List of common Chinese surnames

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These are lists of the most common Chinese surnames in the Republic of China, People's Republic of China, and the Chinese diaspora overseas as provided by authoritative government or academic sources. Chinese names also form the basis for many common Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese surnames in both translation and transliteration into those languages.

The conception of China as consisting of "the old 100 families" (, Lǎobǎixìng) is an ancient and traditional one, the most notable tally being the Song-era Hundred Family Surnames. Even today, the number of surnames in China is a little over 4,000,[1] while the year 2000 US census found the number of American surnames held by at least 100 people to be more than 150,000[2] and more than 6.2 million surnames altogether.[3]

The Chinese expression "Some Zhang, some Li" (张三李四, Zhāng sān, Lǐ sì) is used to mean "anyone" or "everyone",[4] but the most common surnames are currently Wang in mainland China[5] and Chen or Chan in Taiwan.[6] A commonly cited factoid from the 1990 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records estimated that Zhang was the most common surname in the world,[7] but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim. However, Zhang Wei () is the most common full name in mainland China.[8]

Greater China Region[edit]

China, Hong Kong and Macau[edit]

This list of the 100 most common Chinese surnames derives from comprehensive surveys from 2007 and 1982. The first is derived from a report on the household registrations released by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security on April 24, 2007.[5] The second is derived from the 1982 Chinese census whose zero hour was 00:00 on 1 July 1982. Although no list of surnames was published with the initial summaries, the State Post Bureau subsequently used the census data to release a series of commemorative stamps in honor of the then-most-common surnames in 2004.[9][10] Previous partial surveys proved less accurate, as many surnames are clustered regionally.

The summary of the 2007 survey revealed China had approximately 92,881,000 Wangs (7.25% of the general population), 92,074,000 Lis (7.19%), and 87,502,000 Zhangs (6.83%). These top three surnames alone accounted for more people than Indonesia, the fourth most populous country in the world.[11] Detailed numbers for the other surnames were not released, but it was noted that seven others – Liu, Chen, Yang, Huang, Zhao, Wu, and Zhou – were each shared by more than 20 million Chinese and twelve more – Xu, Sun, Ma, Zhu, Hu, Guo, He, Gao, Lin, Luo, Zheng, and Liang – were each shared by more than 10 million. All together, the top hundred surnames accounted for 84.77% of China's population.[5][12] By way of comparison, the 2000 census found the most common surname in the United States – Smith – had fewer than 2.4 million occurrences and made up only 0.84% of the general population. The top 100 surnames accounted for only 16.4% of the US population,[2] and reaching 89.8% of the US population required more than 150,000 surnames.[3]

Rank Character Romanizations Notes
Mandarin Cantonese Minnan Hakka Gan Other Former Pronunciation (according to Baxter)[13] Meaning
2007 1982 Trad. Simp. Pinyin Wade Jyutping HK Other POJ Other POJ Other Old Chinese Middle Chinese
1 2 Wáng Wang2 Wong4 Wong Vong Ông Heng Vòng Wong Uōng Viet. Vương *ɢʷaŋ Hjwang "King"
Kor. Wang ()
Jap. Ō
2 1 Li3 Lei5 Lee
Li
Le Lee Lee Viet. *C.rəʔ LiX "Plum"
N. Kor. Lee ()
S. Kor. Yi, Ri, Rhee ()
Jap. Ri
Phil. Dy, Sy
Lat. Am. Ley
3 3 Zhāng Chang1 Zoeng1 Cheung Cheong
Chong
Tiu Teo
Teoh
Tio
Chông Chong Tong Viet. Trương *C.traŋ Trjang "Bowyer"
Kor. Jang ()
Jap. Chō
Phil. Tiong
Indon. Sutiono, Tjong
4 4 Liú Liu2 Lau4 Lau Lao
Lou
Lâu Lau
Low
Lao
Liù Liew Līu Viet. Lưu *mə-ru Ljuw Han Dynasty royalty
Kor. Yu/Ryu (/)
Jap. Ryū
5 5 Chén Ch'en2 Can4 Chan Chun
Chean
Chin
Tân Tan
Tang
Ting
chhìn chin Thín Viet. Trần *lrin Drin "Exhibit"

State
of
Chen
Kor. Jin ()
Jap. Chin
6 6 Yáng Yang2 Joeng4 Yeung Yeong
Ieong
Young
Yeoh
Yeo
Yòng Yong
Yeong
Iōng Viet. Dương *laŋ Yang "Poplar"

State
of
Yang
Kor. Yang ()
Jap.
7 8 Huáng Huang2 Wong4 Wong Wang
Vong
Ooi Ng
Ung
Vòng Wong Uōng Viet. Hoàng/Huỳnh *N-kʷˤaŋ Hwang "Yellow"

State
of
Huang
Kor. Hwang ()
Jap.
8 7 Zhào Chao2 Ziu6 Chiu Chio
Jiu
Tiō Teo
Teoh
Chhau Chau Thèu Viet. Triệu State
of
Zhao
Kor. Jo ()
Jap. Chō
9 10 Wu2 Ng4 Ng Ung, Eng Gô•
Ngô•
Goh Ǹg Ng Ng Viet. Ngô *ŋʷˤa Ngu State
of
Wu
Kor. Oh ()
Jap. Kure, Go
Misc. Woo
10 9 Zhōu Chou1 Zau1 Chow Jao
Chau
Chiu Chew
Jew
Chiû Chew
Chiew
Tiu Viet. Chu, Châu *tiw Tsyuw State
of
Zhou
Kor. Ju ()
Jap. Shū
Misc. Joe
11 11 Hsü2 Ceoi4 Tsui Choi
Chui
Tsua
Chhî Chee
Cher
Cheu
Swee
Chhì Chi Chhié Viet. Từ *sə.la Zjo "gradual"

