List of commercial buildings by Alfred Waterhouse

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Prudential Assurance Building, Leeds

Alfred Waterhouse (1830–1905) was a prolific English architect who worked in the second half of the 19th century. His buildings were largely in Victorian Gothic Revival style. Waterhouse's biographer, Colin Cunningham, states that between about 1865 and about 1885 he was "the most widely employed British architect".[1] He worked in many fields, designing commercial, public, educational, domestic, and ecclesiastical buildings.[1]

Waterhouse was born in Liverpool of Quaker parents. After being articled to P. B. Alley in Manchester, he took a ten-month tour of the Continent, then established his own practice in Manchester. Many of his early commissions came from Quakers and other nonconformist patrons. He came to national recognition when he won success in a competition for the design of Manchester assize courts. His next major public commissions in Manchester were for Strangeways Gaol and Manchester Town Hall. In 1865 he opened an office in London, which was followed by his first major commission in London, the Natural History Museum. Meanwhile he was also designing country houses. Here his major work was the rebuilding of Eaton Hall in Cheshire for the 1st Duke of Westminster, which was "the most expensive country house of the [19th] century".[1] He also designed educational buildings including schools and works for the universities of Cambridge, Oxford, Manchester, and Liverpool. In the commercial field, he designed banks, and offices for insurance and assurance companies, especially the Prudential Assurance Company, for whom he built 27 buildings.[1]

Waterhouse's success came from "a thoroughly professional approach rather than on brilliance or innovation as a stylist".[1] He paid particular attention to detail and, although he designed many major buildings, he still accepted smaller commissions.[1] Although most of his work was in the Gothic Revival style, he also employed other styles, including Romanesque and French Renaissance.[2] He used many building materials, but is noted for his use of red brick and terracotta. The use of these materials for many university buildings in the north of England is a major factor in their being termed "red brick universities".[1][3] In addition to his design work as an architect, Waterhouse was an assessor for about 60 architectural competitions. He was awarded the Royal Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1878 for his design for Manchester Town Hall, and was president of that institution from 1888 to 1891. He was gained international diplomas, and in 1895 was awarded an honorary LL.D by Manchester University. Waterhouse was also a painter, exhibiting 80 watercolours at the Royal Academy. He suffered a stroke in 1901, and died in his home at Yattendon, Berkshire, in 1905. His practice was continued by his son Paul, followed by his grandson, Michael, and his great-grandson. His estate at death amounted to over £215,000 (£20,140,000 as of 2014).[1][4]

This list contains the notable commercial buildings designed by Waterhouse, and includes such structures as insurance and assurance offices, legal chambers, banks, shops, farm buildings, and warehouses.

Key[edit]

Grade
(England and Wales)
Criteria[5]
Grade I Buildings of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important.
Grade II* Particularly important buildings of more than special interest.
Grade II Buildings of national importance and special interest.
Category
(Scotland)
Criteria[6]
Category B Buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered.
"—" denotes a work that is not graded.

Buildings[edit]

