List of cities in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of cities in England)
Jump to: navigation, search
For a list of the largest urban areas in the UK, including conurbations, see List of urban areas in the United Kingdom.

This is a list of official cities in the United Kingdom as of 2013.[1] It lists those places that have been granted city status by letters patent or royal charter. There are currently a total of 69 such cities in the United Kingdom: 51 in England, 7 in Scotland, 6 in Wales, and 5 in Northern Ireland.[1] Of these, 23 in England, 2 in Wales, and 1 in Northern Ireland possess Lord Mayors and 4 in Scotland have Lord Provosts. In some cases, the area holding city status does not coincide with the built up area or conurbation of which it forms part. In Greater London, for example, the City of London and that of Westminster each hold city status separately but no other neighbourhood has been granted city status, nor has Greater London as a whole. In other cases, such as the Cities of Canterbury and Lancaster, the status extends over a number of towns and rural areas outside the main settlement proper.[2]

History[edit]

The initial cities (Latin: civitas) of Britain were the fortified settlements organized by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early middle ages later preserved a traditional list of the "28 Cities" (Old Welsh: cair) which was mentioned by Gildas[4] and listed by "Nennius".[5]

The title of city was initially informal and, into the 20th century, royal charters were considered to recognize city status rather than to grant it.[7] The usual criterion in early modern Britain was the presence of a cathedral, particularly after King Henry VIII granted letters patent establishing six new cities when he established a series of new dioceses in the 1540s as part of the English Reformation.[8] No new cities were created between the 16th and 19th centuries but, following the Industrial Revolution and the accompanying population boom and growth in urbanisation, new sees were established at Ripon (1836) and Manchester (1847); their councils began to style them cities immediately. Inverness in Scotland was even refused a charter during the Jubilee honours of 1897 in part because it would draw more attention to the other traditional "cities" still not formally chartered as such.[2]

Beginning from the mid-19th century, however, the process began to become more formal. A visit by Queen Victoria in 1851 prompted Manchester to petition Parliament for recognition of its status. Ripon followed in the 1860s and a series of hitherto informal "cities" were formally recognized in the 1880s and 1890s. On the basis of its size, importance, and regular government, Belfast was elevated in spite of its lack of a cathedral in 1888; other large municipalities followed, while smaller applicants began to be rejected. King Edward VII and the Home Office established three criteria for future applicants in 1907—a minimum population of 300 000, a good record of local government, and a "local metropolitan character"[2]—but these criteria were not made public and following Leicester's successful elevation in 1919 began a series of exceptions. The 1972 Local Government Act effectively eliminated all authorities holding city status outside of London on April 1, 1974; most of their replacements were confirmed in their predecessor's status—even in cases such as the City of Carlisle's where much of the new area is undeveloped countryside—but the Borough of Medway was not permitted to continue Rochester's title. Elevations to city status are now won through competitions and pretenders to the status are rebuked by the Advertising Standards Authority.

The cities of Scotland and Ireland were treated separately. Scotch towns irregularly applied the description to themselves but were formally organized as royal burghs; the special rights of these were preserved by Article XXI of the Treaty of Union which established the United Kingdom in 1707.[9] Edinburgh and Glasgow were confirmed as cities "by ancient usage" in the 18th century,[10] as was Aberdeen, although this was later reconfirmed during the act enlarging the burgh in 1891. Dundee was granted a letter patent in 1889 and Elgin and Perth were recognized as cities by the Home Office in 1972, before the privilege was removed by the Scottish Local Government Act of 1973.[11]

In Ireland, only the seat of the primate at Armagh was accorded city status by ancient usage and this status was abolished by the Irish Municipal Corporations Act of 1840. All other cities have been those explicitly recognized as such.

