List of colleges and universities with history of science programs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The study of the history of science is focused on understanding the development, evolution, and impact of the sciences from antiquity through the 20th century. Many colleges and universities offer the history of science as part of an interdisciplinary program which combines the history of science with the philosophy of science, the sociology of science, the history of technology, the history of the environment, and/or the history of medicine.

In the US, Ph.D. programs at Harvard University, Indiana University, Bloomington, Iowa State University, Johns Hopkins University, Princeton University, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, University of Oklahoma, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and Yale University were ranked by the United States National Research Council.[1]

The following schools offer degrees where the history of science is primary or central to the program. It does not include science, technology and society programs unless the program emphasizes history. Many schools have special emphasis in particular sub disciplines in the field, such as the history of chemistry, history of biology, history of physics, history of astronomy or history of mathematics. Where possible, this has been noted for the schools below.

Programs in the United States[edit]

School Location Program Comments Degrees Awarded Ref.
Arizona State University Arizona History and Philosophy of Science Ph.D. [2]
Brown University Rhode Island History of the Exact Sciences in Antiquity Ph.D. [3]
California Institute of Technology California History and Philosophy of Science Special emphasis: fruitful interaction between historians and philosophers of science and scientists B.S. [4]
Carnegie Mellon University Pennsylvania History of Technology, Environment, Science, and Health
  • drug policy and public health
  • biotechnologies and the law
  • technological innovation
  • urban and rural environmental history
Ph.D. [5]
Case Western Reserve University Ohio History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine
  • the social and cultural history of technology
  • technology and science policy
  • environmental history and policy
  • the history of the physical sciences since the Renaissance
  • gender issues in technology and science
  • the history of medicine
M.A., Ph.D. [6]
City University of New York, the Graduate Center New York History of Science Ph.D. [7]
Columbia University New York History of Science
  • late medieval, early modern European
  • twentieth century US history of science, public health, and medicine
Ph.D. [8]
Drexel University Pennsylvania Science, Technology and Society history of science and technology B.A./M.S., B.S./M.S. [9]
Duke University North Carolina History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine PgC [10]
Florida State University Florida History and Philosophy of Science interdisciplinary perspective of the biological and environmental sciences M.A. [11]
Florida State University Florida History of Science, Medicine, and the Environment M.A., Ph.D. [12]
Harvard University Massachusetts History of Science B.A., M.A., Ph.D. [13]
Indiana University, Bloomington Indiana History and Philosophy of Science
  • before 1800
  • biological sciences
  • medicine
  • mind and cognition
  • models and evidence
  • modern and contemporary
  • physical sciences
M.A., Ph.D. [14]
Iowa State University Indiana History of Technology and Science M.S., Ph.D. [15]
Johns Hopkins University Maryland History of Science and Technology
  • the history of early-modern science
  • the history of American science and technology
B.A., Ph.D. [16]
Kean University New Jersey History of Science, Technology and Medicine history, development and social impact of scientific ideas, machines, medical practices and the lives of the men and women who promoted, defended and attacked them B.A. [17]
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts History, Anthropology, and Science, Technology, and Society (HASTS)
  • cultures of engineering
  • the making of scientific tools and theories
  • conventions of laboratory practice
  • science and technology in military enterprise
  • the relation of technology to economic institutions
  • the relation of science and law
  • the politics of race and science
  • knowledge-production in biomedicine and life sciences
  • agricultural and environmental history
  • science education
Ph.D. [18]
Michigan State University Michigan History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science B.S. [19]
Mississippi State University Mississippi History of Science and Technology
  • eugenics
  • technical education
  • aerospace
  • cancer research
