First circumnavigation of Arctic completed". The Voice of Russia. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  38. ^ "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMwcLa2jRiM". Youtube.