England[edit]

City[1] Year granted
or confirmed
Cathedral
(pre-1888)
City council Image Population
Bath1 time immemorial Abbey Church of
SS Peter & Paul
4
Charter trustees Bath, Somerset Panorama - April 2011.jpg 83,992[citation needed]
Urban area: 97,311 (2010)[12]
Birmingham2 188933 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Birmingham Skyline from Edgbaston Cricket Ground crop.jpg 1,092,330 (2013)[13]
Bradford1 1897 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Bradford City Hall from National Media Museum.jpg 522,452 (2011)[14]
Brighton & Hove15 2000 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Brighton.UK.JPG 273,369 (2011)[14]
Bristol1 1542 Cathedral Church of
the Holy & Undivided Trinity
Local government district
(Unitary and county)
Bristol cityscape.jpg 428,234 (2011)[14]
Cambridge3 195125 not applicable Local government district KingsCollegeChapelWest.jpg 123,867 (2011)[14]
Canterbury3 time immemorial Cathedral & Metropolitical Church of
Christ
Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
View of the city from Augustine House - geograph.org.uk - 1713552.jpg 151,145 (2011)[14]
Carlisle1 1158 Cathedral Church of
the Holy & Undivided Trinity
Local government district Carlisle Cathedral from the Air.jpg 107,524 (2011)[14]
Chelmsford37 2012 not applicable Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
Chelmsfordcath.jpg 168,310 (2011)[14]
Chester3 1541 Cathedral Church of
Christ & the Blessed Virgin Mary
Charter trustees Bridge Street, Chester.jpg 90,925[citation needed]
Urban area: 91,733 (2010)[12]
Chichester1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
the Holy Trinity
Civil parish Chichester Cathedral epodkopaev.jpg 25,749 (2010)[15]
Coventry1 time immemorial St Michael's Cathedral5 Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Skyline of Coventry as seen from Baginton 3g06.JPG 316,915 (2011)[14]
Derby13 1977 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Iron Gate, Derby - geograph.org.uk - 587015.jpg 248,752 (2011)[14]
Durham1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
Christ & St. Mary the Virgin
Charter trustees Durham Cathedral from the train viaduct.jpg 94,375 (2011)[16]
Ely1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
the Holy & Undivided Trinity
Civil parish Ely Cathedral From Air.jpg 20,240 (2010)[15]
Exeter1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
St Peter
Local government district Exeter from Haldon.jpg 117,773 (2011)[14]
Gloucester1 1541 Cathedral Church of
St Peter & the Holy and Indivisible Trinity
Local government district Gloucester and its cathedral - geograph.org.uk - 1454853.jpg 121,688 (2011)[14]
Hereford119 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
SS Mary the Virgin & Ethelbert the King
Civil parish Hereford cathedral 002.JPG 58,896 (2011)[17]
Kingston upon Hull12 1897 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Hull from Paull.jpg 256,406 (2011)[14]
Lancaster1 193726 not applicable Local government district City of Lancaster (2).jpg 138,375 (2011)[14]
Leeds1 1893 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
LeedsSkyline2013.jpg 751,485 (2011)[14]
Leicester1 191922 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Leicester City Skyline - geograph.org.uk - 514032.jpg 329,839 (2011)[14]
Lichfield17 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
SS Mary & Chad
Civil parish Lichfield Cityscape.jpg 31,068 (2010)[15]
Lincoln3 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
St Mary
Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
Cathedral and Castle Square - geograph.org.uk - 134108.jpg 93,541 (2011)[14]
Liverpool2 1880 Cathedral Church of
Christ
Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Pier Head and Mersey Ferry Liverpool.jpg 466,415 (2011)[14]
City of London6 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
St Paul
Local government district City of London skyline from London City Hall - Oct 2008.jpg 7,375 (2011)[14]
Manchester1 185334 Cathedral & Collegiate Church of
St Mary, St Denys, & St George
Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Manchester Skyline.jpg 503,127 (2011)[14]
Newcastle upon Tyne1 1882 Cathedral Church of
St Nicholas
Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Bridges opening up - geograph.org.uk - 178375.jpg 280,177 (2011)[14]
Norwich1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
the Holy & Undivided Trinity
Local government district Norwich Skyline.jpg 132,512 (2011)[14]
Nottingham1 1897 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Clipston Nottingham.JPG 305,680 (2011)[14]
Oxford1 1542 Cathedral Church of
Christ
Local government district Oxford from Boars Hill.jpg 151,906 (2011)[14]
Peterborough2 1541 Cathedral Church of
St Peter, St Paul, & St Andrew
Local government district
(Unitary)
Peterborough Cathedral oblique view.jpg 183,631 (2011)[14]
Plymouth1 192827 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Plymouth from Mount Batten - geograph.org.uk - 1580485.jpg 256,384 (2011)[14]
Portsmouth1 192624 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Portsmouthskyline.jpg 205,056 (2011)[14]
Preston14 2002 not applicable Local government district Preston City Centre.jpg 140,202 (2011)[14]
Ripon1 1836 Cathedral Church of
SS Peter & Wilfred
Civil parish RiponMarket.jpg 17,193 (2010)[15]
St Albans7 187736 Cathedral & Abbey Church of
St Alban
Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
Cathedral.png 140,644 (2011)[14]
Salford1 192624 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Mariners Canal from Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays.jpg 233,933 (2011)[14]
Salisbury35
(Formally New Sarum until 2009)
1227 Cathedral Church of
St Mary
Civil parish Salisbury Cathedral.jpg 39,896 (2010)[15]
Sheffield3 1893 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
PeaceGdnsSheffd.jpg 552,698 (2011)[14]
Southampton1 1964 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Southampton from Aurora 01.JPG 236,882 (2011)[14]
Stoke-on-Trent3 192528 not applicable Local government district
(Unitary)
Hanley City - geograph.org.uk - 155173.jpg 249,008 (2011)[14]
Sunderland18 1992 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
SunderlandBridges.jpg 275,506 (2011)[14]
Truro1 1877 Cathedral Church of
St Mary
Civil parish Truro stmarysst.jpg 19,382 (2010)[15]
Wakefield3 1888 Cathedral Church of
All Saints
Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
Wakefield County Hall.jpg 325,837 (2011)[14]
Wells1 1205 Cathedral Church of
St Andrew
Civil parish Wells main street arp.jpg 10,536 (2011)[18]
City of Westminster21 1540 Collegeate Church of
St Peter
(Westminster Abbey4)
Local government district
(London borough)
Hdr parliament.jpg 219,396 (2011)[14]
Winchester1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
the Holy Trinity
Local government district
(Non-metropolitan borough)
Winchester 13.JPG 116,595 (2011)[14]
Wolverhampton16 2000 not applicable Local government district
(Metropolitan borough)
St Peter's Church, Wolverhampton.jpg 249,470 (2011)[14]
Worcester3 time immemorial Cathedral Church of
Christ & St Mary
Local government district River Severn, Worcester - geograph.org.uk - 894221.jpg 98,768 (2011)[14]
York18 time immemorial Cathedral & Metropolitical Church of
St Peter
Local government district
(Unitary)
York Minster from the Lendal Bridge.jpg 198,051 (2011)[14]

