List of companion plants

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Main article: Companion planting

This is a list of companion plants. Many more are in the list of beneficial weeds. Companion plants assist in the growth of others by attracting beneficial insects, repelling pests, or providing nutrients, shade, or support. They can be part of a biological pest control program.

Vegetables[edit]

Vegetables
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Alliums Allium fruit trees,[1] nightshades (tomatoes,[2] capsicum peppers,[3] potatoes,[4] brassicas,[5] carrots[6][7] carrots,[7] tomatoes,[8] carrots and African spider plants (Cleome gynandra) together,[9] marigolds (Tagetes ssp),[10][11] mints[10][11] Thrips[9] -rabbits,[5] slugs (see Garlic), -aphids,[6] carrot fly,[7] -cabbage loopers,[6] -cabbage maggots,[6] -cabbage worms,[6] -Japanese beetles[6] beans,[12] peas,[13] parsley[citation needed] Alliums are a family of plants which include onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, chives, and others.
Asparagus Asparagus officinalis Tomatoes,[14] parsley[15][16] Aster Family flowers, dill, coriander, tomatoes,[15][16] parsley,[15][16] basil,[16] comfrey, marigolds, nasturtiums[citation needed] coupled with basil seems to encourage lady bugs[citation needed] onion, garlic, potatoes, gladiolas[citation needed]
Beans and other legumes Phaseolus and Vicia Beets,[14][17] lettuce,[18] okra,[18] potato,[16][19][20][21] spinach,[citation needed] dill,[citation needed] cabbage,[16] carrots, chards, eggplant,[22] peas, tomatoes,[16] brassicas,[23] corn,[14][16][17] cucumbers,[17][22] grapes Summer savory,[12][16] beets,[12][17] cucumbers,[12][17] borage,[14] cabbage,[12] carrots,[12] cauliflower,[12] corn,[11][16][17] larkspur,[14] lovage,[14] marigolds,[12][17] mustards,[14] radish,[12][17] potato,[19][20][21] peppermint,[23] rosemary,[14][17][23] lettuce,[18][24] onion,[24] squash,[18] lacy phacelia[25] Snails and slugs[26] Colorado potato beetle[12][20] Tomatoes,[citation needed] chili peppers,[citation needed] alliums,[12][17] gladiolas[12][27] Hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria, a good fertiliser for some plants, too much for others. Rosemary and peppermint extracts are used in organic sprays for beans.[23] Summer savory[17] and potatoes[20] repel bean beetles.
Beans, Bush Phaseolus vulgaris Cucumber,[16] soybeans,[11] strawberries[28] celery,[5][16] strawberries,[12][16] grains[23] fennel,[12] soybeans,[23] dry beans,[23] alfalfa[23] "Lettuce, potato, tomato, other legumes, crucifers, or cucurbits increase sclerotinia" in the soil and should be avoided before and after snap beans.[23] See also the entry for "Beans, Generally speaking" for more info
Beans, Pole Uncertain (see talk page) radishes[12] sunflowers,[12] beets,[12] brassicas,[14] kohlrabi[27] See the entry for "Beans, Generally speaking" for more info
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Beets Beta vulgaris Broccoli,[5] bush beans,[12][17] cabbage,[17] lettuce,[17] kohlrabi,[14][29] onions,[14] brassicas,[17][27] passion fruit[30] bush beans,[14][17] onions,[14] kohlrabi,[14][29] catnip,[citation needed] garlic,[14] lettuce,[12] most brassicas,[12] mint Runner or pole beans[14] Good for adding minerals to the soil through composting leaves which have up to 25% magnesium. Runner or pole beans and beets stunt each other's growth.
Brassicas Brassica Beets,[12] onions,[14] potatoes,[citation needed] cereals (e.g. corn, wheat)[citation needed] Beets,[17][27] spinach,[27] chard,[27] Aromatic plants or plants with many blossoms, such as celery,[11][27] chamomile,[11][14][27] and marigolds.[10][11][31] Dill,[5][11][14] sage,[5][11] peas,[11] peppermint,[5][10][11] spearmint,[11] spurrey,[11] rosemary,[5][11] rye-grass,[11] garlic,[14] onions[27][32] and potatoes.[5] geraniums, alliums,[5] nasturtium,[11][32] borage, hyssop,[5][11] tansy,[11] tomatoes,[11] thyme,[5][11][32] wormwood,[5] southernwood,[5][11] beans,[23] clover[11] wireworms Mustards, nightshades (tomatoes,[14][27] peppers, etc.), pole beans,[14][27] strawberries[14][27] Brassicas are a family of plants which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, radish, and turnip. Thyme, nasturtiums, and onion showed good resistance to cabbage worm, weevil and cabbage looper.[32]
