List of consonants

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This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

IPA pulmonic consonantschart image • Loudspeaker.svg audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glot­tal
↓ Manner Bi­la­bi­al La­bi­o­den­tal Den­tal Al­ve­o­lar Post­al­ve­o­lar Ret­ro­flex Al­ve­o­lo­pal­a­tal Pal­a­tal Ve­lar U­vu­lar Phar­yn­ge­al Ep­i­glot­tal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ ð θ̱ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯
Trill ʙ r ɽ͡r̥ ɽ͡r ʀ̥ ʀ  *
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ  * ʎ̥˔ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̢ * ʎ̯ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ ʞ
ʘ̃ ʘ̃ˀ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qʼ
Implosives ɓ̥ ɓ ɗ̥ ɗ ʄ̊ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Ejectives t̪ʼ ʈʼ θʼ
ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ tsʼ tɬʼ
cʎ̝̥ʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Affricates
p̪f b̪v ts dz
ʈʂ ɖʐ ɟʝ
cʎ̝̥ kx kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Co-articulated consonants
Continuants ʍ w ɥ ɧ
Occlusives k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
— These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
— Where symbols appear in pairs, left–right represent the voiceless–voiced consonants.
— Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible.
— Symbols marked with an asterisk (*) are not defined in the IPA.

Ordered by place of articulation[edit]

Labial consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the lips)

Bilabial consonants[edit]

Labiodental consonants[edit]

Bidental consonants[edit]

Coronal consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the tip of the tongue)

Dental consonants[edit]

Alveolar consonants[edit]

Postalveolar consonants[edit]

Palatalized postalveolar consonants[edit]
Retroflex consonants[edit]

Dorsal consonants[edit]

(articulated with the middle of the tongue)

Palatal consonants[edit]

Labialized palatal consonants[edit]

Velar consonants[edit]

Labialized velar consonants[edit]
Labial–velar consonants[edit]

Uvular consonants[edit]

Radical consonants[edit]

(articulated with the back of the tongue)

Pharyngeal consonants[edit]

Epiglottal consonants[edit]

Glottal consonants[edit]

Ordered by manner of articulation[edit]

Pulmonic consonants

Nasal (stop) consonants[edit]

Fricative consonants[edit]

Sibilant fricatives
Central non-sibilant fricatives
Lateral fricatives
both fricatives and approximants
Pseudo-fricatives

Affricate consonants[edit]

Sibilant affricates
Non-sibilant affricates
Lateral affricates

Approximant consonants[edit]

Flap (tap) consonants[edit]

Trill consonants[edit]

Lateral consonants[edit]

Approximants
Fricatives
Affricates
Flaps
Ejective
Clicks

Ejective consonants[edit]

Plosives
Affricates
Fricatives

Implosive consonants[edit]

Labialized consonants[edit]

Plosives
Fricatives
Approximants

Palatalized consonants[edit]

Pharyngealized consonants[edit]

Velarized consonants[edit]

Click consonants[edit]

The less common clicks, such as are found in Taa, are not included.

Simple clicks
Glottalized clicks
Pulmonic-contour clicks
Ejective-contour clicks

Percussive consonants[edit]

These are not found in any language, but occur through speech defects.

See also[edit]