Scotland[edit]

City Year granted
or confirmed
Cathedral
(pre-1888)
City council Image Population
Aberdeen32
(Scots: Aiberdeen)
(Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain)
189131
(Burgh: 1179)
Cathedral Church of St Machar Local government district Aberdeen from Torry - geograph.org.uk - 1454885.jpg 189,12038
Dundee32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh)
188930
(Burgh: 1191)
not applicable Local government district Midsummer night^ - geograph.org.uk - 9752.jpg 153,99038
Edinburgh32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann)
18th c.[10]
(Burgh: 1329)
High Kirk of Edinburgh
(St Giles's)
Local government district Edinburgh from Calton Hill with Dugald Stewart Monument 3.JPG 468,72038
Glasgow32
(Scots: Glesga)
(Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu)
18th c.[10]
(Burgh: 1492)
High Kirk of Glasgow
(St Mungo's)
Local government district (looking down) Buchannan Street, Glasgow.jpg 589,90038
Inverness
(Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Nis)
2000 not applicable none Inverness view 3.jpg 57,960[19]
Perth
(Scots: Pairth)
(Scottish Gaelic: Peairt)
2012[20]
(Burgh: 12th c.)[22]
not applicable none PerthScotland.jpg 45,77038
Stirling
(Scots: Stirlin)
(Scottish Gaelic: Sruighlea)
2002 not applicable none Stirling(DonaldMacDonald)Dec2005.jpg 34,79038

Wales[edit]

