List of concurrent and parallel programming languages

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This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorising them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.

The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.

Actor model[edit]

Main article: Actor model

Coordination languages[edit]


Main article: Dataflow programming


Main article: Distributed computing

Event-driven and hardware description[edit]


GPU languages[edit]

Logic programming[edit]

Main article: Logic programming



Partitioned global address space (PGAS)[edit]

Process Calculi[edit]

Main article: Process calculus


These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.

  • OpenMP for C, C++, and Fortran (shared memory and attached GPUs)


  • NESL
  • Orc
  • ActorScript
  • Afnix
  • APL
  • Curry
  • Emrald
  • LabView
  • Modula-3
  • Nimrod
  • Pict
  • Polaris
  • Reia
  • Rust
  • SR
  • Stackless
  • Zounds
  • PCN

See also[edit]