List of concurrent and parallel programming languages
This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorising them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.
The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.
- Axum - a domain-specific language being developed by Microsoft.
- Elixir (runs on the Erlang VM)
- E (also object-oriented)
- Joule (also distributed)
- Lustre (also synchronous)
- Signal (also synchronous)
- LabView (also synchronous)
- Oz - Multi-paradigm language with particular support for constraint and distributed programming.
Event-driven and hardware description
- Verilog-AMS - math modeling of continuous time systems (#true concurrency)
- Esterel (also synchronous)
- Cilk Plus
- Fork - Programming language for the PRAM model.
- C++ AMP
- D Programming Language
- Eiffel SCOOP (Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming)
- Emerald (also distributed)
Partitioned global address space (PGAS)
- Join Java
- Ateji PX - An extension of Java with parallel primitives inspired from pi-calculus.
- Concurrent Pascal
- Limbo (also distributed)
- XC - A C-based language developed by XMOS.
These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.
- OpenMP for C, C++, and Fortran (shared memory and attached GPUs)