From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (Lew Alcindor) – retired basketball player & the NBA's all-time leading scorer. He initially converted from Christianity to [1 ] The Nation of Islam to mainstream Sunni Islam.
Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf (Chris Jackson) – retired basketball player [2 ]
Tariq Abdul-Wahad (Olivier Saint-Jean) – originally from France, former basketball player for the Mavericks and Kings [3 ]
Thomas J. Abercrombie – photographer [4 ]
Éric Abidal (changed his name to Bilal) – French football player, converted to Islam after marriage. [5 ]
Ivan Aguéli (Johan Agelii) – Swedish painter. [6 ] [7 ]
Akhenaton – French rapper and producer of French hip hop. [8 ]
Muhammed al-Ahari born 6 January 1965 as Ray Allen Rudder is an American essayist, scholar and writer on the topics of American Islam, Black Nationalist groups, heterodox Islamic groups and modern occultism.
Abdul-Karim al-Jabbar (Sharmon Shah) – former NFL player [9 ]
Sana al-Sayegh, dean of the Science and Technology Faculty at Palestine International University, converted to Islam in August 2007. Fatah has accused its political rival Hamas of forcing the professor to convert from Christianity, a charge Hamas denies. [10 ]
Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr.; 17 January 1942), from Baptist [11 ] to [12 ] The Nation of Islam to Sunni Islam. Famous American professional boxer (3 time world heavyweight champion), philanthropist and social activist. [13 ]
Rowland Allanson-Winn, 5th Baron Headley – British soldier and peer. [14 ]
Ryan G. Anderson – former Lutheran, convicted of charges of espionage for Al Qaeda [15 ] [16 ]
Farqad as-Sabakhi – an Armenian Islamic preacher who was formerly a Christian known for his knowledge of [17 ] Judeo-Christian scriptures. [18 ]
Kristiane Backer – a German television presenter, television journalist and author residing in London. [19 ]
Yasin Abu Bakr (Lennox Philip) – of Trinidad and Tobago,
Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman Barker (Philip Barker) – professor of Urdu, former chair of the University of Minnesota's Department of South Asian studies and creator of the Tékumel fantasy world. [20 ]
Abdullah Beg of Kartli – Georgian convert to Islam who was a claimant to the kingship of [21 ] Kartli.
David Belfield – American, fled to Iran after assassinating Ali Akbar Tabatabai, an Iranian dissident. [22 ]
Ronald Bell or Khalis Bayyan (born 1 November 1951, Youngstown, Ohio) is an American singer, composer and saxophonist
Józef Bem – Polish and Hungarian general
Mohammed Knut Bernström – Swedish ambassador to Venezuela (1963–1969), Spain (1973–1976) and Morocco (1976–1983) [23 ]
Ibrahim Bey – an Egyptian Mamluk of Georgian Christian origins.
Art Blakey – American Jazz musician [24 ]
Wojciech Bobowski – raised Protestant, he was a Polish musician and translator of the Bible into Ottoman Turkish. [25 ]
Omar Bongo – Gabonese, President of Gabon. [26 ]
Claude Alexandre de Bonneval or Humbaracı Ahmet Paşa was an 18th-century French nobleman. [27 ]
Tawana Brawley (Maryam Muhammad) – African American woman noted for claiming to have been raped by several white men, a claim determined to be a fabrication by a grand jury. Later in life she converted to Islam. [28 ] [29 ] [30 ]
Willie Brigitte – French convert to Islam who associated with al-Qaeda in Pakistan and was possibly involved in a plot to conduct a terrorist operation in Australia. [31 ]
Dolores "LaLa" Brooks – American musician. [32 ]
Torquato Cardilli – Italian ambassador, converted from Catholicism. [33 ]
André Carson – former Baptist, second [34 ] Muslim to serve the United States Congress. [35 ]
Count Cassius- Visigothic aristocrat who founded the Banu Qasi dynasty of Muladi rulers. [36 ]
Cat Stevens, now known as Yusuf Islam (born Steven Demetre Georgiou; 21 July 1948), British singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, humanitarian, education philanthropist, and prominent convert to Islam. [37 ]
Dave Chappelle – comedian and television star [38 ]
Benjamin Chavis – controversial former head of the NAACP; joined the Nation of Islam.
