List of concurrent and parallel programming languages

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This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorising them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.

The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.

Actor model[edit]

Main article: Actor model

Coordination languages[edit]


Main article: Dataflow programming


Main article: Distributed computing

Event-driven and hardware description[edit]


Logic programming[edit]

Main article: Logic programming



Partitioned global address space (PGAS)[edit]

Message passing[edit]

Main article: Message passing

CSP based[edit]


These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.

See also[edit]