  • national science policy
  • popular science
  • local industries
Ph.D. [20]
Montana State University Montana History of Science, the Environment, Technology, and Society B.A., Ph.D. [21]
New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering New York History of Science and Technology
  • history of U.S. technology
  • history of German and British science and technology
  • genetic patenting and intellectual property in the U.S. and Europe
  • bioethics
  • philosophy of science and technology
  • history and philosophy of quantum theory
M.S. [22]
Oregon State University Oregon History of Science
  • scientific traditions since the sixteenth century in Europe and North America
  • physical, earth, biological, medical, and social sciences
  • environmental history
  • history of the environmental sciences
M.A., M.S., Ph.D. [23]
Princeton University New Jersey History of Science B.A., Ph.D. [24]
Rutgers-Newark and New Jersey Institute of Technology New Jersey History of Technology, Environment, and Medicine/Health
  • environmental history
  • urban environments
  • the social and cultural history of medicine, health and technology
  • the history of print culture and communications
  • the cultural history of media
  • the history of law, technology and culture
M.A. [25][26]
Rutgers University New Jersey History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Health Ph.D. [27]
Stanford University California History and Philosophy of Science B.A., Ph.D. [28]
Stanford University California History of Science, Medicine and Technology Ph.D. [28]
State University of New York, Stony Brook New York Environment, Health, Science & Technology
  • history of the contrasts and inter-relations between city and country
  • technoscience in history
  • environment and health in global perspective
  • the history of technocracy
  • industry, place and politics
  • history of the body
  • natural history and national culture
Ph.D. [29]
University of California, Berkeley California History and Philosophy of Science Ph.D. [30]
University of California, Berkeley California History of Science Ph.D. [31]
University of California, San Diego California History of Science B.A., M.A., Ph.D. [32]
University of California, San Francisco California History of Health Sciences history of health sciences (medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, alternative healing, and biomedical research) M.A., Ph.D. [33]
University of California, Santa Barbara California History of Science Ph.D. [34]
University of California, Los Angeles California History of Science, Medicine, and Technology Ph.D. [35]
University of Chicago Illinois History of Science and Medicine Ph.D. [36]
University of Chicago Illinois Conceptual and Historical Studies of Science
  • history and philosophy of biology and psychology
  • history of medicine and psychiatry
  • history of statistics and probability
  • sociology and anthropology of science
  • history of communication and the book
M.A., Ph.D. [37]
University of Delaware Delaware Hagley Graduate Program in History history of industrialization, capitalism, technology, consumption, business, labor, and the environment M.A., Ph.D. [38]
University of Illinois Illinois History of Science, Technology and Medicine history of technology, public health, medicine, psychiatry, biology, physics, chemistry, anthropology, media, and science and health policy Ph.D. [39]
University of Maryland Maryland History of Science, Technology, and Society B.A. [40]
University of Massachusetts, Amherst Massachusetts History of Science M.A. [41]
University of Massachusetts, Boston Massachusetts Science in a Changing World M.A. [42]
University of Minnesota Minnesota History of Science, Technology, and Medicine M.A., Ph.D. [43]
University of Notre Dame Indiana History and Philosophy of Science M.A., Ph.D. [44]
University of Oklahoma Oklahoma History of Science, Technology and Medicine B.A., M.A./MLIS, Ph.D. [45]
University of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania History and Sociology of Science B.A., M.A., Ph.D., M.D./Ph.D. [46]
University of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania History and Philosophy of Science B.A., M.A., Ph.D. [47]
University of South Carolina South Carolina History of Science, Technology, and the Environment Ph.D. [48]
University of Washington Washington History and Philosophy of Science B.A., Ph.D. [49][50]
University of Wisconsin, Madison Wisconsin History of Science, Medicine, and Technology B.A., M.A., Ph.D. [51]
Wesleyan University Connecticut Science in Society B.S. [52]
Yale University Connecticut History of Science and Medicine B.A., M.A., M.Phil, Ph.D., M.D./Ph.D., J.D./Ph.D. [53]

International programs[edit]

School Location Program Comment Degrees Awarded Ref.