State
of
Xu
Kor. Seo ()
Jap. Jo
Indon. Dharmadjie
Christiadjie
12 12 Sūn Sun1 Syun1 Suen Sun Sun Sng
Soon
Sûn Sun Sun Viet. Tôn *sˤun Swon "Grandson"
Kor. Son ()
Jap. Son
Phil. Suan
13 19 Ma3 Maa5 Ma Mah
Mar

Bey
Beh
Baey
Ma Viet. *mˤraʔ MaeX "horse"

State
of
Mafu
Kor. Ma ()
Jap. Ba
14 14 Zhū Chu1 Zyu1 Chu Chue Chee Choo Chû Choo Tu Viet. Châu *to Tsyu "crimson"

State
of
Zhu
Kor. Ju ()
Jap. Shu
Can. Gee
Misc. Ju
15 13 Hu2 Wu4 Wu Woo
Vu
Ô• Oh
Aw
Foo Ū Viet. Hồ *gˤa Hu "mustache"
"beard"
Kor. Ho ()
Jap. Ko
16 18 Guō Kuo1 Gwok3 Kwok Kuok Koeh Kueh
Koay
Quay
Kwek
Quek
Kwok Kwok
Kok
Kuok Viet. Quách *kʷˤak Kwak "City wall"
Kor. Gwak ()
Jap. Kaku
Phil. Ker, Kho, Kwok
17 17 2
Ho2
Ho4 Ho Hoe Ho
Hor
Ho Viet. *gˤaj Ha State
of
Han
Kor. Ha ()
Jap. Ka
18 15 Gāo Kao1 Gou1 Ko Kou
Go
Koh Ko
Kor

Kau
Koo Kou Viet. Cao *Cə.kˤaw Kaw "Tall"
Kor. Go ()
Jap. ,Taka
19 16 Lín Lin2 Lam4 Lam Lum Lîm Lim Lìm Lim Līm Viet. Lâm *k.rəm Lim "Forest"
Kor. Lim/Im/Rim
(/)
Jap. Hayashi, Rin
20 20 Luó Lo2 Lo4 Lo Law
Loh, Lowe
Lor
Lo
Lor
Law
Law
Lo
Loh
Viet. La *rˤaj La "Gatherer"
Kor. Na/La/Ra
(/)
Jap. Ra
21 23 Zhèng Cheng4 Zeng6 Cheng Cheang
Chiang

Tay
Teh
Chhang Chang Thàng Viet. Trịnh State
of
Zheng
Kor. Jeong ()
Jap. Tei
Phil. Ching
22 21 Liáng Liang2 Loeng4 Leung Leong
Lang
Leng
Niû Neo Liòng Leong Liōng Viet. Lương *raŋ Ljang "beam" (architecture)

State
of
Liang
Kor. Yang/Ryang (/)
Jap. Ryō
23 24 Xiè Hsieh4 Ze6 Tse Che Chiā
Siā
Chia
Cheah
Seah
Tshia Cheah Chhià Viet. Tạ *sə-lak-s ZjaeH "Thankful"

