List of citrus diseases

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This article is a list of diseases in citrus plants.

Bacterial diseases[edit]

Bacterial diseases
Bacterial spot Xanthomonas campestris pv. citrumelo
Black pit (fruit) Pseudomonas syringae
Blast Pseudomonas syringae
Citrus canker Xanthomonas axonopodis =

Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri

Citrus variegated chlorosis Xylella fastidiosa
Huanglongbing = citrus greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

Candidatus L. africanus

Fungal diseases[edit]

Fungal diseases
Albinism

Alternaria alternata
= Alternaria tenuis
Aspergillus flavus

Alternaria brown spot Alternaria alternata
Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon Alternaria citri
Alternaria stem-end rot Alternaria citri
Anthracnose = wither-tip

Glomerella cingulata
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [anamorph]

Areolate leaf spot

Thanatephorus cucumeris
= Pellicularia filamentosa
Rhizoctonia solani [anamorph]

Black mold rot Aspergillus niger
Black root rot

Thielaviopsis basicola
Chalara elegans [synanamorph]

Black rot Alternaria citri
Black spot

Guignardia citricarpa
Phyllosticta citricarpa [synanamorph]

Blue mold Penicillium italicum
Botrytis blossom and twig blight, gummosis

Botrytis cinerea
Botryotinia fuckeliana [teleomorph]

Branch knot Sphaeropsis tumefaciens
Brown rot (fruit)

Phytophthora citricola
Phytophthora citrophthora
Phytophthora hibernalis
Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica
= Phytophthora parasitica
Phytophthora palmivora
Phytophthora syringae

Charcoal root rot Macrophomina phaseolina
Citrus black spot Guignardia citricarpa
Damping-off

Pythium sp.
Pythium aphanidermatum
Pythium debaryanum
Pythium rostratum
Pythium ultimum
Pythium vexans
Rhizoctonia solani

Diplodia gummosis and stem-end rot

Lasiodiplodia theobromae
= Botryodiplodia theobromae
= Diplodia natalensis
Botryosphaeria rhodina [teleomorph]

Dothiorella gummosis and rot

Botryosphaeria ribis
Dothiorella gregaria [anamorph]

Dry root rot complex

Nectria haematococca
Fusarium solani [anamorph]
together with other wound-invading agents

Dry rot (fruit)

Ashbya gossypii
Nematospora coryli

Fly speck

Schizothyrium pomi
Zygophiala jamaicensis [anamorph]

Fusarium rot (fruit) Fusarium spp.
Fusarium wilt

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. citri

Gray mold (fruit) Botrytis cinerea
Greasy spot and greasy spot rind blotch

Mycosphaerella citri
Stenella citri-grisea [anamorph]

Green mold Penicillium digitatum
Heart rot

Ganoderma applanatum
Ganoderma brownii
Ganoderma lucidum
and other basidiomycetes

Hendersonula branch wilt Hendersonula toruloidea
Leaf spot

Mycosphaerella horii
Mycosphaerella lageniformis

Mal secco

Phoma tracheiphila
= Deuterophoma tracheiphila

Mancha foliar de los citricos Alternaria limicola
Melanose Diaporthe citri

Phomopsis citri [anamorph]

Mucor fruit rot

Mucor paronychia
Mucor racemosus

Mushroom root rot = shoestring root rot or oak root fungus

Armillaria mellea
= Clitocybe tabescens
Rhizomorpha subcorticalis [anamorph]

Phaeoramularia leaf and fruit spot Phaeoramularia angolensis
Phymatotrichum root rot Phymatotrichopsis omnivora
Phomopsis stem-end rot

Phomopsis citri
Diaporthe citri [teleomorph]

Phytophthora foot rot, gummosis and root rot

Phytophthora citrophthora
Phytophthora hibernalis
Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica
= Phytophthora parasitica
Phytophthora palmivora
Phytophthora syringae

Pink disease

Erythricium salmonicolor
= Corticium salmonicolor
Necator decretus [anamorph]

Pink mold Gliocladium roseum
Pleospora rot

Pleospora herbarum
Stemphylium herbarum [anamorph]

Poria root rot

Oxyporus latemarginatus
= Poria latemarginata

Post bloom fruit drop Colletotrichum acutatum
Powdery mildew

Oidium tingitaninum
= Acrosporium tingitaninum

Rhizopus rot Rhizopus stolonifer
Rio Grande gummosis

Possibly Lasiodiplodia theobromae
Hendersonula toruloidea
and other unknown agents

Rootlet rot

Pythium rostratum
Pythium ultimum

Rosellinia root rot Rosellinia sp.
Scab

Elsinoë fawcettii
Sphaceloma fawcettii [anamorph]

Sclerotinia twig blight, fruit rot and root rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Septoria spot Septoria citri
Sooty blotch Gloeodes pomigena
Sour rot

Geotrichum citri-aurantii
Galactomyces citri-aurantii [teleomorph]
Galactomyces candidum
Galactomyces geotrichum [teleomorph]

Sweet orange scab Elsinoë australis
Thread blight

Corticium stevensii
Pellicularia koleroga

Trichoderma rot

Trichoderma viride
Hypocrea sp. [teleomorph]

Twig blight Rhytidhysteron rufulum
Ustulina root rot

Ustulina deusta
Nodulisporium sp. [anamorph]

Whisker mold

Penicillium ulaiense

White root rot

Rosellinia sp.
Rosellinia necatrix
Dematophora necatrix [anamorph]
Rosellinia subiculata

Nematodes, parasitic[edit]

Nematodes, parasitic
Citrus slump nematode

Pratylenchus coffeae

Dagger nematode

Xiphinema spp.