Chrisye – Indonesian singer. He changed his birth name to Chrismansyah Rahadi from Christian Rahadi
Hedley Churchward – English painter [39 ]
Aukai Collins – fought in Chechnya, paid FBI informant, author of an autobiographical book [40 ]
Jerôme Courtailler – one of two French brothers convicted by French authorities in 2004 for abetting terrorists [41 ] [42 ] [43 ]
Robert D. Crane is the former adviser to President Richard Nixon, and is former Deputy Director (for Planning) of the U.S. National Security Council. [44 ]
Ian Dallas – Abdalqadir as-Sufi — Sufi shaykh of Scottish origins. [45 ]
Daniel Streich-is a Swiss military instructor, community council member and a former member of Swiss People's Party.
Isabelle Eberhardt – from Lutheran Christianity, 19th-century explorer and writer [46 ]
Abdullah el-Faisal – a Muslim cleric who preached in the United Kingdom until he was convicted of stirring up racial hatred and urging his followers to murder Jews, Hindus, Christians, and Americans. [47 ] [48 ]
Wadih el-Hage, former Al-Qaeda member who was convicted for his part in the 1998 United States embassy bombings. [49 ]
Nathan Ellington – English football player [50 ]
C. Jack Ellis – Mayor of Macon, Georgia [51 ]
Keith Ellison – American, Representative from Minnesota's 5th congressional district, first Muslim to be elected to the United States Congress, converted from Catholicism [52 ]
Yahiya Emerick – American Muslim scholar, President of the Islamic Foundation of North America, converted from Protestantism. [53 ]
Erekle I of Kakheti – Georgian convert to Islam who ruled the kingdoms of [54 ] Kakheti and Kartli.
Yusuf Estes – Former preacher and federal prison chaplain, converted from Protestantism. [55 ]
Chris Eubank – British boxer [56 ]
Emeka Ezeugo – is a former Nigerian football defender and midfielder played in 1994 World Cup. [57 ]
Salman the Persian - convert from Christianity who was previously Zoroastrian. [135 ]
Ahmed Santos – Filipino, fugitive, founder of the Rajah Solaiman Movement converted from Catholicism [136 ] [137 ] [138 ]
Ratna Sarumpaet, Indonesian stagewright, director, and actress [139 ]
Brad Terrence Jordan ("Scarface") – American rapper
Mario Scialoja – Italian ambassador and President of the World Muslim League. [140 ]
Betty Shabazz – wife of Malcolm X; former Methodist. [141 ]
Zaid Shakir – American Muslim convert former Baptist to Sunni Islam, speaker, intellectual, author, Islamic scholar, and co-founder of Zaytuna College in the United States. [142 ] [143 ]
Omar Sharif – Egyptian actor who converted from Catholicism. [144 ] [145 ]
Ahmad Faris Shidyaq – Lebanese scholar, writer and journalist who was a Maronite convert to Islam. [146 ]
Anthony Small – professional boxer [147 ]
Sean Stone – Son of Oliver Stone and documentary producer. [148 ]
Daniel Streich – Swiss military instructor, community council member and a former member of Swiss People's Party who led the campaign for the national ban on the construction of new minarets. [149 ]
Malcolm X – American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. He converted from Christianity to The Nation of Islam and later to mainstream Sunni Islam.
Abel Xavier – former Portuguese professional footballer converted to Islam with his new name Faisal. [177 ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ "NY Times Archived Short Book Review of ''Giant Steps'' by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Peter Knobler". New York Times. 29 January 1984 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ " MAHMOUD ABDUL-RAUF'S SUSPENSION FOR REFUSING TO STAND FOR THE NATIONAL ANTHEM: A "FREE THROW" FOR THE NBA AND DENVER NUGGETS, OR A "SLAM DUNK" VIOLATION OF ABDUL-RAUF'S TITLE VII RIGHTS?" Washington University Law Quarterly.
^ "Tariq Abdul-Wahad Bio". NBA.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Interview at Bayweekly "Q: Am I right that you became a Moslem in the mid-1960s? Answer: I think it was '65 or '66."