State
of
Xie
Kor. Sa ()
Jap. Sha
Can. Tsia
Phil. Saa, Sese, Sia
Misc. Shieh
24 22 Sòng Sung4 Sung3 Sung Sòng Song Sung Song
Soong
Sūng Viet. Tống State
of
Song
Kor. Song ()
Jap.
Misc. Soong
25 26 Táng T'ang2 Tong4 Tong Tng Tng
Tang
Thòng Tong
Thong
Thóng Viet. Đường *N-rˤaŋ Dang Tang dynasty
Kor. Dang ()
Jap.
26 35 Hsü3 Heoi2 Hui
Hooi
Hoi Khó• Koh
Khoh
Hee Viet. Hứa *qʰaʔ XjoX State
of
Kor. Heo ()
Jap. Kyo
27 25 Hán Han2 Hon4 Hon Hân Hang Hòn Hon Hón Viet. Hàn *gˤar Han State
of
Han
Kor. Han ()
Jap. Kan
Misc. Hang
28 27 Féng Feng2 Fung4 Fung Fong Pâng Pang Fùng
Phùng
Foong Fūng Viet. Phùng *Cə.bəŋ Bjuwng State
of
Feng
Kor. Pung ()
Jap.
29 34 Dèng Teng2 Dang6 Tang Theng Dung Teng Then Ten
Then
Thèn Viet. Đặng State
of
Deng
Kor. Deung ()
Jap.
Phil. Deang
30 32 Cáo Ts'ao2 Cou4 Tso Chaw Chô Chow Tshò
Tshàu
Cho
Chaw
Chhóu Viet. Tào *N-tsˤu Dzaw State
of
Cao
Kor. Jo ()
Jap.
31 39 Péng P'eng2 Pang4 Pang Banh Phê
Phî
Peh
Phe
Phàng Phang Pháng Viet. Bành *C.bˤraŋ Baeng Descendant of Peng Zu
Kor. Paeng ()
Jap.
Khmer Pay
32 38 Zēng Tseng1 Zang1 Tsang Chang
Dong
Chan Chan Tsên Chen Chen Viet. Tăng *tsˤəŋ Tsong State of Zeng
Kor. Jeung ()
Jap.
Indon. Tjan
Misc. Tzeng
33 30
()
Xiāo Hsiao1 Siu1 Siu Sio Siau Seow
Siau
Siow
Siâu Siew
Siaw
Sieu Viet. Tiêu *sˤiw Sew Kingdom of Xiao
Kor. So ()
Jap. Shō
34 58 Tián T'ien2 Tin4 Tin Chan Tiân Chan
Chang
Thièn Thien
Then
Thién Viet. Điền *lˤiŋ Den field, farmland
Kor. Jeon (전)
Jap. Den
35 29 Dǒng Tung3 Dung2 Tung Tong Táng Tong Túng Tung Tûng Viet. Đổng direct, supervise
Kor. Dong ()
Jap.
36 33 Yuán Yüan2 Jyun4 Yuen Wan Oân Wang Yèn Yen Iōn Viet. Viên *ɢʷan Hjwon a long robe
Kor. Won ()
Jap. En
Phil. Yan
37 52 Pān P'an1 Pun1 Poon Pun Phoa Phua Phân Pan
Phan
Phon Viet. Phan name of a river that flows into the Han
Kor. Ban ()
Jap. Han
38 28 2 Jyu1 Yue U Î
Û
Yee Yee Viet. Vu *ɢʷa Hju in, on, at; go to
Kor. U ()
Jap. U
39 43 Jiǎng Chiang3 Zoeng2 Tseung Cheung Chiú Cheoh
Chioh
Tsiòng Cheong Chiông Viet. Tưởng a plant (hydropyrum latifolium)
Kor. Jang ()
Jap. Shō
40 44 Cài Ts'ai4 Coi3 Choi Choy
Tsoi
Toy
Chhoà Chua Chhai Chai
Choi
Chhói Viet. Thái
Sái
*s.r̥ˤat-s TshajH State of Cai
Kor. Chae ()
Jap. Sai
Can. Chai
Misc. Tsay
41 51 2 Jyu4 Yu
Yue
U
Yee
Î
Û
Ee
Eu
Yee Viet. *la Yo extra, surplus
Kor. Yeo ()
Jap. Yo
Indon. Ie, Iman, Oe
42 53 Tu4 Dou6 To Do
Tou
Tō• Toh Thu To
Toh
Thù Viet. Đỗ birchleaf pear
Kor. Du ()
Jap. To
43 49 Yeh4 Jip6 Yip Ip
Yeap
Iap Yap Ya̍p Yap Iep Viet. Diệp *lap Yep leaf, page
Kor. Seob/Yeop
(/)
Jap.
Misc. Yee, Ee
44 31 Chéng Ch'eng2 Cing4 Ching Cheng Thiâ Thia Chhàng
Chhìn
Chang
Chin
Tháng Viet. Trình *C.lreŋ Drjeng rule, order, regulation, formula, journey, procedure
Kor. Jeong ()
Jap. Tei
45 41 Su1 Sou1 So
Sou Soh Soh Soo Su Viet. *s.ŋˤa Su
Kor. So ()
Jap. So
Misc. Soo
46 47 Wèi Wei4 Ngai6 Ngai   Gūi Ngwee
Ngui
Ngui Ngui
Wee
Ngùi Viet. Nguỵ
Ngụy
*N-qʰuj Ngjw+j
Kor. Wi ()
Jap. Gi
47 40 3 Leoi5 Lui Loi
Lee
Leu
Ler
Loo
Lee Liê Viet. Lữ
*raʔ LjoX
Kor. Yeo/Ryeo
(/)
Jap. Ryo
48 46 Dīng Ting1 Ding1