Lesion nematode

Pratylenchus spp.
Pratylenchus brachyurus
Pratylenchus coffeae
Pratylenchus vulnus

Needle nematode

Longidorus spp.

Root-knot nematode

Meloidogyne spp.

Sheath nematode

Hemicycliophora spp.
Hemicycliophora arenaria

Slow decline (citrus nematode)

Tylenchulus semipenetrans

Spreading decline (burrowing nematode)

Radopholus similis

Sting nematode

Belonolaimus longicaudatus

Stubby-root nematode

Paratrichodorus spp.

Stunt nematode

Tylenchorhynchus spp.

Viral diseases[edit]

Viral diseases
Citrus mosaic Satsuma dwarf-related virus
Bud union crease Virus for some combinations, otherwise genetic or unknown
Citrus leaf rugose genus Ilarvirus, Citrus leaf rugose virus (CLRV)
Citrus yellow mosaic genus Badnavirus
Crinkly leaf Crinkly leaf virus (strain of Citrus variegation virus)
Infectious variegation genus Ilarvirus, Citrus variegation virus (CVV)
Navel infectious mottling Satsuma dwarf-related virus
Psorosis Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV)
Satsuma dwarf Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV)
Tatter leaf = citrange stunt genus Capillovirus, Citrus tatter leaf virus (probably a closely related strain of Apple stem grooving virus rather than a distinct virus
Tristeza = decline and stem pitting, seedling yellows genus Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)

Viroids and graft-transmissible pathogens [GTP][edit]

Viroids and graft-transmissible pathogens [GTP]
Algerian navel orange virus GTP
Blight = young tree decline, rough lemon decline GTP
Blind pocket GTP
Cachexia Citrus cachexia viroid (Hostuviroid)
Chlorotic dwarf White-fly transmitted GTP
Citrus dwarfing Various viroids
Citrus yellow mottle GTP
Citrus yellow ringspot GTP
Concave gum GTP
Cristacortis GTP
Exocortis Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) Pospiviroidae
Fatal yellows GTP
Gummy bark GTP, possible viroid
Gum pocket and gummy pittings GTP, possible viroid
Impietratura GTP
Indian citrus ringspot GTP
Leaf curl GTP
Leathery leaf GTP
Leprosis GTP associated with Brevipalpus spp. mites
Measles GTP
Milam stem-pitting GTP
Multiple sprouting disease GTP
Nagami kumquat disease GTP
Ringspot diseases Various GTPs
Vein enation = woody gall GTP (possible luteovirus)
Xyloporosis = cachexia Citrus cachexia viroid (Hostuviroid)
Yellow vein GTP
Yellow vein clearing of lemon GTP

Phytoplasmal and spiroplasmal diseases[edit]

Phytoplasmal and spiroplasmal diseases
Australian citrus dieback Unknown procaryote?
Stubborn Spiroplasma citri (spread by leafhoppers)
Witches’ broom of lime Phytoplasma

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders[edit]

Miscellaneous diseases and disorders
Algal disease (algal spot) Cephaleuros virescens
Amachamiento Unknown
Blossom-end clearing Physiological
Chilling injury Cold temperatures
Citrus blight Unknown - pathogen suspected
Creasing Nutritional (?)
Crinkle scurf Genetic
Granulation Physiological
Lemon sieve-tube necrosis Unknown, but hereditary
Lime blotch =wood pocket Inherited chimeral agent
Membranous stain Cold temperatures
Mesophyll collapse Unknown
Oleocellosis Physiological
Postharvest pitting Physiological
Puffing Physiological
Rind breakdown Physiological
Rind staining Physiological
Rind stipple of grapefruit Environmental
Rumple of lemon fruit Unknown
Shell bark complex Unknown - (viroid?)
Sooty mold (superficial, not pathogenic) Capnodium

C. citricola
Capnodium sp.

Stem-end rind breakdown Physiological
Stylar-end breakdown of Tahiti lime Physiological
Stylar-end rind breakdown Physiological
Stylar-end rot Physiological
Sunburn Excessive heat and light
Tangerine dieback Unknown
Water spot Physiological
Woody galls on stems Bruchophagus fellis (Citrus Gall Wasp)
Zebra skin Physiological

References[edit]