City Year granted
or confirmed
Cathedral
(pre-1888)
City council Image Population
Bangor1 time immemorial Cathedral Church of St Deiniol Community Bangor from Bangor-mountain.jpg 14,875 (2010)[15]
Cardiff9
(Welsh: Caerdydd)
190529 not applicable Local government district Cardiff City Hall cropped.jpg 346,090 (2011)[14]
Newport14
(Casnewydd)
2002 not applicable Local government district Newportciviccentre.jpg 145,736 (2011)[14]
St Asaph37
(Llanelwy)
2012 not applicable Community St Asaph, Cathedral.jpg 3,444 (2010)[15]
St David's20
(Tyddewi)
1994 not applicable Community St.Davids, Wales, UK.jpg 1,661 (2010)[15]
Swansea9
(Abertawe)
196923 not applicable Local government district Swansea Railway Station - geograph.org.uk - 1484946.jpg 239,023 (2011)[14]

Northern Ireland[edit]

City Year granted
or confirmed
City council Image Population
Armagh11
(Irish: Ard Mhacha)
(Ulster-Scots: Airmagh)
1994 Local government district The Mall, Armagh.jpg 59,340 (2011)[23]
Belfast
(Irish: Béal Feirste)
(Ulster-Scots: Bilfawst)
1888 Local government district Belfast City Hall 2.jpg 280,962 (2011)[23]
Derry / Londonderry39
(Irish: Doire / Doire Cholmchille)
(Ulster-Scots: Derrie / Lunnonderrie)
1604[24] Local government district St Eugene's Cathedral, August 2009.JPG 107,877 (2011)[23]
Lisburn
(Irish: Lios na gCearrbhach)
2002 Local government district Irish Linen Centre Lisburn Museum.jpg 120,165 (2011)[23]
Newry
(Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá)
(Ulster-Scots: Newrie)
2002 none NewrySkyline.jpg 27,433

Map of the cities[edit]

British Overseas Territories[edit]