Broccoli Brassica oleracea Lettuce[33] Mixture of mustard, pac choi, and rape.[11] Beets, dill,[5][11] lettuce,[33] mustard,[11] onions,[11][17] tomato,[34] turnip,[35] clover[34] Broccoli as a main crop intercropped with lettuce was shown to be more profitable than either crop alone.[33] Turnip acts as a trap crop.[35] See brassicas entry for more info
Brussels Sprouts Brassica oleracea Sage,[11][36] thyme,[11][36] clover,[36] malting barley[11]
Cabbage Brassica oleracea / Brassica chinensis Beans,[12] celery[5] Beans,[16] clover,[37][38] calendula/pot marigold,[39] chamomile,[17] larkspur,[14] nasturtiums,[17] dill,[17][40] coriander,[41] hyssop,[14] onions,[14][17][42] beets,[17] marigolds,[11] mint,[11][14][17] rosemary,[17] sage,[14][17] thyme,[17] tomatoes,[11] lacy phacelia,[11] lettuce or garlic with Chinese cabbage.[43] Green onions with Chinese cabbage.[11] Snails and slugs[26] grapes[44] See brassicas entry for more info. If using clover as an intercrop it should be sown after cabbage transplant so as not to affect crop yield. Lettuce or garlic increased mortality of the diamondback moth on Chinese cabbage.[43] Nasturtiums repel cabbage moths[17]
Carrots Daucus carota Tomatoes,[45] alliums,[7] beans,[12] leeks,[13] lettuce,[14][46] onions,[7] passion fruit[30] Lettuce,[46] alliums (chives,[14] leeks,[14] onions,[7][14][15] shallots, etc.), rosemary,[14] wormwood,[14] sage,[14] beans, flax assassin bug, lacewing, parasitic wasp, yellow jacket and other predatory wasps leek moth,[15] onion fly[7][15] Dill, parsnip, radish Tomatoes grow better with carrots, but may stunt the carrots' growth. Beans provide the nitrogen carrots need more than some other vegetables. Aromatic companion plants repel carrot fly. Sage, rosemary, and radishes are recommended by some as companion plants, but listed by others as incompatible. Alliums inter-planted with carrots confuse onion and carrot flies. For the beneficial insect-attracting properties of carrots to work, they need to be allowed to flower; Otherwise, use the wild carrot, Queen Anne's Lace, for the same effect. Flax produces an oil that may protect root vegetables like carrots from some pests.
Cauliflower Brassica oleracea Beans,[12] celery,[5] spinach,[47] peas[48] Mixture of Chinese cabbage, marigolds, rape, and sunflower.[11] Spinach,[47] peas[48] One row of spinach alternating at 60 cm from each row of cauliflower proved mutually beneficial.[47] See brassicas for more info. See peas regarding their mutualism with cauliflower.
Celery Apium graveolens Bush beans,[5][16] brassicas,[5][11][27] cucumber[49] Cosmos, daisies, snapdragons, leeks,[5] tomatoes,[5] cauliflower,[5] cabbage,[5] bush beans[5] whiteflies[49] corn, aster flowers Aster flowers, can transmit the aster yellows disease
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Chard Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla Brassicas,[27] passion fruit[30]
Corn / Maize Zea mays Beans,[11][16][17] cucurbits,[14] soybeans,[50] tomatoes[51] Sunflowers, dill,[17] legumes (beans,[14][16][17] peas,[14] soybeans etc.), peanuts, cucurbits,[14] clover,[52] amaranth,[53] white geranium, pigweed,[14] lamb's quarters, morning glory, parsley, and potato,[14] field mustard,[54] Sudan grass[11] Tomato,[22] celery Provides beans with a trellis, is protected from predators and dryness by cucurbits, in the three sisters technique