Name Location Photograph Date Notes Grade
Fryer and Binyon Warehouse Manchester
1856 The design was based on a practical adaptation of the Doge's Palace in Venice. It has been demolished.[1][7]
Royal Insurance Office King Street, Manchester
1861 An early commercial commission, Waterhouse had his own office in this building for a time. Since demolished.[1][8]
District Bank Nantwich, Cheshire
53°04′03″N 2°31′19″W / 53.0674°N 2.5219°W / 53.0674; -2.5219 (District Bank, Nantwich)
1-3 Churchyardside, Nantwich2.jpg 1863 A red brick bank building in Gothic style with some diapering in blue brick. It has two gables, one of which contains an oriel window.[9][10] II
Barclays Bank Darlington,
County Durham
54°31′31″N 1°33′20″W / 54.5254°N 1.5555°W / 54.5254; -1.5555 (Barclays Bank, Darlington)
1864 A stone building with steep slated roofs in three storeys and an attic.[11] II*
Bassett and Harris Bank Leighton Buzzard, Berkshire
51°54′59″N 0°39′42″W / 51.9163°N 0.6616°W / 51.9163; -0.6616 (Barclays Bank, Leighton Buzzard)
LBhighSt.jpg 1866 Built in Bath stone with slate roofs. It has two storeys with an attic and three dormer windows. On the ground floor are five arches, the central one containing an entrance. In the upper storeys are five pairs of rectangular windows.[8][12][13] II
Farm buildings at Easneye Dairy Farm Stanstead Abbots, Hertfordshire
51°48′22″N 0°00′19″E / 51.8062°N 0.0052°E / 51.8062; 0.0052 (Farm buildings, Stanstead Abbots)
1868c. 1868 A U-shaped range of model farm buildings in brick with diapering.[14] II
16 Nicholas Street Manchester
53°28′42″N 2°14′25″W / 53.4783°N 2.2402°W / 53.4783; -2.2402 (16 Nicholas Street, Manchester)
1870c. 1870 Built as a warehouse, later used as shops and offices. In sandstone and red brick with sandstone dressings and slate roofs. Has five storeys and an attic.[15][16] II
1a Old Bond Street Westminster,
Greater London
51°30′29″N 0°08′24″W / 51.5081°N 0.1400°W / 51.5081; -0.1400 (1a Old Bond Street, Westminster)
1880 Built as shops and offices in red brick and cream terracotta. It has three storeys and an attic.[17] II
Prudential Assurance Offices Nottingham
52°57′15″N 1°08′59″W / 52.9543°N 1.1497°W / 52.9543; -1.1497 (Prudential Assurance Offices, Nottingham)
King Street, Nottingham.JPG
1880–90 Built in brick with terracotta dressings and has a tiled roof, in Flemish Renaissance Revival style. The building was restored and changed in 1991.[7][18] II
58 Fountain Street
60–62 Spring Gardens
Manchester
53°28′49″N 2°14′31″W / 53.4802°N 2.2419°W / 53.4802; -2.2419 (58 Fountain Street, 60–62 Spring Gardens, Manchester)
1882 Built as a manufacturer's warehouse, used later as an insurance office. Constructed in sandstone with a slate roof as a corner block.[19][20] II
Cowshed at Heron's Farm Bradfield, Berkshire
51°28′09″N 1°07′58″W / 51.4693°N 1.1329°W / 51.4693; -1.1329 (Cowshed, Heron's Farm, Bradfield)
1884 Part of a model farm, this is an octagonal timber-framed building with brick infill standing on a brick plinth.[21] II
Prudential Assurance Building Liverpool, Merseyside
53°24′28″N 2°59′19″W / 53.4078°N 2.9887°W / 53.4078; -2.9887 (Prudential Assurance Building, Liverpool)
Prudential Assurance Liverpool.jpg
1885–86 An office building in red brick with dressings in terracotta and granite. It is in five storeys plus an attic in Gothic style.[7][22][23] II
Prudential Assurance Building Holborn, Camden,
Greater London
51°31′06″N 0°06′37″W / 51.5182°N 0.1102°W / 51.5182; -0.1102 (Prudential Assurance Building, London)
Holborn, Prudential Assurance building, 142 Holborn Bars, EC1 - geograph.org.uk - 667958.jpg 1885–1901 Built in conjunction with his son, Paul, this building has been extended and changed. The remaining Waterhouse parts are in red brick with terracotta dressings; it has a central tower.[7][24] II*