Ankara University Turkey History of Science Covers historical, cultural and philosophical issues in science and medicine from Antiquity, Classical Islamic and Ottomans Periods up to the present day. M.A, Ph.D. [54]
Bielefeld University Germany History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science M.A. [55]
Charles University Czech Republic Philosophy and History of Sciences
  • evolution of life and its interpretation (mathematical, genetic, philosophical)
  • the philosophy of life
  • the history and philosophy of biology (and similar boundary areas)
  • the origins of ancient Greek and Modern science
  • the philosophical basis of knowledge and the nature of truth
  • history of natural sciences
  • shapes and mimesis in living nature
  • biological similarities
  • morphogenesis of bacterial colonies
  • informational processes in living systems
  • the complexity of living systems
B.A., M.A., Ph.D. [56]
Durham University United Kingdom History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine Covers historical, cultural and philosophical issues in science and medicine from Antiquity up to the present day. M.A. [57]
Eötvös Loránd University Hungary History and Philosophy of Science Ph.D. [58]
ETH Zurich Switzerland History and Philosophy of Knowledge M.A. [59]
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakif University Turkey History of Science History of Science B.A., M.A. [60]
Hebrew University of Jerusalem Israel History, Philosophy, and Sociology or Science Ph.D. [61]
Hokkaido University Japan Natural History Sciences
  • earth sciences (cosmo- and planetary sciences, atmosphere-ocean science, biogeoscience, solid earth science, and earth resource science)
  • biodiversity and organismal evolution (taxonomy, phylogeny, phylogeography, ancient DNA science, population genetics, and evolutionary developmental biology)
M.A., Ph.D. [62]
Istanbul University Turkey History of Science Covers historical, cultural and philosophical issues in science and medicine from Antiquity, Classical Islamic and Ottomans Periods up to the present day. B.A., M.A, Ph.D. [63]
King's College London United Kingdom Science, Technology, and Medicine in History M.A., Ph.D. [64]
KTH Royal Institute of Technology Sweden History of Science, Technology, and Environment Specializations in Industrial Heritage, History of Science and Environmental History, all of which are characterized by a spatial and material approach when studying the past. Ph.D. [65]
Kyoto University Japan Philosophy and History of Science B.A., M.A., Ph.D. [66]
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich Germany History of Science M.A. [67]
Oxford University United Kingdom History of Science, Medicine, and Technology M.S., M.Phil [68]
Paris Diderot University France History and Philosophy of Science M.A., Ph.D. [69]
Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo Brazil History of Science
  • History, Science, and Culture
  • History and Theory of Science
M.S., Ph.D. [70]
Seoul National University Korea History of Science M.A., Ph.D. [71]
Seoul National University Korea Western History of Science M.A., Ph.D. [71]
Seoul National University Korea East Asian History of Science M.A., Ph.D. [71]
Shanxi University China History of Science and Technology Ph.D. [72]
Tel Aviv University Israel History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas
  • History of Science and Intellectual History of the Western World
  • Philosophy of Science, with emphasis on the periods following the Scientific Revolution
  • The Anthropology of Knowledge
  • History and Philosophy of Biology
  • History of Technology
  • History and Philosophy of Ancient and of Modern Mathematics
  • Cultural Studies, with emphasis on Critical Aspects of Modern Western Culture and in the Israeli context, a critical study of Science and Judaism
M.A., Ph.D. [73]
TU Berlin German History and Culture of Science and Technology M.A. [74]
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Spain History of Science M.A., Ph.D. [75]
University College London United Kingdom History and Philosophy of Science See also Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine B.S., M.S., Ph.D. [76]
University of Aberdeen United Kingdom History and Philosophy of Science
  • Literature, medicine, and science
  • Science, religion and philosophy since 1650
  • History of medicine since Antiquity; medicine in literature and film since the 18th century
  • Philosophy of physics; history and philosophy of quantum mechanics
  • History and philosophy of the life sciences; current issues in philosophy of biology
  • History and philosophy of technology
  • Science, technology and literature
  • Science and popular culture since 1800
  • Material culture of science and museology
M.Litt., M.Res., Ph.D. [77]
University of Athens Greece History of Science and Technology M.S., Ph.D. [78]
University of Bern Switzerland Philosophy and History of Science B.S., M.S. [79]
University of Bristol United Kingdom Philosophy and History of Science The history of science is studied in terms of the philosophical debate about the nature of scientific method and knowledge. M.A. [80]
University of British Columbia Canada History and Philosophy of Science B.A. [81]
University of British Columbia Canada History of Science, Technology, and Medicine Ph.D. [82]
University of Calgary Canada History of Science M.A., Ph.D. [83]
University of Cambridge United Kingdom History and Philosophy of Science See also: Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge B.S., M.Phil., Ph.D. [84]
Universidade de Coimbra Portugal History of Science and Science Education the role of history of science in:
  • scientific education
  • the public understanding of science
Ph.D. [85]
University of Guelph Canada History of Science, Technology, and Medicine M.A. [86]
University of Leeds United Kingdom History and Philosophy of Science M.A. [87]
University of Leeds United Kingdom History of Science, Technology, and Medicine M.A. [87]
University of Lisbon and New University of Lisbon Portugal History and Philosophy of Science M.S., Ph.D. [88]
University of Manchester State History of Science, Technology, and Medicine M.S., M.Phil., Ph.D. [89]
University of Oulu Finland History of Science and Ideas B.A., M.A. [90]
University of Strathclyde United Kingdom History of Science, Technology, and Medicine B.A., M.Res., M.Phil., Ph.D. [91]
University of Stuttgart Germany History of Natural Sciences and Technology B.A. [92]
University of Sydney Australia History and Philosophy of Science PgC, M.S., Ph.D. [93]
University of Tokyo Japan History and Philosophy of Science B.A., M.A., Ph.D. [94]
University of Toronto Canada History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
  • history of medicine and biological sciences
  • history of mathematics and physical sciences
  • history of technology
  • general philosophy of science
  • philosophy of biology
  • philosophy of medicine
  • philosophy of physics
  • philosophy of mathematics
M.A., Ph.D. [95]
University of Vienna State History and Philosophy of Science M.A. [96]
University of York Canada History of Science Health and the Environment M.A., Ph.D. [97]
Utrecht University Netherlands History and Philosophy of Science
  • History of science or the humanities
  • Philosophy of science
  • Foundation of physics
  • Foundations of mathematics and logic