Teng4


Ting Ding
Teng Teng Tén Ten Tiang Viet. Đinh *tˤeŋ Teng
Kor. Jeong ()
Jap. Tei
49 59 Rèn Jen4 Jam6 Yam Iam
Yum
Jîm Jim Ngim Ngim
Yim
Nìm Viet. Nhiệm
Nhậm
*nəm-s NyimH
Kor. Im ()
Jap. Jin
50 37 Shěn Shen3 Sam2 Sum Sam
Shum
Sím Sim Shím
Sím
Sim Sím Viet. Thẩm
Trầm
*l̥əmʔ SyimX
Kor. Shim ()
Jap. Shin
51 64 Yáo Yao2 Jiu4 Yiu Yeow
Io
Iu
Iâu Yeo Yào Yau Iēu Viet. Diêu
Kor. Yo ()
Jap.
52 42 Lu2 Lou4 Lo Lou Lô• Loh Loo Viet.
Kor. No/Ro
(/)
Jap. Ryo
53 60 Jiāng Chiang1 Goeng1 Keung Geung
Keong
Kiang
Kiu
Kiang Kiông Keong Kiong Viet. Khương *C.qaŋ Kjang
Kor. Kang ()
Jap. Kyō
54 74 Cuī Ts'ui1 Ceoi1 Chui Choi Chui Chui
Chwee
Tshûi Chooi Chhoi Viet. Thôi *dzˤuj Dzwoj "High Mountain"
Kor. Choi ()
Jap. Sai
Misc. Tseui
55 56 Zhōng Chung1 Zung1 Chung Chong Chiong
Cheng
Cheng Chûng
Tsung
Chong
Chung
Tung Viet. Chung State
of
Zhongli
Kor. Jong ()
Jap. Shō
56 65 Tán T'an2 Taam4 Tam Tom
Ham
Hom
Thâm Tham Thàm Tham Thóm Viet. Đàm State
of
Tan
Kor. Dam ()
Jap. Tan
57 70 Lu4 Luk6 Luk Lok Liok Loke
Lek
Liu̍k Luk Liuk Viet. Lục *ruk Ljuwk Land, Six
Kor. Yuk/Ryuk
(/)
Jap. Riku
58 57 Wāng Wang1 Wong1 Wong   Ong
Ang
Wang Vong Wong Uong Viet. Uông *qʷˤaŋ 'Wang
Kor. Wang ()
Jap. Ō
59 61 Fàn Fan4 Faan6 Fan   Hoān Huang Fam Fam Fàn Viet. Phạm *bomʔ BjomX
Kor. Beom ()
Jap. Han
60 69 Jīn Chin1 Gam1 Kam Gum Kim Kim Kîm Kim Kim Viet. Kim *kəm Kim "Gold"
Kor. Kim ()
Jap. Kin
61 63 Shí Shih2 Sek6 Sek
Shek
Seac
Seak
Chioh
Cheoh
Sha̍k
Sak
Shak Sak Viet. Thạch *dak Dzyek "Stone"
Kor. Seok (석)
Jap. Seki,Ishi
62 66 Liào Liao4 Liu6 Liu Lew
Leow
Liew
Lio
Liāu Leow
Liau
Liow
Liau Liew
Liau
Lièu Viet. Liêu
Liệu
Kor. Ryo ()
Jap. Ryō
63 45 Jiǎ Chia3 Gaa2 Ka Ga  Kia Ka Viet. Giả *C.qˤ<r>aʔ-s KaeH "Merchant"
Kor. Ga ()

Go ()
Jap. Ka
64 55 Xià Hsia2 Haa6 Ha   Hah
Hay
Ha Ha Viet. Hạ Xia Dynasty
Kor. Ha ()
Jap. Ka
65   Wéi Wei2 Wai4 Wai Vai   Wee Vúi
Wooi
Wee
Viet. Vi
Kor. Wi ()
Jap. I
66 36
()
Fu4 Fu6 Fu
Foo
  Poh Fu Fu Viet. Phó *pa-s PjuH
Kor. Bu ()
Jap. Fu
67 62 Fāng Fang1 Fong1 Fong   Png
Hong
Pung Fông Fong Fong Viet. Phương *C.paŋ Pjang
Kor. Bang ()
Jap.
Misc.
68 73 Bái Pai2 Baak6 Pak  Bak Peh
Pek
Peh Pha̍k Pak
Phak
Phak Viet. Bạch *bˤrak Baek "White"
Kor. Baek ()
Jap. Haku
Misc. Bo
69 67 Zōu Tsou1 Zau1 Chow Jao
Chau
Cho• Chou
Choh
Tsêu Chew
Chiew
Chiu Viet. Trâu
Kor. Chu ()
Jap.
70 84 Mèng Meng4 Maang6 Mang   Bēng Meng Men Mang Màng Viet. Mạnh *mˤraŋ-s MaengH
Kor. Maeng ()

Mang ()
Jap.
71 68 Xióng Hsiung2 Hung4 Hung Hong   Him Yùng Yoong Hiūng Viet. Hùng "Bear"
Kor. Ung ()
Jap.
72 78 Qín Ch'in2 Ceon4 Chun Tseun

Tseon Chon

Chîn Ching Tshìn Chin Chhín Viet. Tần *dzin Dzin Qin Dynasty
Kor. Jin ()
Jap. Shin
73 77 Qiū1 Ch'iu1 Jau1 Yau Iao
Iau
Khu
Cu
Khoo Khiû
Hiû
Hew
Khew
Khiu Viet. Khâu
Kor. Koo ()
Jap. Kyū
Mal. Hew, Hiew
Chiew
Misc. Chiou
74 79 Jiāng Chiang1 Gong1 Kong   Kang Kang Kông Kong Kong Viet. Giang *kˤroŋ Kaewng
Kor. Gang ()
Jap.
Misc. Kiang
75 91 Yǐn Yin3 Wan5 Wan     Un
Eun
Eung
Yún Yoon Ín Viet. Doãn *m-qurʔ YwinX
Kor. Yun ()
Jap. In
76 48 Xuē Hsüeh1 Sit3 Sit   Seet Sih Siet Set Siot Viet. Tiết
Kor. Seol ()
Jap. Setsu
77 50
()
Yán Yen2 Jim4 Yim Im Giâm Ngiam Ngiàm Ngiam
Yam
Iēm Viet. Diêm
Kor. Yeom ()
Jap. En
78 87 Duàn Tuan4 Dyun6 Tuen Tun Tōa
Tōan
Tng
Theng
Tng
Teung
Thon Ton
Thon
Thòn Viet. Đoàn
Kor. Dan ()
Jap. Dan
79 88 Léi Lei2 Leoi4 Lui Loi   Lui Lùi Looi
Lui
Lōi Viet. Lôi *C.rˤuj Lwoj "Thunder"
Kor. Roe ()
Noe ()
Jap. Rai
Hoisan Louie, Louis
80 82 Hóu Hou2 Hau4 Hau Hao Hâu
Jao
Hoh Hèu Hew Héu Viet. Hầu
Kor. Hu
(, )
Jap.
81 85 Lóng Lung2 Lung4 Lung
Loong
Long Lêng Leng Liùng Loong Liūng Viet. Long "Dragon"
Kor. Yong/Ryong
(/)