^ "Abidal become Muslim with a name Bilal". Internetspor.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Roald, Anne Sofie (2004). New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts . Brill Publishers. pg.28
^ Aguéli Museum states "He changed his name to Ivan Aguéli. Later he converted to Islam."
^ Global Noise, By Tony Mitchell, pg. 72
^ "NBA great Kareem Abdul-Jabbar wants NFL player to stop using name — the former Sharmon Shah, Miami Dolphin running back being sued by former basketball player" Jet Online. 1 December 1997. Johnson Publishing Co.
^ Khaled Abou Toameh. "Hamas forced professor to convert." . 5 August 2007. Jerusalem Post
^ On the Other Side of Oddville By Dwight A. Moody, Ike Moody, pg. 122
^ Muhammad Ali & Company By Thomas Hauser, pg. 18
^ BY: Interview by Deborah Caldwell. "Muhammad Ali has embraced Sufi Islam and is on a new spiritual quest". Beliefnet.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ History of the London Central Mosque and the Islamic Cultural Centre 1910–1980, A. L. Tibawi, Die Welt des Islams, New Ser., Bd. 21, Nr. 1/4 (1981), pp. 193–208
^ "Ryan Anderson convicted". The Niqabi Paralegal. 3 September 2004 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Font size Print E-mail Share By Lauren Johnston (2 September 2004). "Soldier Guilty of Al Qaeda Aid, Spc Anderson Convicted of Trying To Give Terrorists Info". CBS News . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Historical dictionary of Sufism By John Renard, pg. 87
^ Islamic mysticism: a short history, pg. 14
^ "Former German MTV host promotes Islam with new autobiography" . Retrieved 11 November 2013.
^ Gary Fine, Shared Fantasy: Role Playing Games As Social Worlds, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, IL), 1983. Reprinted in 2002.
^ The making of the Georgian nation By Ronald Grigor Suny, pg.56
^ Silverman, Ira (7 January 2009). "Annals of Crime: An American Terrorist". The New Yorker . Retrieved 2 January 2010.
^ Roald, Anne Sofie (2004). New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts . Brill Publishers. pg.130
^ Art Blakey official site In 1948, Art told reporters he had visited Africa, where he learned polyrhythmic drumming and was introduced to Islam, taking the name Abdullah Ibn Buhaina.
^ Subjects of the Sultan: culture and daily life in the Ottoman Empire By Suraiya Faroqhi, pg. 92–93
^ "Bongo's 40 years of ruling Gabon" BBC News, 28 November 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
^ Related Articles. "Claude Alexandre, Comte de Bonneval, or Humbaraci Ahmed Pasa (French noble) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Pagones v. Maddox et al". Nycourts.gov . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "court TV becomes truTV". Courttv.com . Retrieved 2 January 2010.
^ Brigitte terrorism trial nears ABC News
^ [Rome's Envoy to Saudi Arabia Converts to Islam by Luke Baker, CNN, 26 November 2001]
^ By (16 February 2008). "Islam Convert seeks a seat in Congress". Washingtontimes.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Catching up: Indiana's Carson will replace his grandmother in Congress". Blogs.usatoday.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Banu Kasi, Casius, Kasi and Qasi in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia.
^ Yusuf Islam
^ May. 15, 2005 (15 May 2005). "On the Beach With Dave Chappelle". TIME . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Famous London Muslims". Masud.co.uk. 10 December 1953 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ a b c "Al Qaeda exploits 'blue-eyed' Muslim converts". Financialexpress.com. 15 October 2005 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Embassy plot offers insight into terrorist recruitment, training – The Advocate
^ Guest CV – Dr. Robert (Farooq) D. Crane, Islam Online
^ The Collected Works by Ian Dallas, Budgate Press, 2005, ISBN 0-620-34379-6
^ "Isabelle Eberhardt: Explorer". Enchantedlearning.com. 21 October 1904 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Muslim cleric guilty of soliciting murder". Special report: Race in the UK (London: The Guardian). 4 February 2003. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007 . Retrieved 23 December 2007.
^ , p. 130, Paul Gilroy, Postcolonial melancholia Columbia University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-231-13454-5. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
^ Whitlock, Craig (15 September 2007). "Converts To Islam Move Up In Cells". The Washington Post.