M.S. [98]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Doctoral Programs by the Numbers". http://chronicle.com/. Chronicle of Higher Education. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  2. ^ "History and Philosophy of Science PhD". Arizona State University. Arizona State University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  3. ^ "Egyptology & Ancient Western Asian Studies". Brown University. Brown University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  4. ^ "Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences". California Institute of Technology. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "Department of History: Faculty Thematic Strengths". Carnegie Mellon University. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  6. ^ "Graduate Program in the History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine (STEM)". Western Reserve University. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "History: Fields of Study". CUNY Graduate Center. City University of New York, the Graduate Center. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "Department of HIstory: History of Science and Technology". Columbia University. Columbia University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  9. ^ "Department of History & Politics: Academic Overview". Drexel University. Drexel University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  10. ^ "History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine". Duke University. Duke University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  11. ^ "Programs in History & Philosophy of Science". Florida State University. Florida State University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  12. ^ "Department of History: Graduate Student Handbook". Florida State University. Florida State University. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  13. ^ "Department of the History of Science". Harvard University. Harvard University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Department of History and Philosophy of Science". Indiana University, Bloomington. Indiana University, Bloomington. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  15. ^ "History of Technology and Science". Iowa State University. Iowa State University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  16. ^ "Department of History of Science and Technology". Krieger School of Arts & Sciences. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "History of Science, Technology, and Medicine". Kean University. Kean University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  18. ^ "About HASTS". [http://web.mit.edu/ Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Undergraduate Degree - History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science Major". Michigan State University. Michigan State University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  20. ^ "Graduate Studies at MSU . . . A Tradition of Excellence". Mississippi State University. Mississippi State University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  21. ^ "Department of History, Philosophy, and Religious Studie". Montana State University. Montana State University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  22. ^ "History of Science and Technology, MS". NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering. New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  23. ^ "School of History, Philosophy, and Religion". Oregon State University. Oregon State University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  24. ^ "The Program in History of Science". Princeton University. Princeton University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  25. ^ "Department of HIstory, Master of Arts". Rutgers-Newark. Rutgers-Newark. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  26. ^ "Federated Department of History, Master of Arts in History". New Jersey Institute of Technology. New Jersey Institute of Technology. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  27. ^ "Graduate Study in History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Health". Rutgers University. Rutgers University. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  28. ^ a b "The Program in History & Philosophy of Science". Stanford University. Stanford University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  29. ^ "Environment, Health, Science & Technology". State University of New York, Stony Brook. State University of New York, Stony Brook. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  30. ^ "Concentration in History and Philosophy of Science". University of California, Berkeley. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  31. ^ "Center for Science, Technology, Medicine, & Society". University of California, Berkeley. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  32. ^ "Department of HIstory". University of California, San Diego. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  33. ^ "Department for Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine". University of California, San Francisco. University of California, San Francisco. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  34. ^ "History of Science". University of California, Santa Barbara. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  35. ^ "Science, Medicine, and Technology". University of California, Los Angeles. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  36. ^ "Morris Fishbein Center for the History of Science and medicine". University of Chicago. University of Chicago. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  37. ^ "Conceptual and Historical Studies of Science". University of Chicago. University of Chicago. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  38. ^ "Hagley Graduate Program in History". University of Delaware. University of Delaware. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Graduate Fields of Study: Science, Technology, and Medicine". University of Illinois. University of Illinois. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  40. ^ "Department of History: Science, Technology, and Society". University of Maryland. University of Maryland. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "Department of History: Master of Arts Degree Requirements". University of Massachusetts, Amhurst. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  42. ^ "Science in a Changing World, MA". University of Massachusetts, Boston. University of Massachusetts, Boston. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  43. ^ "History of Science, Technology, and Medicine". University of Minnesota. University of Minnesota. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  44. ^ "Welcome to the History and Philosophy of Science Graduate Program at Notre Dame". University of Notre Dame. University of Notre Dame. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  45. ^ "Department of the History of Science". University of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  46. ^ "History & Sociology of Science". University of Pennsylvania. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  47. ^ "Department of the History and Philosophy of Science". University of Pittsburgh. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  48. ^ "Why Study History at South Carolina?". University of South Carolina. University of South Carolina. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  49. ^ "What is HPS?". University of Washington. University of Washington. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  50. ^ "History of Science". University of Washington. University of Washington. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  51. ^ "History of Science, Medicine, and Technology". University of Wisconsin, Madison. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  52. ^ "Science in Society Program". Wesleyan University. Wesleyan University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  53. ^ "Program in the History of Science and Medicine". Yale University. Yale University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  54. ^ "Taught Masters and PhD Programmes in the History of Science". [1]. Ankara University. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  55. ^ "New M.A. Program History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science at Bielefeld University". Bielefeld University. Bielefeld University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  56. ^ "Department of Philosophy and History of Sciences". Charles University. Charles University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  57. ^ "Taught Masters Programme in the History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine". Durham University. Durham University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  58. ^ "Department of History & Philosophy of Science". Eötvös Loránd University. Eötvös Loránd University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  59. ^ "Masters in History and Philosophy of Knowledge". ETH Zurich. ETH Zurich. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  60. ^ "Taught Bachelor and Masters Programmes in the History of Science". Sultan Mehmet Vakif University. Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakif University. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  61. ^ "Sidney M. Edelstein Center for the History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine". Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  62. ^ "Natural History Sciences". Hokkaido University. Hokkaido University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  63. ^ "Taught Bachelor, Masters and PhD Programmes in the History of Science". University. Istanbul University. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  64. ^ "Center for the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine". King's College London. King's College London. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  65. ^ "Welcome to the Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment". KTH Royal Institute of Technology. KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  66. ^ "Introduction". Kyoto University. Kyoto University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  67. ^ "History of Science at the LMU". Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  68. ^ "History of Science, Medicine, and Technology". Oxford University. Oxford University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  69. ^ "Department of History and Philosophy of Science". Paris Diderot University. Paris Diderot University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  70. ^ "History of Science". Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  71. ^ a b c "Program in History and Philosophy of Science". Seoul National University. Seoul National University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  72. ^ "Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology in Shanxi University". Shanxi University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  73. ^ "The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas". Tel Aviv University. Tel Aviv University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  74. ^ "History and Culture of Science and Technology". TU Berlin. TU Berlin. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  75. ^ "Centre d'Història de la Ciència". Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  76. ^ "UCL Department of Science and Technology Studies". University College London. University College London. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  77. ^ "Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine". University of Aberdeen. University of Aberdeen. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  78. ^ "Graduate Programme in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology". University of Athens. University of Athens. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  79. ^ "Philosophy and History of Science". University of Bern. University of Bern. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  80. ^ "Department of Philosophy: Postgraduate Study". Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  81. ^ "Department of Philosophy: Major in History and Philosophy of Science". University of British Columbia. University of British Columbia. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  82. ^ "Department of History: History of Science, Technology, and Medicine". University of British Columbia. University of British Columbia. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  83. ^ "Department of History: Graduate". University of Calgary. University of Calgary. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  84. ^ "Department of History and Philosophy of Science". University of Cambridge. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  85. ^ "PhD in History of Science and Science Education". Universidade de Coimbra. Universidade de Coimbra. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  86. ^ "Department of History: the Master's". University of Guelph. University of Guelph. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  87. ^ a b "MA Studies in History and Philosophy of Science". Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  88. ^ "Teaching Offers". CIUHCT. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  89. ^ "Center for the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine". University of Manchester. University of Manchester. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  90. ^ "History of Science and Ideas". University of Oulu. University of Oulu. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  91. ^ "Welcome to History at Strathclyde". University of Strathclyde. University of Strathclyde. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  92. ^ "History of Natural Sciences and Technology BA". University of Stuttgart. University of Stuttgart. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  93. ^ "History and Philosophy of Science". University of Sydney. University of Sydney. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  94. ^ "Department of the History and Philosophy of Science". University of Tokyo. University of Tokyo. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  95. ^ "Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology". University of Toronto. University of Toronto. 
  96. ^ "History and Philosophy of Science". University of Vienna. University of Vienna. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  97. ^ "Graduate Programs in History: Fields of Study". University of York. University of York. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  98. ^ "History and Philosophy of Science". Utrecht University. Utrecht University. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 

External links[edit]