Rong ()

Nong ()

Bang ()
Jap. Ryū
82 80 Shǐ Shih3 Si2 Sze Si See
Seet
Ser
Seu
Sze
Sṳ́ Soo
Sze
Viet. Sử
Kor. Sa ()
Jap. Shi
83   Táo T'ao2 Tou4 Tou

To

Tow Tow Thàu
Thò
Tao
Tow
Thóu Viet. Đào
Kor. Do ()
Jap.
84 93 Li2 Lai4 Lai   Loy
Loi

Lài
Lee
Lai
Viet.
Kor. Yeo/Ryeo
(/)
Jap. Rei
85 97 4
Ho4
Ho6 Ho   Hor Ho
Fo
Ho Viet. Hạ
Kor. Ha ()
Jap. Ga
86 81 Ku4 Gu3 Ku Goo
Gu

Khoo

Kò• Koh Ku Koo Viet. Cố
Kor. Go ()
Jap. Ko
87 76 Máo Mao2 Mou4 Mo Mou Mô• Mor
Mâu
Mo
Mao
Mōu Viet. Mao "Fur, Hair"
Kor. Mo (모)
Jap.
88 71 Hǎo Hao3 Kok3 Kok     Hak Khok   Hok Viet. Hác
Kor. Hak ()
Jap. Kaku
89 99 Gōng Kung1 Gung1 Kung Kwong Kong4 Kióng Kiûng Kong Kiung Viet. Cung
Kor. Gong ()
Jap. Kyū
90 83 Shào Shao4 Siu6 Shiu Shaw
Sio
Siō Seow
Sioh
Shau
Sau
Shao Sèu Viet. Thiệu
Kor. So ()
Jap. Shō
91 86 Wàn Wan4 Maan6 Man Meng  Bān Buang Van Wan
Man
Màn Viet. Vạn
Kor. Man ()
Jap. Ban
92 89 Qián Ch'ien2 Cin4 Chin Chee Chî Chee Tshièn Chen Chhién Viet. Tiền
Kor. Jeon ()
Jap. Sen
93   Yán Yen2 Jim4 Yim Im Giâm Ngiam Ngiàm Yam Ngiēm Viet. Nghiêm
Kor. Eom ()
Jap. Gen
94   Tán T'an2 Taam4 Tam      Thàm   Thóm Viet.   *N-r[a]mʔ YemX
Kor. Dam ()
Jap.  
95 95 Wu3 Mou5 Mo Mou   Boo Moo
Woo
Viet.
*maʔ MjuX
Kor. Mu ()
Jap. Bu
96 54 Dài Tai4 Daai3 Tai Tai Tai Tai Thài Viet. Đái
Đới
*Cə.tˤək-s TojH
Kor. Dae ()
Jap. Tai
Phil. Ty, Tee
97   Mo4 Mok6   Mok Mài Mok Mo̍k Mok Mok Viet. Mạc *mˤak Mak
Kor. Mo ()
Jap.  
98 72 Kǒng K'ung3 Hung2 Hung   Kong
Khong
Khúng Koong
Khoong
Khúng Viet. Khổng *kʰˤoŋʔ KhuwngX
Kor. Kong ()
Jap.
99  
Xiàng Hsiang4 Heung3  Heung    Hiang Hióng Hiòng Viet. Hưởng *qʰaŋ-s
*n̥aŋʔ-s
XjangH
Kor. Hyang ()
Jap. Mukai
100 90 Tāng T'ang1 Tong1   Tong   Tng
Teung
Thông Thong
Tong
Thong Viet. Thang *l̥ˤaŋ Thang
Kor.  
Jap.  
  75 Kāng Kang1 Hong1  Hong   Kang
Khang
Không Khong
Kong
Khong Viet. Khang *k-l̥ˤaŋ Khang
Kor. Gang ()
Jap.
  92 I4 Yi6

Yik6 

    Ek Yit   Iak Viet. Dịch *lek-s YeH
Kor. Yee ()
Jap.  
  94 Cháng Ch'ang2 Soeng4  Sheung Siông Sioh
Seoh
Sòng Song Sōng Viet. Thường *daŋ Dzyang
Kor. Sang ()
Jap.
Misc. Sōng, Thōng
  96 Qiáo Ch'iao2 Kiu4   Kiu Keow
Kiao
Khiàu Kiew
Khiew
Khiéu Viet. Kiều *N-kaw Gjew
Kor. Kyo ()
Jap. Kyō
  98 Lài Lai4 Laai6 Lay Lai Lay Nai Lai Lài Lài Viet. Lại *rˤat-s LajH
Kor. Roe ()

Noe ()
Jap. Rai
  100 Wén Wen2 Man4  Man Bûn Boon Vùn Voon Mūn Viet. Văn *mən Mjun
Kor. Moon ()
Jap. Bun♙ 
Other surveys
  • 2006 multi-year survey and study conducted by Yuan Yida, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences's Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, using a sample size of 296 million spread across 1,110 counties and cities and recording around 4,100 surnames.[14]
  • 1990: Ji Yuwen Publishing House, based on a sample size of 174,900.
  • 1987 study conducted by Yuan Yida with a sample size of 570,000.
  • 1977 study published by Li Dongming, a Chinese historian, as "Surname" (《姓》) in Dongfang Magazine.