^ Ellington gets off to a fast start
^ CNN: Macon, Georgia, mayor converts to Islam
^ Keith Ellison for U.S. Congress
^ "How Did You Accept Islam? by Yahiya Emerick". Islamfortoday.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Islamic desk reference By E. J. van Donzel, pg.111
^ Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu (17 November 2003). "Ramadan Awareness Event Designed To Debunk Negative Images". Advance, University of Connecticut.
^ Haldenby, Andrew (1 August 2005). "Lengthy queue to join religion that offers 'sense of direction. London: Telegraph.co.uk '" . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Emeka converts to Islam
^ Islamic Sufism Unbound: Politics and Piety in Twenty-First Century Pakistan By Robert Rozehnal, pg.60
^ The Moslem World, Volume 58, pg.63, Samuel Marinus Zwemer, Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation, Published for the Nile Mission Press by the Christian Literature Society for India, 1911
^ The complete idiot's guide to the Crusades By Paul L. Williams, pg. 73
^ A Cold By Marin Sorescu, Published 1978, p.16
^ "Al-Qaeda's New Leadership: Adam Gadahn". The Washington Post.
^ Conversion: Islam, the growing religion
^ Elliott, Andrea (27 January 2010). "The Jihadist Next Door". New York Times Magazine . Retrieved 28 January 2010.
^ "MyFox Colorado Being Muslim in The Big Leagues". Myfoxcolorado.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Here's Hoping". Emel: Muslim Lifestyle. 28 September 2011 . Retrieved 28 September 2011.
^ ’ Journey to Islam – Diary of a German Diplomat’ by Murad Hoffman
^ Steve Bunce (11 November 2001). "Ex-champion Naseem Hamed's comeback battle Special reports | The Observer". London: Observer.guardian.co.uk . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "About me". Silma. Push-Button Publishing. 2007 . Retrieved 26 September 2007.
^ Maverick Guide to Morocco by Susan Searight p.171
^ Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia (London: James Currey, 1991), p. 121.
^ The importance of being Gauhar Jan The Tribune, 26 May 2002.
^ A history of Arabic literature By Clément Huart, pg.311
^ Jermaine Jackson (I) – Biography
^ . Putting a good glossy on the Muslim lifestyle Times
^ Moynihan, Colin (20 July 2010). "Abdul Kadir Denies Role in Kennedy Airport Plot". The New York Times.
^ Keller, Nu Ha Mim. . Becoming Muslim
^ Shah ʹAbbas & the arts of Isfahan, by Anthony Welch, pg. 17
^ The Iranian constitutional revolution, 1906–1911, by Janet Afary, pg. 26
^ Logged in as click here to log out (19 March 2007). "Comment is free Punk Muslims". London: Commentisfree.guardian.co.uk . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Faith and sword: a short history of Christian-Muslim conflict By Alan G. Jamieson, pg.32
^ Brown, David (29 February 2012). ". 'I just wanted to marry a Muslim and settle down '" (London). p. 6 The Times . Retrieved 29 September 2013. (subscription required)
^ Western white woman a suicide bomber – World – Times Online
^ ICT – International Institute for Counter-Terrorism
^ < 
^ "Transcript of John Ashcroft – February 5, 2002". Transcripts.cnn.com. 5 February 2002 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Litvinenko converted to Islam, father says – Times Online
^ "Litvinenko's Father Says Son Requested Muslim Burial – RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY". Rferl.org. 5 December 2006 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Rapper star Loon converts to Islam MPACUK (15 July 2009). Retrieved on 2009-08-09.
^ Islamic art and architecture 650–1250 By Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, Marilyn Jenkins, pg, 134
^ "Vinnie Paz". Philaflava.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Cindy George (20 June 2007). "Houston man gets 10 years for al-Qaida training". Houston Chronicle.
^ "Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah Theology Islam". Ruqaiyyah.karoo.net . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ MSBC Article's title says "Raised Catholic, this Muslim professor is bringing the moderate viewpoint to the world."]
^ "The history of new Muslims". Media ISNET . Retrieved 17 March 2007.
