List of companies operating trains in the United Kingdom

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There are many companies operating trains in the United Kingdom, including the 23 operators of franchised passenger services, officially referred to as "train operating companies" or TOCs, as distinct from "freight operating companies".

Passenger operators in Great Britain[edit]

Franchised passenger operator structure in Great Britain[edit]

Sector of British Rail Franchise Pre-grouping Company Original privatised operator Current operator(s)
InterCity InterCity East Coast Great Northern Railway Great North Eastern Railway Virgin Trains East Coast
InterCity West Coast London & North Western Railway Virgin West Coast Virgin Trains
Great Eastern Great Eastern Railway Anglia Railways Abellio Greater Anglia
Great Western Great Western Railway Great Western Trains First Great Western
Midland Midland Railway Midland Mainline East Midlands Trains
CrossCountry N/A Virgin CrossCountry CrossCountry
Network SouthEast Essex Thameside London, Tilbury & Southend Railway LTS Rail c2c
Chiltern Great Central Railway Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways
Gatwick Express N/A Gatwick Express Southern
Great Eastern Great Eastern Railway First Great Eastern Abellio Greater Anglia and TfL Rail
Thames Great Western Railway Thames Trains First Great Western
Island Line Isle of Wight Railway Island Line Trains South West Trains
North London North London Railway Silverlink London Midland
London Overground Rail Operations
South Eastern South Eastern & Chatham Railway Connex South Eastern Southeastern
South Central London, Brighton & South Coast Railway Connex South Central Southern
South Western London & South Western Railway South West Trains South West Trains
Thameslink N/A Thameslink Thameslink and Great Northern
West Anglia Great Northern West Anglia Great Northern Thameslink and Great Northern (services to King's Cross & Moorgate)
Abellio Greater Anglia and London Overground (services to Liverpool Street)
Regional Railways North West Predominantly London & North Western Railway North Western Trains Arriva Trains Wales
First TransPennine Express
Northern Rail
North East Northern Spirit
Scotland Caledonian Railway, Glasgow and South Western Railway, Great North of Scotland Railway, Highland Railway & North British Railway ScotRail Abellio ScotRail
South Wales & West Cambrian Railways, Great Western Railway Wales & West Arriva Trains Wales

First Great Western

Valley Lines Barry Railway, Cardiff Railway, Great Western Railway, Rhymney Railway, Taff Vale Railway Valley Lines Arriva Trains Wales
Merseyrail Electrics N/A Merseyrail Electrics Merseyrail
Central Central Trains CrossCountry
London Midland
East Midlands Trains

Current passenger operators[edit]

The following operate the National Rail network.

Operator Type Franchise Parent(s) Passenger satisfaction[1] Start date Expiry date Replaced
Abellio Greater Anglia Franchise Greater Anglia Abellio 79% 5 February 2012[2] 15 October 2016[3] National Express East Anglia
Abellio ScotRail Franchise ScotRail Abellio 86% 1 April 2015 31 March 2022 First ScotRail
Arriva Trains Wales Franchise Wales & Borders Arriva UK Trains 87% 8 December 2003 13 October 2018[4] Wales & Borders
c2c Franchise Essex Thameside National Express 91% 26 May 1996 September 2029[3] Network SouthEast
(London, Tilbury and Southend Division)
Chiltern Railways Franchise Chiltern Railways Arriva UK Trains 90% 21 July 1996 21 December 2021[4] Network SouthEast (Chiltern Division)
CrossCountry Franchise New CrossCountry Arriva UK Trains 84% 11 November 2007 9 November 2019[3] Central Trains (Birmingham – Stansted & Cardiff – Nottingham route) &
Virgin Trains (CrossCountry franchise)
East Midlands Trains Franchise East Midlands Stagecoach 88% 11 November 2007 14 October 2015[3] Central Trains (Liverpool – Norwich & East Midlands routes) & Midland Mainline
Eurostar Open access N/A Eurostar International Limited, SNCF & NMBS/SNCB 14 November 1994
First Great Western Franchise Greater Western FirstGroup 82% 1 April 2006 March 2019[5] First Great Western, First Great Western Link, Wessex Trains
First Hull Trains Open access N/A FirstGroup 93% 25 September 2002 December 2019
First TransPennine Express[6] Franchise TransPennine FirstGroup & Keolis 87% 1 February 2004 4 February 2016[3] Arriva Trains Northern &
First North Western
Grand Central[7] Open access N/A Arriva UK Trains 95% 18 December 2007 December 2026[8]
Heathrow Connect Open access N/A Heathrow Airport Holdings
FirstGroup
92% 12 June 2005
Heathrow Express Open access N/A Heathrow Airport Holdings 93% 23 June 1998
London Midland Franchise West Midlands Govia 86% 11 November 2007 31 March 2016[3] Central Trains (Birmingham routes) & Silverlink (Northampton Line)
London Overground TfL concession London Overground MTR Corporation
Arriva UK Trains
85% 11 November 2007 12 November 2016[9] Silverlink (North London Lines) & Abellio Greater Anglia (Liverpool Street-Enfield Town/Chingford/Cheshunt via Seven Sisters and Romford-Upminster )
Merseyrail Merseytravel contract Merseyrail Serco-Abellio 93% 20 July 2003 19 July 2028[4] Arriva Trains Merseyside
Northern Rail Franchise Northern Serco-Abellio 82% 12 December 2004 4 February 2016[3] Arriva Trains Northern & First North Western
North Yorkshire Moors Railway Open access N/A Yorkshire Moors Railway Enterprises April 2007 (additional GrosmontWhitby services)
Southeastern Franchise Integrated Kent Govia 80% 1 April 2006 24 June 2018[3] South Eastern Trains
Southern, Thameslink and Great Northern Franchise Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern Govia N/A 14 September 2014 September 2021