Taiwan[edit]

Taiwanese surnames by frequency:
  陳 Chen (11.06%)
  林 Lin (8.28%)
  黃 Huang (6.01%)
  張 Chang (5.26%)
  李 Li (5.11%)
  王 Wang (4.12%)
  吳 Wu (4.04%)
  劉 Liu (3.17%)
  蔡 Tsai (2.91%)
  楊 Yang (2.66%)
  Other (47.4%)

According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior's Department of Population in February, 2005,[6] Taiwan has only 1,989 surnames. The top ten surnames in Taiwan accounted for 52.63% of the general population, and the top 100 accounted for 96.11%.[6]

Rank Character Romanizations  %
of total
pop.
2005 Mainland
(2007)
Mandarin Cantonese Minnan Other
Trad. Simp. Pinyin Wade Jyutping HK Other POJ Other
1 5 Chén Ch'en2 Can4 Chan Chin Chun Tân Ting 11.06%
2 19 Lín Lin2 Lam4 Lam Lum Lîm Lim, Liem 8.28%
3 7 Huáng Huang2 Wong4 Wong Wang
Vong
Ng Eng, Ung
Wee, Oei
Ooi, Uy
Bong
6.01%
4 3 Zhāng Chang1 Zoeng1 Cheung Chong
Cheong
Tiu Teo, Teoh
Tio, Thio
Tiew
Tiong 5.26%
5 2 Li3 Lei5 Lee
Li
Le
Lei
Lee
Lie
Dee
5.11%
6 1 Wáng Wang2 Wong4 Wong Vong Ông Heng 4.12%
7 9 Wu2 Ng4 Ng Ung
Eng
Gô•
Ngô•
Goh, Gouw Woo 4.04%
8 4 Liú Liu2 Lau4 Lau Lao
Lou
Lâu Low
Lao, Lauw
3.17%
9 40 Cài Ts'ai4 Coi3 Choi Choy
Tsoi
Toy
Chhoà Chua, Choa
Tjoa
Tsay
Chai
2.91%
10 6 Yáng Yang2 Joeng4 Yeung Yeong
Ieong
Iûⁿ Eaw
Yeo, Yeoh
Yong
Joe, Yo
Young 2.66%

Other common surnames in Taiwan are listed by rank below. This report is based on the 2005 study. The traditional character is listed before the slash while the simplified character is listed after the slash. The ranking in the PRC (based on the 2007 study) is listed in the parenthesis. The Wade-Giles romanization is also listed first in the brackets, and the Hanyu Pinyin romanization is listed second in the brackets.

11. 許 / 许 (26) [Hsü3,Xǔ]

12. 鄭 / 郑 (21) [Cheng4,Zhèng]

13. 謝 / 谢 (23) [Hsieh4,Xiè]

14. 郭 / 郭 (16) [Kuo1,Guō]

15. 洪 / 洪 (above 100) [Hung2,Hóng]

16. 邱 / 邱 (73) [Ch'iu1,Qiū]

17. 曾 / 曾 (32) [Tseng1,Zēng]

18. 廖 / 廖 (62) [Liao4,Liào]

19. 賴 / 赖 (above 100) [Lai4,Lài]

20. 徐 / 徐 (11) [Hsü2,Xú]

21. 周 / 周 (10) [Chou1,Zhōu]

22. 葉 / 叶 (43) [Yeh4,Yè]

23. 蘇 / 苏 (45) [Su1,Sū]

24. 莊 / 庄 (above 100) [Zhuang1, Zhuāng]

25. 江 / 江 (74) [Chiang1,Jiāng]

26. 呂 / 吕 (47) [Lü3,Lǚ]

27. 何 / 何 (17)[Hê2 or Ho2,Hé]

28. 羅 / 罗 (20)[Lo2,Luó]

29. 高 / 高 (18) [Kao1,Gāo]

30. 蕭 / 萧 (33) [Hsiao1,Xiāo]

Other surveys
  • 1994–2011: The American researcher Chih-Hao Tsai has compiled unauthoritative annual surveys of the most common surnames on Taiwan[15] based on published lists of all successful applicants taking Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Exam.[16] The test was mandatory for college entrance until 2002 and is still quite common, with more than a hundred thousand successful applicants a year and a pass rate for all test takers between 60 and 90%.[16]

Diaspora[edit]

Canada[edit]

Statistics Canada has not released a list of common surnames for any of its recent censuses, but much of the Canadian Chinese population is clustered in Metro Vancouver and Greater Victoria in British Columbia and the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the Ottawa-Gatineau Area in Ontario, as well as in some emerging major clusters, such as the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta, Montreal, and the Communauté métropolitaine de Québec (Quebec Community Metropolitan Area) in Quebec.