^ Hughes, Rob (31 July 2002). "SOCCER : Metsu's magic ride ends". International Herald Tribune . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ The Last Great Muslim Empires, By H. J. Kissling, Bertold Spuler, F. R. C. Bagley, pg.3
^ American studies in altaic linguistics, By Denis Sinor, pg.5
^ Assassin!: The Deadly Art of the Cult of the Assassins By Haha Lung, pg. 29
^ Christian and Muslim comics show believers that faith sometimes is best shared through laughter – especially when it's at themselves
^ “Allah Made Me Funny!” – A Popular Muslim-American Comedy. IslamOnline.net
^ Matthew Saad Muhammad
^ "Peter Murphy". Nndb.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Three killed while performing ritual
^ UU site
^ "Religion & Ethics – Islam in the UK (1500s-present): Before the 20th century". BBC. 7 September 2009 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Lessing's theological writings: selections in translation By Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Henry Chadwick, pg.12
^ "Tech N9ne: Deeper Than Rap". HipHopDX. 16 November 2009 . Retrieved 5 October 2012.
^ "Robin Padilla opens school for Muslim kids". Showbizandstyle.inquirer.net . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Statement sent on Behalf of Wayne Parnell Cricket South Africa
^ Klemenčić, Mladen (1993). A Concise atlas of the Republic of Croatia & of the Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina. Michigan: Miroslav Krleža Lexicographical Institute (original from University of Michigan Press). p. 88.
^ The decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire By Alan Palmer, pg. 52
^ Evg Radushev, Svetlana Ivanova, Rumen Kovachev – Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. Orientalski otdel, International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (2003). Inventory of Ottoman Turkish documents about Waqf preserved in the Oriental Department at the St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. p. 224. ISBN 954523072X. "Hasan Pasa (Damad-i- Padisahi), Greek convert from Morea."
^ Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
^ Ethnicity, Cultural Discontinuity and Power Brokers in Northern Iraq: The Case of the Shabak .Amal Vinogradov. American Ethnologist, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Feb. 1974), pp. 207–218
^ Mohamed, Duse (1911). In the land of the pharaohs: a short history of Egypt from the fall of Ismail to the assassination of Boutros Pasha. D. Appleton and company. p. xii. OCLC 301095947. "PRIME MINISTERS * Ragheb Pasha was Prime Minister from July 12, 1882"
^ Schölch, Alexander (1981). Egypt for the Egyptians!: the socio-political crisis in Egypt, 1878–1882. Ithaca Press. p. 326. ISBN 0903729822. "Isma'il Raghib was born in Greece in 1819; the sources differ over his homeland. After first being kidnapped to Anatolia, he was brought as a slave to Egypt in 1246 (1830/1), by Ibrahim Pasha, and there he was 'converted' from Christianity"
^ Paul Sève. "Biographie". Soliman-pacha.ifrance.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ The Genoese in Galata: 1453–1682, Louis Mitler, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 10, No. (Feb. 1979), pp. 71–91.
^ Philby, H. Saint John. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2 July 2007.
^ "Dr.Bilal Philips' Official website". Bilalphilips.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Islamic Studies : A Research Guide
^ "Ponke, a human rights hero, is dead". Etan.org. 28 February 2002 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "William Henry ('Sheikh Abdullah') Quilliam, 1856". Isle-of-man.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ The Historians' History of the World by Henry Smith Williams, p. 137, published 1907
^ "Ahmad Rashad Bio – Ahmad Rashad Biography – Ahmad Rashad Stories". Tv.com. 2 June 2009 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Minnesota Vikings Football Tickets – Vikings Football". Vikings Tickets. 19 November 1949 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Elliott, Michael (16 February 2002). "The Shoe Bomber's World". TIME . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ RIBERY HAILS GREAT ZIDANE: Sporting Life 2006 World Cup Finals in Germany, Breaking News, Features, Cannavaro, Zidane, Lippi, Domenech, Buffon, Vieira, Henry
^ "Yvonne Ridley: From captive to convert", By Hannah Bayman, BBC News (online), 21 September 2004
^ "BBC Inside Out – Yvonne Ridley". Bbc.co.uk. 6 October 2003 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Pirates and the Lost Templar Fleet, By David Hatcher Childress pg. 94
^ Religion and Nation: Iranian Local and Transnational Networks in Britain By Kathryn Spellman, pg. 145
^ "In Philippines, watchful eye on converts". Csmonitor.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Militant Islamic Converts And Terrorism in the Philippines" (PDF). Archived from the original on 9 July 2008 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base". Tkb.org . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Winet, Evan Darwin (2007). "Sarumpaet, Ratna (1949 – )". In Cody, Gabrielle. The Columbia Encyclopedia of Modern Drama 2. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 1190–1191. ISBN 978-0-231-14424-7.
