List of consonants

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This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

IPA pulmonic consonantschart image • Loudspeaker.svg audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal
↓ Manner Bila­bial Labio-​dental Den​tal Alve​olar Post­alveolar Retro​flex Alveolo-​palatal Pal​a​tal Ve​lar Uvu​lar Pha​ryn​geal Epi​glot​tal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ ð θ̱ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯
Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r ʀ̥ ʀ  *
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ  * ʎ̝̊ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ
Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̢ * ʎ̯ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
ʘ̃ ʘ̃ˀ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qʼ
Implosives ɓ̥ ɓ ɗ̥ ɗ ʄ̊ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Ejectives t̪ʼ ʈʼ θʼ
ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ
cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Affricates
p̪f b̪v ts dz t̪s̪ d̪z̪
ʈʂ ɖʐ ɟʝ cʎ̝̥
kx kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Co-articulated consonants
Continuants ʍ w ɥ ɧ
Occlusives k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
— These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
— Where symbols appear in pairs, left–right represent the voiceless–voiced consonants.
— Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible.
— Symbols marked with an asterisk (*) are not defined in the IPA.

Ordered by place of articulation[edit]

Labial consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the lips)

Bilabial consonants[edit]

Labiodental consonants[edit]

Bidental consonants[edit]

Coronal consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the tip of the tongue)

Dental consonants[edit]

Alveolar consonants[edit]

Postalveolar consonants[edit]

Palatalized postalveolar consonants[edit]
Retroflex consonants[edit]

Dorsal consonants[edit]

(articulated with the middle of the tongue)

Palatal consonants[edit]

Labialized palatal consonants[edit]

Velar consonants[edit]

Labialized velar consonants[edit]
Labial–velar consonants[edit]

Uvular consonants[edit]

Radical consonants[edit]

(articulated with the back of the tongue)

Pharyngeal consonants[edit]

Epiglottal consonants[edit]

Glottal consonants[edit]

Ordered by manner of articulation[edit]

Pulmonic consonants

Nasal (stop) consonants[edit]

Fricative consonants[edit]

Sibilant fricatives
Central non-sibilant fricatives
Lateral fricatives
both fricatives and approximants
Pseudo-fricatives

Affricate consonants[edit]

Sibilant affricates
Non-sibilant affricates
Lateral affricates

Approximant consonants[edit]

Flap (tap) consonants[edit]

Trill consonants[edit]

Lateral consonants[edit]

Approximants
Fricatives
Affricates
Flaps
Ejective
Clicks

Ejective consonants[edit]

Plosives
Affricates
Fricatives

Implosive consonants[edit]

Labialized consonants[edit]

Plosives
Fricatives
Approximants

Palatalized consonants[edit]

Pharyngealized consonants[edit]

Velarized consonants[edit]

Click consonants[edit]

The less common clicks, such as are found in Taa, are not included.

Simple clicks
Glottalized clicks
Pulmonic-contour clicks
Ejective-contour clicks

Percussive consonants[edit]

These are not found in any language, but occur through speech defects.

See also[edit]