Ontario[edit]

A 2010 study by Baiju Shah & al data-mined the Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients in the province of Ontario for a particularly Chinese-Canadian name list. Ignoring potentially non-Chinese spellings such as Lee (49,898 total)[17]:Table 1, they found that the most common Chinese names in Ontario were:[17]

Rank Name Total Number Character(s) Romanization
Trad. Simp.
1 Wong 34,567 Wáng, Wong
Huáng, Hwang, Wang, Whang, Wong
Wāng, Wong
2 Chan 32,692 Chan, Chén
3 Li 27,608 Le, Lee, Lei, Lǐ
Lai, Le, Lee, Lei, Lí
4 Chen 25,618 Chan, Chén
5 Wang 22,548 Wáng, Wong
Wāng, Wong
6 Liu 18,784 Lau, Liew, Liú, Low
Lau, Lew, Liào, Lieu, Liew, Liu
7 Zhang 18,003 Chang, Cheung, Teo, Zhāng, Zheung
8 Lam 15,910 Lam, Lín
Lán
9 Leung 13,696 Leung, Liáng
10 Ho 12,830 Hé, Ho
Hè, Ho

Indonesia[edit]

Nearly as large is the Chinese Indonesian community. The 2010 Indonesian census reported more than 8.8 million self-identified Chinese, making up 3.7% of the general population.[18] Just as in Thailand, though, previous legislation (in this case, 127/U/Kep/12/1966) had banned ethnic Chinese surnames throughout the country. This law was abolished after the removal of Suharto, but Chinese names remain a mix of Indonesian, pinyin, and Dutch-influenced Hokkien.

Malaysia[edit]

During the 2010 Malaysian Census, approximately 6,960,000 Malaysians – almost a quarter of the population – self-identified as "Chinese".[19] They are among the few Malaysians who have a continuous surname, as most Malaysians go by patronymics instead.

Singapore[edit]

Singaporean surnames by frequency:
  Tan
(9.5%)
  Lim
(6.6%)
  Lee
(4.5%)
  Ng
(4.2%)
  Ong
(2.7%)
  Wong
(2.6%)
  Goh
(2.2%)
  Chua
(2.2%)
  Chan
(1.9%)
  Koh
(1.9%)
  Teo
(1.9%)
  Ang
(1.7%)
  Yeo
(1.5%)
  Tay
(1.4%)
  Ho
(1.4%)
  Low
(1.3%)
  Toh
(1.0%)
  Sim
(0.9%)
  Chong
(0.9%)
  Chia/Seah
(0.9%)
  Other
(48.8%)

Ethnic Chinese make up almost three-fourths (2009) of Singapore's resident population of nearly four million (2011).

According to Statistics Singapore, as of the year 2000, the most common Chinese Singaporean names were:[20]

Rank Name Origin Total Number
(2000)
 %
(Chinese population)
Character(s) Pinyin
Trad. Simp.
1 Tan Hokkien
Teochew
Hainanese
237,800 9.5 Chén
2 Lim Hokkien
Teochew
Hainanese
Hakka
166,000 6.6 Lín
3 Lee Hokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
Hainanese
Hakka
112,600 4.5
4 Ng Hokkien
Teochew
106,200 4.2 Huáng
Hakka
Cantonese
5 Ong Hokkien 66,700 2.7 Wáng
Wāng
6 Wong Cantonese
Hainanese
Hakka
65,000 2.6 Wáng
Wāng
Huáng
7 Goh Hokkien
Teochew
56,200 2.2
8 Chua Hokkien
Teochew
54,600 2.2 Cài
9 Chan Hokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
48,400 1.9 Chén
Zēng
10 Koh Hokkien
Teochew
48,100 1.9
11 Teo Hokkien
Teochew
46,800 1.9 Zhāng
12 Ang Hokkien
Teochew
43,600 1.7 Hóng
13 Yeo Hokkien
Teochew
36,600 1.5 Yáng
14 Tay Teochew 35,800 1.4 Zhèng
15 Ho Hokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
Hakka
35,000 1.4
16 Low Teochew
Hokkien
31,600 1.3 Liú
17 Toh Teochew
Hokkien
25,300 1.0
Zhuó
18 Sim Teochew
Hokkien
23,800 0.9 Shěn
19 Chong Hakka 23,100 0.9 Zhuāng
Zhāng
20 Chia
Seah
Teochew
Hokkien
22,600 0.9 Xiè

Thailand[edit]

The largest Chinese diaspora community in the world are the Chinese Thais (or Sino-Thais), who make up 12–14%[21][22] of the total Thai population. However, very few of the Chinese Thais have Chinese surnames, after the 1913 Surname Act that required the adoption of Thai surnames in order to enjoy Thai citizenship. Moreover, the same law requires that those possessing the same surname be related, meaning that immigrant Chinese may not adopt the surname of their clansmen unless they can show actual kinship.