First Capital Connect, Southern

South West Trains Franchise South Western Stagecoach 87% 4 February 2007 27 April 2019[3] South West Trains & Island Line
TfL Rail TfL concession Crossrail MTR Corporation N/A 31 May 2015 30 May 2023 Abellio Greater Anglia (Liverpool Street - Shenfield)
Virgin Trains West Coast Franchise InterCity West Coast Virgin Group & Stagecoach 90% 9 March 1997 31 March 2017[3] InterCity (West Coast Division)
Virgin Trains East Coast Franchise InterCity East Coast Virgin Group & Stagecoach N/A 1 March 2015 31 March 2023[10] East Coast
West Coast Railway Company Open access N/A 1998 (Fort WilliamMallaig summer "Jacobite" services and charter operations)

There are also a number of heritage railways and light rail systems.

Defunct operating companies[edit]

Operating companies have ceased to exist for various reasons, including withdrawal of the franchise, the term of the franchise has expired, bankruptcy or merger.

Operator Type Franchise Parent(s) Date started Date ceased Replaced by
Anglia Railways Franchise Anglia GB Railways 5 January 1997 31 March 2004 one (National Express East Anglia)
Arriva Trains
Merseyside
Franchise Merseytravel contract Arriva UK Trains February 2000 20 July 2003 Merseyrail
Arriva Trains Northern Franchise Regional Railways North East Arriva UK Trains February 2000 12 December 2004 Northern Rail & First TransPennine Express
Central Trains Franchise Central National Express 2 March 1997 11 November 2007 CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains & London Midland
Connex South Central Franchise South Central Connex 13 October 1996 16 June 2001 Southern
Connex South Eastern Franchise South Eastern Connex 26 May 1996 9 November 2003 South Eastern Trains
East Coast Franchise InterCity East Coast Directly Operated Railways 14 November 2009 28 February 2015 Virgin Trains East Coast
First Capital Connect Franchise Thameslink Great Northern FirstGroup 1 April 2006 13 September 2014 Thameslink and Great Northern
First Great Eastern Franchise Great Eastern FirstGroup 5 January 1997 31 March 2004 one (National Express East Anglia)
First Great
Western Link
Franchise Thames FirstGroup 1 April 2004 31 March 2006 First Great Western
First North Western Franchise North West Regional Railways FirstGroup 2 March 1997 12 December 2004 Northern Rail, First TransPennine Express & Arriva Trains Wales
First ScotRail Franchise Scotrail FirstGroup 17 October 2004 31 March 2015 Abellio ScotRail
Gatwick Express Franchise Gatwick Express National Express 28 April 1996 22 June 2008 Southern
Great North Eastern Railway Franchise InterCity East Coast Sea Containers 28 April 1996 8 December 2007 National Express East Coast
Great Western Trains Franchise Great Western Great Western Holdings 4 February 1996 March 1998 First Great Western
Island Line Franchise Island Line Stagecoach 13 October 1996 3 February 2007 South West Trains
Merseyrail Electrics Merseytravel contract Merseyrail MTL 19 January 1997 February 2000 Arriva Trains Merseyside
Midland Mainline Franchise Midland Main Line National Express 28 February 1996 11 November 2007 East Midlands Trains
National Express East Anglia Franchise Greater Anglia National Express 1 April 2004 5 February 2012 Abellio Greater Anglia
National Express East Coast Franchise InterCity East Coast National Express 9 December 2007 13 November 2009 East Coast
Northern Spirit Franchise Regional Railways North East MTL 2 March 1997 February 2000 Arriva Trains Northern
North Western Trains Franchise North West Regional Railways Great Western Holdings 2 March 1997 March 1998 First North Western
ScotRail Franchise ScotRail National Express 31 March 1997 17 October 2004 First ScotRail
South Eastern Trains Franchise South Eastern Strategic Rail Authority 9 November 2003 31 March 2006 Southeastern
Silverlink (previously North
London Railways)
Franchise North London Railways National Express 2 March 1997 11 November 2007 London Midland & London Overground
Southern Franchise South Central Govia 26 August 2001 25 July 2015 Connex South Central
Thames Trains Franchise Thames Go-Ahead Group 13 October 1996 31 March 2004 First Great Western Link
Thameslink Franchise Thameslink Govia 2 March 1997 31 March 2006 First Capital Connect
Valley Lines Franchise Valley Lines National Express 13 October 1996 13 October 2001 Wales & Borders
Virgin CrossCountry Franchise CrossCountry Virgin Group
Stagecoach
5 January 1997 11 November 2007 CrossCountry, Virgin Trains (West Coast) & First TransPennine Express
West Anglia Great Northern
(West Anglia Main Line and Lea Valley Lines)
Franchise West Anglia Great Northern National Express 5 January 1997 31 March 2004 one (National Express East Anglia)
West Anglia Great Northern
(Great Northern and Fenline routes)
Franchise West Anglia Great Northern National Express 5 January 1997 31 March 2006 First Capital Connect
Wales & Borders Franchise Wales & Borders National Express 14 October 2001 7 December 2003 Arriva Trains Wales
Wales & West Franchise Wales & West Prism Rail 13 October 1996 13 October 2001 Wales & Borders & Wessex Trains
Wessex Trains Franchise Wessex National Express 14 October 2001 31 March 2006 First Great Western
Wrexham & Shropshire Open access Wrexham to London DB Regio
Renaissance Trains
28 April 2008 28 January 2011 Closed due to lack of profitability

Future operators[edit]

Passenger operators in Northern Ireland[edit]

In Northern Ireland passenger trains are government-owned by Translink. The following brands are used:

Railtour operators[edit]

In Northern Ireland

Freight operators[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]