337 and 338
High Holborn
City of London
51°31′05″N 0°06′41″W / 51.5180°N 0.1113°W / 51.5180; -0.1113 (337 and 338 High Holborn, London)
Staple Inn Hall, High Holborn WC1 - geograph.org.uk - 1275195.jpg 1886 Two timber-framed chambers dating from 1586, restored by Waterhouse.[25] II*
1–4 Holborn Bars City of London
51°31′05″N 0°06′40″W / 51.5180°N 0.1111°W / 51.5180; -0.1111 (1–4 Holborn Bars, London)
Old shop frontage, High Holborn - geograph.org.uk - 787620.jpg 1886 Four timber-framed chambers dating from 1586, restored by Waterhouse.[26] I
4, 5 and 6, Staple Inn High Holborn,
City of London
51°31′05″N 0°06′42″W / 51.5180°N 0.1116°W / 51.5180; -0.1116 (4, 5 and 6, Staple Inn, High Holborn, London)
1886c. 1886 A terrace of three chambers dating from about 1586, altered in the 18th and 19th centuries, and restored by Waterhouse.[27] I
Barclays Bank Durham
54°46′37″N 1°34′31″W / 54.7770°N 1.5752°W / 54.7770; -1.5752 (Barclays Bank, Durham)
1887 A stone building with slate roofs, in three and four storeys, with a battlemented parapet.[28] II
Prudential Assurance Office Glasgow, Scotland
55°51′48″N 4°15′23″W / 55.8633°N 4.2563°W / 55.8633; -4.2563 (Prudential Assurance Office, Glasgow)
1888–89 A four-storey building in red brick with stone dressings; French Renaissance style.[29][30] B
49 Spring Gardens Manchester
53°28′49″N 2°14′30″W / 53.4804°N 2.2416°W / 53.4804; -2.2416 (49 Spring Gardens, Manchester)
1888–91 Built probably as a warehouse, later used as offices. Built in sandstone with a slate roof in eclectic style with Gothic features, it has three storeys, basement, and an attic.[31] II
Prudential Assurance Office Manchester
53°28′51″N 2°14′40″W / 53.4809°N 2.2444°W / 53.4809; -2.2444 (Prudential Assurance Office, Manchester)
1888–96 Built in red brick and terracotta, since altered.[32][33] II
41 Spring Gardens Manchester
53°28′51″N 2°14′30″W / 53.4809°N 2.2416°W / 53.4809; -2.2416 (41 Spring Gardens, Manchester)
1890 Built for the National Provincial Bank, later used as offices. Built in stone with a slate roof in French Renaissance style, it has three storeys and an attic.[34][35] II
Lloyd's Bank Cambridge
52°12′20″N 0°07′17″E / 52.2056°N 0.1215°E / 52.2056; 0.1215 (Lloyd's Bank, Cambridge)
Lloyd's TSB Bank, Cambridge University Branch - geograph.org.uk - 673072.jpg
1891 Originally Foster's Bank, this was designed with his son, Paul. It is built in bands of limestone and red brick, and has a tiled roof. It occupies a corner position, and has an elaborate clock tower. Its architectural style is Dutch Renaissance.[1][36] II*
Refuge Assurance Building Manchester
53°28′28″N 2°14′27″W / 53.4745°N 2.2408°W / 53.4745; -2.2408 (Refuge Assurance Building, Manchester)
1891 Built as an assurance office, and later extended. It has a steel frame that is clad in brick with terracotta dressings; in four storeys with basements and attics. It has since been converted into a hotel.[1][7][37][38][39] II*
12 Mosley Street Newcastle upon Tyne
54°58′15″N 1°36′37″W / 54.9709°N 1.6102°W / 54.9709; -1.6102 (12 Mosley Street, Newcastle upon Tyne)
1891 Originating as a bank for the Prudential Assurance Company, it is constructed in granite, brick and sandstone with a slate roof in Free early-Renaissance style.[40] II
Prudential Assurance Building Portsmouth, Hampshire
50°47′48″N 1°05′35″W / 50.7967°N 1.0930°W / 50.7967; -1.0930 (Prudential Assurance Building, Portsmouth)
Prudential Building in Portsmouth City Centre - geograph.org.uk - 757153.jpg 1891 An office for the Prudential Assurance Company, it is constructed in red brick and terracotta with a tiled roof. It is in three storeys with an attic, and has a frontage of eleven bays.[41] II