Cucumber Cucumis sativus Beans,[12][17] kohlrabi,[29] lettuce[14] Kohlrabi,[29] nasturtiums,[14] radishes,[22] marigolds, sunflowers,[22] peas,[22] beans,[16][17][22] chamomile,[14] beets, carrots, dill,[17] onions,[55] garlic,[55][56] amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus),[57] celery,[49] Malabar spinach[49] Beneficial for ground beetles raccoons,[14] ants[14] Potato,[14] aromatic herbs[14] Sow 2 or 3 radish seeds in with cucumbers to repel cucumber beetles.[14] One study showed a 75% reduction in cucumber beetles with the concurrent seeding of amaranth.[57] Various sprays from lettuce, asparagus, Malabar spinach, and celery were found to reduce whiteflies.[49] See cucurbits entry for more info
Cucurbits Cucurbitaceae corn[14] corn,[14] grain sorghum[58] Cucurbits are a family of plants that includes melons, cucumbers, gourds, pumpkins, and squash
Eggplant or Aubergine Solanum melongena Beans, peppers, tomatoes,[59] passion fruit[30] Marigolds, catnip,[17] dill,[11] redroot pigweed,[22] green beans,[22] tarragon, mints, thyme[14] Marigolds will deter nematodes.
Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea v. gongylodes onion,[14][29] beets,[29] aromatic plants,[29] cucumbers[29] beets,[14][29] cucumbers[29] See Brassicas entry for more info
Leek Allium ampeloprasum v. porrum Carrots,[14] celery,[29] onions,[29] tomato,[60] passion fruit[30] Carrots[13] clover,[61] Swiss chard See Alliums entry for more info
Lettuce Lactuca sativa Beets,[12] beans,[18][24] okra,[18] onions,[29] radish,[14] broccoli,[33] Chinese cabbbage,[43] carrots,[46] passion fruit[30] Radish, beets,[17] dill,[14][17] kohlrabi, onions,[14][29][32] beans,[18] carrots,[14][46] cucumbers,[14] strawberries,[14] broccoli[33] thyme,[32] nasturtiums,[32] alyssum,[62] cilantro[62] Slugs and snails.[26] Increased mortality of the diamondback moth on Chinese cabbage.[43] celery, cabbage, cress, parsley Mints (including hyssop, sage, and various "balms") repel slugs, a bane of lettuce and cabbages.[citation needed] Broccoli when intercropped with lettuce was shown to be more profitable then either crop alone.[33]
Mustard Sinapis alba Beans,[14] broccoli,[11] cabbage, cauliflower, fruit trees,[14] grapes,[14] radish, brussels sprouts, turnips various pests See Brassicas entry for more info. Mustard acts as a trap crop in broccoli.[11]
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Nightshades Solanaceae carrots, alliums, mints (basil, oregano, etc.) beans, black walnuts, corn, fennel, dill, brassicas Nightshades are a family of plants which include tomatoes, tobacco, chili peppers (including bell peppers), potatoes, eggplant, and others
Okra Abelmoschus esculentus Sweet potato,[63] tomatoes,[59] peppers[64] beans,[18] lettuce,[18] squash,[18] sweet potato,[63] peppers[64] Okra and Sweet Potato are mutually beneficial when planted simultaneously.[63]
Onion Allium cepa Beets,[14] beans,[24] brassicas,[27][32] cabbage,[14][17][42] broccoli,[11][17] carrots,[7][14][15] lettuce,[14][29] cucumbers,[55] peppers,[3] passion fruit,[30] strawberries.[14] Green onions with Chinese cabbage.[11] Carrots,[7] beets,[14] brassicas,[14] dill,[14] lettuce,[14] strawberries,[14] marigolds,[11] mints,[11] tomatoes,[14] summer savory,[14] chamomile[14][17] lentils, peas,[14] See Alliums entry for more info
Parsnip Pastinaca sativa fruit trees a variety of predatory insects The flowers of the parsnip plant left to seed will attract a variety of predatory insects to the garden, they are particularly helpful when left under fruit trees, the predators attacking codling moth and light brown apple moth. The root also contains Myristricin, which is toxic to fruit flies, house flies, red spider mite, pea aphids, a simple blender made extraction of three blended parsnips roots to one litre of water through a food processor (not one for preparing food) and left overnight, strained and use within a few days.
Peas Pisum sativum Brassicas,[11] turnip,[48] cauliflower,[48] garlic,[48] Turnip,[48] cauliflower,[48] garlic,[48] mints[14] Colorado potato beetle[7] Peas when intercropped with turnips, cauliflower, or garlic showed mutual suppression of growth however their profit per land area used was increased.[48]