United States[edit]

The 2010 US Census found 3,794,673 self-identified Chinese Americans and 230,382 self-identified Taiwanese Americans,[23] up from 2,734,841 Chinese Americans and 144,795 Taiwanese Americans in 2000.[24]

Although the Chinese make up the largest segment of America's Asian and Pacific Islander population,[25] the most common Chinese-derived surname during the 2000 census was not itself Chinese but the Vietnamese Nguyễn (Chinese: , Ruǎn).[2]

During the 2000 census, the 10 most common Chinese American names were:[26]

Rank Name Ethnicity
[27]
Total Number
(2000 census; API only)
Character(s) Pinyin
Among
API
Across
All Names
Trad. Simp.
2 24 Lee Chinese 229,200
Korean
6 262 Chen Chinese 100,700 Chén
7 279 Wong Chinese
(Cantonese)
88,000 Wáng
Huáng
Wāng
9 399 Yang Chinese
(Mandarin)
69,000 Yáng
10 440 Wang Chinese 63,800 Wáng
Wāng
11 426 Chang Chinese 62,900 Zhāng
Cháng
12 461 Chan Chinese
(Cantonese)
59,800 Chén
14 521 Li Chinese 55,700
17 626 Lin Chinese 47,000 Lín
18 652 Liu Chinese 45,500 Liú
Liào
Other surveys
  • 2002: study by Matthew Falkenstein, data-mining the 2000 US Census for a particularly Asian & Pacific Islander name list,[28] omitting those like Lee that are common among other ethnicities
  • 2000: study by Diane Lauderdale, et al., data-mining Social Security card applications by persons born abroad before 1941 for a particularly Chinese-American name list[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Xinhua Net. "我国汉族公民最长姓名达15字 公安部:起名不规范会有不便 [My Country's Han Citizens' Longest Name Reaches 15 Characters]". 12 Dec 2007. Accessed 16 Mar 2012. (Chinese)
  2. ^ a b c United States Census Bureau. "Genealogy Data: Frequently Occurring Surnames from Census 2000". 27 Sept 2011. Accessed 29 Mar 2012.
  3. ^ a b Word, David L. & al. "Demographic Aspects of Surnames from Census 2000". 26 Jun 2001. Accessed 3 Feb 2012.
  4. ^ Prest, Kevin. "X三Y四: Similar Chinese Idioms (Chengyu)". 4 Mar 2011. Accessed 5 Apr 2012.
  5. ^ a b c "公安部统计:'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人 [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]." 24 Apr 2007. Accessed 27 Mar 2012.(Chinese)
  6. ^ a b c Op. cit. 中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典. "中国台湾姓氏排行 [Taiwan (China) Surname Ranking]". 8 Jun 2010. Accessed 1 Apr 2012. (Chinese)
  7. ^ McFarlan, Donald. 1990 Guinness Book of World Records. Sterling Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN 189205101X.
  8. ^ Beijing News. "一个“张伟”找到29万人 [One Name 'Zhang Wei' Covers 290,000 People]". 26 Jul 2007. Accessed 16 Mar 2012. (Chinese)
  9. ^ People's Daily Online. "China issues first set of stamps of Chinese family names". 19 Nov 2004. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  10. ^ 挑灯看剑 踏雪寻梅. "新'百家姓'图腾,快来看看您的尊姓啥模样 [The New Hundred Family Surnames's Totems: Quick, Come Look at Your Honorable Surname's Picture]". 12 Dec 2011. Accessed 28 Mar 2012. (Chinese)
  11. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik. "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995 , 2000 and 2010". 2009. Accessed 29 Mar 2012.
  12. ^ Lafraniere, Sharon (21 April 2009). "Name Not on Our List? Change It, China Says". The New York Times. 
  13. ^ Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction PDF (1.93 MB). 2011. Accessed 17 March 2013.
  14. ^ The results of this survey were previously published at the National Citizen Identity Information Center's website at http://www.nciic.com.cn/yewufanwei-rksu-mfcp2.htm. However, the link is now dead.
  15. ^ Tsai, Chih-Hao. "Common Chinese Names". 8 Aug 2011. Accessed 30 Mar 2012.
  16. ^ a b Tsai, Chih-Hao. "A List of Chinese Names". 8 Aug 2011. Accessed 30 Mar 2012.
  17. ^ a b Shah, B. R.; Chiu, M.; Amin, S.; Ramani, M.; Sadry, S.; Tu, J. V. (2010). "Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: A validation study". BMC Medical Research Methodology 10: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-42. PMC 2877682. PMID 20470433.  edit
  18. ^ Statistics Indonesia. 2010 Census. Op. cit. in "Racism remains for Chinese – Indonesians". The Jakarta Post. 2012-01-22. Retrieved 2012-02-18. 
  19. ^ Population and Housing Census, Malaysia 2010 (2010 Census). Malaysia: Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 2010. Retrieved 4 Apr 2011. 
  20. ^ Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
  21. ^ US State Department. "Background Note: Thailand". 3 Jan 2012. Accessed 4 Apr 2012.
  22. ^ US Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. "Thailand". 20 Mar 2012. Accessed 4 Apr 2012.
  23. ^ United States Census Bureau. "QT-P8. Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010 2010. Census Summary File 1". 2010. Accessed 3 Apr 2012.
  24. ^ United States Census Bureau. "The Asian Population: 2000". Feb 2002. Accessed 3 Apr 2012.
  25. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census 2000: Chinese Largest Asian Group in the United States". 4 Mar 2002. Accessed 29 Mar 2012.
  26. ^ Other popular Asian & Pacific Islander names are the Vietnamese names Nguyen (#1), Tran (#5), Le (#8), and Pham (#13); the Korean names Kim (#3) and Park (#15); and the Indian names Patel (#4) and Singh (#16).
  27. ^ a b Lauderdale, Diane S.; et al. (2000). "Asian American ethnic identification by surname" (PDF). Population Research & Policy Review 19: 283–300. .
  28. ^ Falkenstein, Matthew R. "The Asian & Pacific Islander surname list: as developed from Census 2000". Joint Statistical Meetings 2002. (New York), 2002.

External links[edit]