There are a number of cities in the British Overseas Territories, such as the City of James Town on Saint Helena.[25] These are however not part of the United Kingdom.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Department for Media, Culture, & Sport. "Civic Honours Competition: UK Cities". The National Archives of the United Kingdom (London), 18 Jan 2011. Accessed 21 Dec 2014.
  2. ^ a b c Beckett (2005).
  3. ^ "JTK". "Civitas" in Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, p. 451. ABC-CLIO (Sta. Barbara), 2006.
  4. ^ De Excidio Britanniae, §3. (Latin) Cited in the "Civitas" entry of Celtic Culture.[3]
  5. ^ Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. (Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. 1911.
  7. ^ The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, listed St Asaph and Southwell as cities on the basis of their cathedrals despite their lack of charters or, in Southwell's case, local government.[6]
  8. ^ Beckett (2005), p. 22.
  9. ^ Kingdoms of England and Scotland. "Act of Union", §XXI. 16 January 1707.
  10. ^ a b c d Beckett, J.V. City Status in the British Isles, 1830-2002, pp. 16 ff. Ashgate Publishing, 2005.
  11. ^ Clark, M. Lynda & al. "Committee on Privileges Second Report", Appendix 3, ss58. Parliament of the United Kingdom (London), 1999.
  12. ^ a b The population of these unparished areas was not published in the results of the 2011 census. "Mid 2010 Urban Area Estimates England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "UK Population Estimates". [Office for National Statistics|ONS]. Retrieved 28 June 2014
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap "2011 Census: KS101EW Usual resident population, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Civil Parish population estimates in England and Wales, mid-2010". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  16. ^ City status extends to the area of the former District of Durham [http://www .durham.gov.uk/Pages/Service.aspx?ServiceId=8168 "Charter trust and Mayor for Durham City"]. Durham County Council. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  "2011 Census Statistical Profile". Durham County Council. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  17. ^ "2011 Census: Usual resident population estimates by broad age group for Wards & Market Towns in Herefordshire". Herefordshire Council. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  18. ^ "Wells CP - Usual Resident Population, 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  19. ^ From NRS 2010 mid-year estimates, population of Inverness including Culloden - "Highland Profile". Highland Council. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  20. ^ Letters Patent dated 21 May 2012 "News: The National Records of Scotland seals Perth's city status". National Archives of Scotland. 6 July 2012.  "'We really feel part of history being made' — Letters Patent makes Perth's city status official". The Courier. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  21. ^ A A M Duncan (24 March 1973). "Perth. The First Century of the Burgh". Transactions of the Perthshire Society of Natural Science. 
  22. ^ Created a royal burgh at some point under King David I (1124–53) although the earliest surviving charters date to 1209 or 1210; the status was abolished in 1975.[21][10]
  23. ^ a b c d "Usual Resident Population: KS101NI (administrative geographies)". Census 2011. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  24. ^ City commemorates the 400th Anniversary of the City’s first charter, Derry City Council press release dated 7 July 2004, (accessed 15 December 2007)
  25. ^ The Government of the United Kingdom. "The St Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009". The National Archives of the United Kingdom (London), 2009.
  26. ^ "Local Government (Structural Changes) (Miscellaneous Amendments and Other Provision) Order 2009". Tow. Office of Public Sector Information. 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2009. 
  27. ^ "New Parish Council for the City of Salisbury". Towards One Council. Wiltshire County Council. Retrieved 27 February 2009. 
  28. ^ The London Gazette: no. 46255. p. 4400. 4 April 1974. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  29. ^ The London Gazette: no. 46303. pp. 6485–6486. 28 June 1974. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  30. ^ The London Gazette: no. 46334. p. 7419. 31 May 1974. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  31. ^ The London Gazette: no. 46352. p. 7920. 24 September 1974. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  32. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 54363. p. 4925. 4 April 1996. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  33. ^ The London Gazette: no. 46522. p. 3729. 20 March 1975. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  34. ^ The London Gazette: no. 47246. p. 7656. 14 June 1977. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  35. ^ The London Gazette: no. 56573. p. 6160. 21 May 2002. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  36. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 56109. p. 1431. 2 May 2001. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  37. ^ The London Gazette: no. 48364. p. 15451. 7 November 1980. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  38. ^ Lichfield City Council website
  39. ^ The London Gazette: no. 52874. p. 5413. 26 March 1992. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  40. ^ Charters of Hereford City Council
  41. ^ Samuel Lewis (ed.), Dale - St. David's, from A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (1849), accessdate=2008-05-15
  42. ^ Municipal Corporations Act 1883 (c.19), S.3 and Sch II, part I
  43. ^ The London Gazette: no. 53798. p. 13403. 23 September 1994. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  44. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27242. p. 6613. 30 October 1900. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  45. ^ The Times: Leicester, a City: Sequel to the Recent Royal Visit, 17 June 1919
  46. ^ Civic history: The making of a City, (Leicester City Council), accessed 14 February 2008
  47. ^ Leicester: The Dignity of a City 655–1926, Leicester's city status, its loss and its regaining over thirteen centuries by Daniel Williams
  48. ^ The London Gazette: no. 44986. p. 12450. 12 December 1969. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
  49. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33154. pp. 2776–2777. 23 April 1926. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  50. ^ London Gazette, issue no.39201, 13 April 1951
  51. ^ London Gazette, issue no.34400, 21 May 1937
  52. ^ London Gazette, issue no.33433, 26 October 1928
  53. ^ London Gazette, issue no.33063, 3 July 1925
  54. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27849. p. 7249. 31 October 1905. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
  55. ^ London Gazette, 29 January 1889
  56. ^ From the London Gazette, January 18, 1889, The Times, 19 January 1889
  57. ^ London Gazette Issue 21426, p.950, 1 April 1853
  58. ^ The London Gazette: no. 59250. p. 20329. 24 November 2009.
  59. ^ "Civic History Its Charters and Silver". The Guildhall Salisbury. Salisbury City Council. 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009. [dead link]
  60. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24502. p. 5185. 11 September 1877. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  61. ^ The London Gazette: no. 60167. p. 11125. 11 June 2012.
  62. ^ "Mid-2010 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". General Register Office for Scotland. General Register Office for Scotland. 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  63. ^ Application by Derry City Council for judicial review [2007] NIQB 5 Ref WEAF5707