Peppers Solanaceae, Capsicum okra[64] Beans,[65] tomatoes, marjoram,[citation needed] okra,[64] geraniums, petunias, sunflowers,[66][67] onions[3] crimson clover,[68] basil,[14] field mustard[54] beans, kale (cabbage, Brussels sprouts, etc.) Pepper plants like high humidity, which can be helped along by planting with some kind of dense-leaf or ground-cover companion, like marjoram and basil; they also need direct sunlight, but their fruit can be harmed by it...pepper plants grown together, or with tomatoes, can shelter the fruit from sunlight, and raises the humidity level. Sunflowers, when in bloom at the right time, sheltered beneficial insects which lowered thrips populations.[66]
Potato Solanum tuberosum Brassicas,[5] beans,[19][20][21] corn,[14] peas,[69] passion fruit[30] Horseradish,[14][17] beans,[16][19][20][21] dead nettle,[14] marigolds,[14] peas,[7][69] onion,[4] garlic,[4][70] thyme,[14] clover[71] Mexican bean beetle[20] Atriplex, carrot, cucumber,[14] pumpkin,[72] raspberries, squash, sunflower, tomato Horseradish increases the disease resistance of potatoes. It repels the potato bug.[17] Garlic was shown to be more effective than fungicides on late potato blight.[70] Peas were shown to reduce the density of Colorado potato beetles.[7]
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo corn,[72] beans Buckwheat, jimson weed,[72] catnip, oregano,[14] tansy, radishes, nasturtiums Spiders, Ground Beetles potatoes[72] Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles, Cucurbita can be used in the three sisters technique. Nasturtiums repel squash bugs.[14]
Radish Raphanus sativus Squash[14] eggplant, cucumber,[14] lettuce,[17] peas,[17] beans,[12][17] pole beans,[12] Chervil,[14][17] lettuce,[14] nasturtiums[14][17] flea beetles, cucumber beetles[17] grapes Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles. Radishes grown with lettuce taste better.[14]
Soybean Glycine max Corn,[50] snap beans,[11] sunflower[50] A mixture of corn, mungbean, and sunflower was found to rid soybeans of aphids.[50] Snap beans act as a trap crop for Mexican bean beetles in soybeans.[11]
Spinach Spinacia oleracea Brassicas,[27] cauliflower,[47] passion fruit[30] Strawberries,[73] peas, beans, cauliflower[47] The peas and beans provide natural shade for the spinach. See cauliflower notes regarding mutualism with spinach.[47]
Squash Cucurbita ssp. corn, beans,[18] okra,[18] Beans,[18] buckwheat, borage,[14][17] catnip, tansy, radishes,[14] marigolds,[32] nasturtiums[14][20] Spiders, Ground Beetles Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles, Cucurbita can be used in the three sisters technique. Marigolds[32] and nasturtiums repel squash bugs.[14][20] Marigolds repel cucumber beetles.[32]
Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas Okra[63] Okra[63] Okra and Sweet Potato are mutually beneficial when planted simultaneously.[63]
Tomatoes Solanum lycopersicum Brassicas,[11] broccoli,[34] cabbage,[11] celery,[5] roses,[14] peppers, asparagus[73] Asparagus,[15] basil,[11][17][32][60][74] beans,[16] bee balm (Monarda),[12][14] oregano, parsley, marigold,[14] alliums, garlic,[2][14] leeks,[60] celery, geraniums, petunias, nasturtium, borage,[14][17] coriander,[45][75] chives,[14] corn,[51] dill,[45] mustard,[45] fenugreek,[45] barley,[45] carrots,[45] eggplant,[59] mints,[14] okra,[59] sage,[14] thyme,[14][32] "flower strips"[76] asparagus beetle[73] Black walnut,[14] alfalfa,[77] corn,[22] fennel,[14] chili peppers,[59] peas,[51] dill, potatoes,[14] beetroot, brassicas,[14] rosemary Black walnuts inhibit tomato growth,[14] in fact they are negative allelopathic to all other nightshade plants (chili pepper, potato, tobacco, petunia) as well, because it produces a chemical called juglone. Dill attracts tomato hornworm.