19 and 20 Park Row Leeds, West Yorkshire
53°47′57″N 1°32′48″W / 53.7991°N 1.5468°W / 53.7991; -1.5468 (19–20 Park Row, Leeds)
Prudential Assurance Building, Park Row, Leeds - geograph.org.uk - 1394880.jpg 1891 Built as a bank and chambers in brick with terracotta dressings and a slate roof. Only the façade remains.[42] II
National Provincial Bank Piccadilly, Westminster,
Greater London
51°30′33″N 0°08′09″W / 51.5093°N 0.1358°W / 51.5093; -0.1358 (207–209 Piccadilly, London)
1892–94 Stone-faced bank chambers forming a corner block. The banking hall is on the ground floor with three storeys and an attic with dormers above it.[1][43] II
Prudential Assurance Building Bradford, West Yorkshire
53°47′37″N 1°45′14″W / 53.7937°N 1.7539°W / 53.7937; -1.7539 (Prudential Assurance Building, Bradford)
Prudential Assurance Buildings - Sunbridge Road - geograph.org.uk - 406127.jpg 1895 A three-storey building in Free French Renaissance style.[44] II
Prudential Assurance Building Dundee, Scotland
56°27′46″N 2°58′12″W / 56.4628°N 2.9701°W / 56.4628; -2.9701 (Prudential Assurance Building, Dundee)
1895–98 Designed with his son, Paul, this has three storeys and an attic. It is in red brick with a red tile roof.[45][46] B
Prudential Assurance Building Edinburgh, Scotland
55°57′15″N 3°11′30″W / 55.9542°N 3.1917°W / 55.9542; -3.1917 (Prudential Assurance Building, Dundee)
1-2 St Andrew Square.JPG
1895–98 Designed with his son, Paul, this has four storeys and an attic, and is constructed in red sandstone. It has an L-shaped plan with a six-stage turret at the corner.[47][48] B
Pearl Assurance Building Liverpool, Merseyside
53°24′30″N 2°58′56″W / 53.4083°N 2.9821°W / 53.4083; -2.9821 (Pearl Assurance Building, Liverpool)
Pearl Assurance Building St John's Lane - geograph.org.uk - 1244480.jpg
1896 An office building in brick with a granite ground floor and a slate roof. It is in three storeys with attics, and has an octagonal tower at the corner.[1][49][50] II
Prudential Assurance Building Sheffield,
South Yorkshire
53°22′45″N 1°28′13″W / 53.3792°N 1.4704°W / 53.3792; -1.4704 (Prudential Assurance Building, Sheffield)
Prudential Assurance Co. Building, Sheffield - geograph.org.uk - 1577941.jpg 1896 An office and shops, built in brick on a granite plinth with terracotta dressings and a tiled roof; in Renaissance Revival style.[51] II
Prudential Assurance Building Huddersfield,
West Yorkshire
53°38′41″N 1°46′59″W / 53.6446°N 1.7830°W / 53.6446; -1.7830 (71 New Street, Kirklees)
1897–98 This building is constructed in brick and terracotta on a marble plinth, and has a slate roof. It is in three storeys, with an attic. II
Greek Street Chambers Leeds, West Yorkshire
53°47′55″N 1°32′50″W / 53.7986°N 1.5472°W / 53.7986; -1.5472 (Greek Street Chambers, Leeds)
Greek Street Chambers, Park Row, (west side) Leeds - geograph.org.uk - 1394826.jpg 1898 Built as a bank and chambers and a porter's lodge. In brick with terracottabanding and dressings and a slate roof.[52] II
Prudential Assurance Building Bristol
51°27′14″N 2°35′45″W / 51.4540°N 2.5959°W / 51.4540; -2.5959 (17–19 Clare Street, Bristol)
1899 Offices built in red terracotta and pink granite, with a slate pyramidal roof. It three storeys, and attic and a basement.[53] II
Staple Inn Buildings 335–336 High Holborn, City of London
51°31′05″N 0°06′42″W / 51.5180°N 0.1116°W / 51.5180; -0.1116 (University College Hospital, London)
Staple Inn, London, UK - 20050821.jpg 1903c. 1903 Built as offices, later a shop. It is constructed in red brick with terracotta dressings, and has five storeys. It is in Jacobean style, and has a polygonal turret at its corner.[27] II