Growing tomatoes with Basil does not appear to enhance tomato flavour but studies have shown that growing them around 10 inches apart can increase the yield of tomatoes by about 20%.[74] One study shows that growing chili peppers near tomatoes in greenhouses increases tomato whitefly on the tomatoes.[59]
Turnips and Rutabagas Brassica rapa and Brassica napobrassica peas,[48][73] broccoli[35] hairy vetch,[73] peas[48][73] hedge mustard,[73] knotweed[73] Turnips act as a trap crop for broccoli.[35] See peas regarding their mutualism with turnips.

Fruit[edit]

Fruit
Common Name Latin Name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Apple Malus domestica Clover, chives, garlic, leeks, nasturtium, southernwood, daffodils, comfrey Cedar because of apple-cedar rust. Walnut because its roots produce growth inhibitors that apple trees are sensitive to[78]
Apricot Prunus armeniaca peppers A fungus that peppers are prone to can infect apricot trees causing a lot of harm.
Blueberries Vaccinium ssp. oak trees,[79] pine trees,[79] strawberries, clover, bay laurel, dewberries, yarrow tomatoes

Pine and oak trees create the acidic soil blueberries need. Strawberries and dewberries create healthy ground cover, clover fixes nitrogen for the blueberries' high needs, yarrow and bay laurel repel unhealthy insects. Each of the herbal companions listed also like the acidic soil the blueberry plant needs.

Fruit Trees various alliums,[1] tansy,[1] nasturtiums,[1] marigolds,[1] marjoram,[1] lemon balm,[1] mustards,[14] dandelions,[14] borage[1]
Grapes Vitis ssp. Hyssop,[14][17] alyssum,[11] basil, beans, chives,[14] geraniums, mustards,[14] oregano, clover, peas, blackberries cabbage,[44] garlic,[44] radishes
Melon Cucumis melo Chamomile,[14] pigweed,[14] summer savoury,[14] sow thistle[14]
Passion fruit Passiflora edulis Potatoes,[30] beets,[30] Swiss chard,[30] carrots,[30] spinach,[30] strawberries,[30] eggplants,[30] onions,[30] leeks,[30] lettuce[30] Cucurbits,[30] maize,[30] cowpea,[30] sorghum,[30] okra,[30] sweet potatoes[30]
Pears Pyrus ssp. "Aromatic plants"[80]
Strawberries Fragaria × ananassa bush beans,[12] lettuce,[14] onions,[14] spinach,[73] passion fruit[30] caraway,[28] bush beans,[28] lupin,[28] onions,[14] sage,[14] thyme,[14] borage[14][17][28] Slugs and snails.[26] brassicas,[28] Verticillium-susceptible species (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers, melons, okra, mint, bush or bramble fruits, stone fruits, chrysanthemums, roses)[28]

Herbs[edit]