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cunningham, Colin (2010) [2004], "Waterhouse, Alfred (1839–1905)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), retrieved 29 January 2012  ((subscription or UK public library membership required))
  2. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 14.
  3. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 247.
  4. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  5. ^ Listed Buildings, English Heritage, retrieved 26 August 2011 
  6. ^ What is Listing?, Historic Scotland, retrieved 2 July 2012 
  7. ^ a b c d e Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 137.
  8. ^ a b Cunningham & Waterhouse 1992, pp. 207–275.
  9. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, pp. 496–497.
  10. ^ English Heritage. "District Bank, Nantwich, Cheshire (1138728)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  11. ^ English Heritage. "Barclays Bank, Darlington (1322928)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  12. ^ English Heritage. "Barclays Bank, Leighton Buzzard (1114562)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  13. ^ Barclays Bank, Leighton-Linslade Past Times, retrieved 3 July 2012 
  14. ^ English Heritage. "Farm buildings at Easneye Dairy Farm , Stanstead Abbots (1078764)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  15. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, p. 320.
  16. ^ English Heritage. "16 Nicholas Street, Manchester (1271453)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  17. ^ English Heritage. "1a Old Bond Street, City of Westminster (1225398)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9nbsp;June 2012. 
  18. ^ English Heritage. "11 King Street, Nottingham (1254668)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  19. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, p. 333.
  20. ^ English Heritage. "58 Fountain Street, 60–62 Spring Gardens, Manchester (1270662)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  21. ^ English Heritage. "Cowshed at Heron's Farm, Bradfield (1212413)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 319.
  23. ^ English Heritage. "Prudential Assurance Building, Liverpool (1068278)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  24. ^ English Heritage. "Prudential Assurance Building, Camden (1379064)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  25. ^ English Heritage. "337 and 338 High Holborn, City of London (1246102)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  26. ^ English Heritage. "1–4 Holborn Bars, City of London (1246102)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  27. ^ a b English Heritage. "Staple Inn Buildings, City of London (1245623)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  28. ^ English Heritage. "Barclays Bank, Durham (1323244)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  29. ^ 71-79, Renfield Street, 48-50, West Regent Street, Glasgow, Historic Scotland, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  30. ^ Prudential Building, Glasgow, Dictionary of Scottish Architects, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  31. ^ English Heritage. "49 Spring Gardens, Manchester (1270700)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  32. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, p. 316.
  33. ^ English Heritage. "Prudential Assurance Office, Manchester (1219164)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  34. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 333–334.
  35. ^ English Heritage. "41 Spring Gardens, Manchester (1270679)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  36. ^ English Heritage. "Lloyd's Bank, Cambridge (1331920)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  37. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 320–321.
  38. ^ English Heritage. "Former Refuge Assurance Building, Manchester (1271429)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  39. ^ Welcome, Palace Hotel, Manchester, retrieved 20 June 2012 
  40. ^ English Heritage. "12 Mosley Street, Newcastle upon Tyne (1024805)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  41. ^ English Heritage. "The Prudential Assurance, City of Portsmouth (1104325)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  42. ^ English Heritage. "19 and 20 Park Row, Leeds (1375419)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  43. ^ English Heritage. "207–209 Piccadilly W1, City of Westminster (1265806)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  44. ^ English Heritage. "Prudential Assurance, Bradford (1133642)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  45. ^ 31 Meadowside or Albert Square, Dundee, Historic Scotland, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  46. ^ Prudential Assurance Building, Dundee, Dictionary of Scottish Architects, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  47. ^ Former Prudential Assurance Building, Edinburgh, Historic Scotland, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  48. ^ Prudential Assurance Building, Edinburgh, Dictionary of Scottish Architects, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  49. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 336.
  50. ^ English Heritage. "St John's House, 7–12 St John's Lane, Liverpool (1292419)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  51. ^ English Heritage. "Prudential Assurance Building, Sheffield (1271137)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  52. ^ English Heritage. "Greek Street Chambers, Leeds (1375428)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  53. ^ English Heritage. "17 and 19 Clare Street, Bristol (1282359)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 

Bibliography