Herbs
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Anise Pimpinella anisum Coriander[14] Not to be confused with star anise which is an entirely different species.
Basil Ocimum basilicum tomato,[11][17][32][60][74] peppers,[14] oregano, asparagus, petunias, grapes chamomile, anise Slugs and snails.[26] butterflies asparagus beetle, hornworms,[17] mosquitoes,[17] thrips and flies[17] common rue is said to make tomatoes taste better, chamomile and anise are supposed to increase the essential oils in many herbs like basil
Borage Borago officinalis Almost everything, especially beans,[14] strawberry,[14][17][28] cucurbits (cucumber, squash[14][17]), fruit trees,[1] tomatoes[14][17] and cabbage Predatory insects, honeybees many pests, tomato worm[17] Predict a square metre for its adult size. Borage is a good companion for a wide variety of plants.[28]
Caraway Carum carvi Strawberries[28] Parasitic wasps, parasitic flies Dill[17]
Catnip Nepeta cataria Eggplant[17] Flea beetles,[17] ants,[17] aphids[14]
Chamomile Matricaria recutita Most herbs,[14] brassicas,[11][14][27] cucumber,[14] wheat, onion,[14][17] cabbage[17] Hoverflies, wasps Growing near herbs will increase their oil production.
Chervil Anthriscus cerefolium Radish,[14][17] lettuce, broccoli aphids radish loves shade, fortunately it grows well with shade-tolerant food plants; will make radishes grown near it taste spicier
Chives Allium schoenoprasum Apples, carrots,[14][17] grapes,[14] roses,[14][17] tomatoes,[14] brassica (broccoli, cabbage, mustard, etc.), many others carrots cabbage worms, carrot fly, aphids,[14][17] mites,[17] nematodes[17] beans, peas Same companion traits as all alliums (onions, garlic, shallots, leeks, etc.)said to prevent apple scab after 3 years planting at base of apple trees
Cilantro / Coriander Coriandrum sativum Anise[14] cabbage,[41] spinach, lettuce,[62] tomato[45][75] beans, peas tachinid fly, hoverflies[41][62] aphids,[14][17] spider mites, white flies and potato beetle dill Attracts hoverflies which may in turn reduce pest populations in cabbages.[41] Will cross-pollinate easily with dill and ruin both plants.
Dill Anethum graveolens Brassicas,[5][11][14] broccoli,[11] cabbage,[17][40] corn,[17] eggplant/aubergine,[11] fennel,[81] lettuce,[14][17] onions,[14] cucumbers[17] fennel[81] Tiger Swallowtail butterflies/caterpillars, Hoverflies, Wasps, Ladybugs, Tomato Hornworm, honeybees, Ichneumonid Wasps Aphids,[17] spider mites,[17] squash bugs, cabbage looper carrots, tomatoes, cilantro One of the few plants said to grow with fennel.[citation needed] See fennel for info about intercropping. Will cross-pollinate easily with cilantro and ruin both.
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Dill[81] Dill[81] ladybugs, syrphid fly,[62] tachinid fly aphids[14][62] Almost everything[citation needed] Fennel is allelopathic to most garden plants, inhibiting growth, causing to bolt, or actually killing many plants.[citation needed] When growing together a higher ratio of fennel to dill provides the highest profit. Dill has a stabilizing effect on the fennel seed.[81] Because it attracts syrphidae it reduces aphids through predation.[62]
Garlic Allium sativum vetch,[29] brassicas,[14] beets,[14] roses,[14][29] tomatoes,[2][14][29] cucumbers,[55][56] lettuce, celery, peas,[48] Chinese cabbage,[43] potatoes[4][70] Tarragon, peas[48] Aphids,[14][17] Japanese beetles,[17] mites,[17] cabbage looper, ants, cabbage maggot, fruit borers,[29] red spider mites,[29] diamondback moth on Chinese cabbage,[43] slugs[82] cabbages,[citation needed] grapes[44] See Alliums entry for more info. Peas and garlic when planted closely together suppress each other's growth; however the profit over land area used is higher.[48]
Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis brassicas,[5][11] cabbage,[14] grapes[14][17] honeybees, butterflies Cabbage moth larvae, Cabbage Butterflies Radishes[17] Stimulates growth of grapes.
Lavender Lavandula angustifolia, L. dentata, L. stoechas Chamomile, lettuce, brassicas, onions, tomatoes, oregano, thyme, marjoram, sage, rosemary, basil, lemon balm, squash
Lemon Grass Cymbopogon citratus Eggplant[83] Cutworms Has been shown to reduce cutworms in eggplant in laboratory trials but needs field testing
Lovage Levisticum officinale Beans[14] Ichneumonid Wasps, ground beetles (good) rhubarb Is thought to improve the health of almost all plants, like borage and geraniums, is considered a "magic bullet" of companion planting
Oregano Origanum vulgare grapes, tomatoes, peppers, pumpkin,[14] many other plants basil Hoverflies/Syrphidae[62] aphids[62] Provides ground cover and much-needed humidity for pepper plants if allowed to spread among them. Because it attracts syrphidae, it reduces aphids through predation.[62]
Parsley Petroselinum crispum Asparagus,[15][16] corn/maize, tomatoes Apple, asparagus,[15][16] rose Swallowtail Butterflies, wasps, flies Alliums, lettuce Sacrificially attracts insects that predate upon tomatoes
Peppermint Mentha piperita alliums,[10][11] brassicas,[5][10][11] cabbage,[11][14][17] peas,[14] tomatoes[14] cabbage root fly,[10] ants,[14] cabbage looper, aphids,[14] onion fly[10] Repels cabbage flies, has same general companion properties as other mints
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Cabbage,[17] beans,[14][17][23] brassicas,[5][11] carrots,[14] thyme bean beetle Deters cabbage flies, repels many bean parasites
Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Sage Salvia officinalis brassicas,[5][11] rosemary, cabbage,[14][17] beans, Brussels sprouts,[11][36] carrots,[14] strawberry,[14] tomato,[14] marjoram[14] honeybees, cabbage butterfly cabbage flies, carrot fly, black flea beetle, cabbage looper, cabbage maggot, repels many bean parasites avoid any member of the allium family and common rue
Southernwood Artemisia abrotanum Brassicas,[5][11] fruit trees Controls cabbage moths and malaria mosquitoes.
Spearmint Mentha spicata alliums,[10][11] brassicas,[5][10][11] cabbage,[11][14][17] peas,[14] tomatoes[14] ants,[14] aphids,[14] onion fly,[10] cabbage root fly[10] Controls ants and aphids, has same general companion properties as other mints.
Stinging nettle Urtica dioica Chamomille, mint, broccoli, tomatoes, valerian, angelica archangelica, marjoram, sage & peppermint aphids
Summer Savoury Satureja hortensis beans,[12] melon,[14] onions[14] also delays germination of certain foul herbs
Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus Most vegetables,[14] but especially eggplant Its scent is disliked by most pests, and this plant is also thought to have Nurse Plant properties, enhancing the growth and flavor of crops grown with it.
Thyme Thymus vulgaris Brassicas,[5][11][32] cabbage,[17] eggplant/aubergine,[14] potato,[14] strawberry,[14] tomato,[14][32] Brussels sprouts[11][36] Hoverflies/Syrphidae[62] Cabbage worm,[17][32] cabbage weevil,[32] cabbage looper,[32] aphids,[62] whitefly[citation needed] Because it attracts syrphidae it reduces aphids through predation.[62]
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium Brassicas,[5] carrots[14] Ants[14] Wormwood should be used with caution around most vegetables since it does contain toxins.[14]
Yarrow Achillea millefolium many plants, "Most aromatic plants."[14] predatory wasps, ladybugs, hoverflies,[62] damselbugs aphids[62] May increase the essential oil production of some herbs. Also improves soil quality, use the leaves to enrich compost, or as mulch. Because it attracts syrphidae it reduces aphids through predation.[62]

Flowers[edit]

Flowers
Common Name Latin Name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Alyssum Lobularia maritima Grapes,[11] lettuce[62] Syrphidae[62] aphids[62] Because they attract syrphidae they help reduce aphids through predation.[11][62]
Baby's breath Gypsophila paniculata Syrphidae[62] aphids[62] Because they attract syrphidae they help reduce aphids through predation.[62]
Bee Balm Monarda ssp. Tomato[12][14] Bees
California Poppy Eschscholzia californica Syrphidae[62] aphids[62] Because they attract syrphidae they help reduce aphids through predation.[62]
Geraniums Pelargonium ssp. Roses, corn, peppers, grapes leafhoppers, Japanese beetles Tomatoes, Tobacco, Eggplants and other nightshades A trap crop, attracting pests away from roses and grape vines, distracts beet leafhoppers, carrier of the curly top virus, keep away from Solanaceous plants like eggplant, and tobacco
Larkspur Delphinium ssp. Beans,[14] cabbage[14]
Lupin Lupinus Cucurbits, brassica, lettuce, rosemary, dill, strawberry[28] summer savory Honeybees tomatoes and other solanaceae This wildflower is a legume, hosting bacteria that fixes nitrogen in the soil, fertilizing it for neighboring plants
Marigold Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. minuta most plants, especially tomatoes[14] and peppers, cucurbits (cucumbers, gourds, squash), potatoes,[14] roses,[14] alliums,[10][11] brassicas,[10][11][31] zucchini[32] Snails and slugs.[26] Root-knot nematodes,[84][85] beet leaf hoppers, cucumber beetle,[32] squash bug,[32] onion fly,[10] cabbage root fly[10] Marigolds are a wonder-drug of the companion plant world, invoking the saying "plant them everywhere in your garden". French marigolds (T. patula) produce a pesticidal chemical from their roots, so strong it lasts years after they are gone. Mexican marigolds (T. erecta) do the same, but are so strong they will inhibit the growth of some more tender herbs. Stinking Roger (T. minuta) has also been found effective against certain perennial weeds.[86]
Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus beans, squash,[14][20] tomatoes, fruit trees, brassicas,[11][32] radish[14][17] cucumbers[14] predatory insects aphids,[14] asparagus beetle,[14] cabbage looper,[14][32] cabbage worm,[14][32] carrot fly,[14] cabbage weevil,[32] Colorado potato beetle[14] squash bug,[14][32] Japanese beetle,[14] Mexican bean beetle,[14] striped pumpkin beetles, whitefly,[14] cucumber beetles[14] flea beetle[14] cauliflower trap crops for aphids, is among the best at attracting predatory insects, deters many pests of cucurbits
Pansy Viola x wittrockiana alliums, onions, roses roses bees, butterflies, ants Ants (with aphids), snails, slugs, white butterfly A good and nice-smelling flower that really attracts ants. It is like the Viola plant, but has two or three colors in flowers. Helps alliums and onions, which repels the white butterfly.
Petunia Petunia x hybrida cucurbits (squash, pumpkins, cucumbers), asparagus leafhoppers, Japanese beetles, aphids, asparagus beetle Is a trap crop almost identical to geraniums in function
Rose Rosa ssp. Chives,[14][17] garlic,[14] marigolds[14]
Sunflower Helianthus annuus Peppers,[66][67] corn, cucumber,[22] soybeans,[50] tomatoes aphids pole beans[12] Was grown as a companion for corn(maize) before modern Europeans arrived in the Americas, supposedly increases their production, ants herd aphids onto sunflowers, keeping them off neighboring plants. Works as a trap plant for thrips keeping them off of bell peppers.[67]
Common Name Latin Name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Swan plant Gomphocarpus physocarpus, Asclepias physocarpa, Milkweed Sunflower monarch butterfly aphids plants that attracts aphids and spider mites Attracts the Monarch butterfly during mid-Spring to mid-Summer. Has seed pod which is very fun to float in water.
Sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus brassica, spinach, silverbeet and salads bees aphids An annual climbing plant, which is like the edible pea. Makes a good decoration in your garden or fence.
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare beans, brassicas,[11] cucurbits (cucumbers, squash, etc.), raspberries and relatives, roses, corn, fruit trees[1] ladybugs, honeybees flying insects(Ichneumonid wasps), ants,[14] Japanese beetles,[14] cabbage butterfly,[14] cabbage maggot,[14] asparagus beetle,[14] carrot fly,[14] striped cucumber beetles,[14] Colorado potato beetle,[14] cutworm,[14] flea beetle,[14] flies,[14] imported cabbageworm,[14] squash bugs,[14] mice Toxic to people and many animals, don't plant it where livestock browse. Is reputed to generally repel insects (except for nectar-eating types).
Zinnia Zinnia beans, tomatoes, peppers whiteflies Attracts hummingbirds that eat whitflies, attracts pollinators

Other[edit]

Other
Common Name Latin Name Helps Helped by Attracts -Repels/+Distracts Avoid Comments
Alfalfa Medicago sativa Cotton assassin bug, big-eyed bug, Ladybug, parasitic wasps Lygus bugs Tomatoes,[77] fava beans Used by farmers to reduce cotton pests, a good crop to improve soil; fixes nitrogen like beans do. Also breaks up hardpan and other tough soil. Alfalfa has demonstrated some allelopathic effects to tomato seedlings[77]
Walnut Tree Juglans ssp. European Alder (sacrifice plant), hairy vetch,[87] crownvetch,[87] sericea lespedeza[87] apple trees,[78] grasses[87] Black walnut is harmful to the growth of all nightshade plants, including Datura or Jimson weed, eggplant, mandrake, deadly nightshade or belladonna, capsicum (paprika, chile pepper), potato, tomato, and petunia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cunningham, Sally Jean. Great Garden Companions: A companion planting system for a beautiful, chemical-free vegetable garden. 1998. ISBN 0-87596-847-3
  • Hylton, W. The Rodale Herb Book, Eighth Printing. Rodale Press. 1974. ISBN 0-87857-076-4