^ "Europe | Italy prepares for new terrorism". BBC News. 4 August 2005 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Free Resources – Black History – Biographies – Betty Shabazz". Gale . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ By Lonnie Shavelson (20 July 2010). "First Muslim College in US to Open in Berkeley". californiareport.org . Retrieved 18 October 2010.
^ "New Islamic Directions". New Islamic Directions . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^  Omar Sharif converts to Islam
^  Ahmed Ramzi witness the conversion of Omar Sharif
^ The holy cities, the pilgrimage and the world of Islām: a history from the earliest traditions until 1925 (1344H), pg. 310, by Ghālib ibn ʻAwaḍ Quʻayṭī (al-Sulṭān.), Sultan Ghalib al-Qu'aiti
^ Sabey, R. (19 June 2010). "Champ to chump: Muslim who abused troops is ex-British boxing ace". (London) The Sun . Retrieved 1 October 2010.
^ "20 Minuten Online – Ex-SVPler: "Schweiz braucht mehr Moscheen" – Schweiz" (in German). 20 Minuten. 23 November 2009 . Retrieved 23 December 2010.
^ Ibn Ab̄i Tahir Ṭāyfūr and Arabic writerly culture a ninth-century bookman in Baghdad RoutledgeCurzon Studies in Arabic and Middle-Eastern Literatures: A Ninth-century Bookman in Baghdad, By Shawkat M. Toorawa, pg. 94
^ A history of the crusades, By Steven Runciman, pg. 397
^ AP (14 August 1982). "Joe Tex, 47, Recording Artist And Soul Singer for 30 Years". New York Times . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Thomson, Ahmad – Author Information Ibooks
^ "The Music Show – 24 February 2007 – Danny Thompson". Abc.net.au. 24 February 2007 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Thomas convicted under terror laws, , 27 February 2006 Four Corners
^ ABC staff (20 December 2006). "Thomas to face retrial on terrorism charges". ABC online (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) . Retrieved 20 December 2006.
^ Humphries, Patrick, Richard Thompson — The Biography, Schirmer, 1997. ISBN 0-02-864752-1
^ "South Asia | Afghan kidnappers 'want convert. BBC News. 18 October 2006 '" . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Ştefan Ştefănescu, Istoria medie a României, Bucharest, Vol. I, 1991, p.164
^ Juan Goytisolo and the poetics of contagion, pg.133, by Stanley Beck
^ ["The Tyson, Olajuwon Connection". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). 1994-11-13. Retrieved 2008-03-14.]
^ Stephen Brook (8 August 2007). "newspaper report on police investigation into undercover mosque program. Wednesday August 8, 2007". London: Guardian . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Powell, Michael (23 July 2009). "U.S. Recruit Reveals How Qaeda Trains Foreigners". The New York Times . Retrieved 26 February 2010.
^ Slatin, Rudolf Karl, Baron von. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 July 2007.
^ Islam in America, By Jane I. Smith, pg. 196
^ Kohn, Rachael. The Black imam of Brooklyn
^ Islam in America, By Jane I. Smith, pg. 189
^ "Conversion: Islam, the growing religion". Salaam.co.uk. 1 October 1916 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "The "Yankee Mohammedan": Alexander Russell Webb and the". Encyclopedia.com. 1 January 2007 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Dawud Wharnsby – Colorado – Folk Rock / Acoustique / A'cappella – www.myspace.com/wharnsby". MySpace.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ John Whitehead at the Notable Names Database
^ "Beds Herts and Bucks – Sport – Williams on boxing: I am not supposed to do it!". BBC. 18 July 2005 . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Feature Interview: Tim Winter (aka Abdul Hakim Murad) :: Sunday Nights". Abc.net.au . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Abel Xavier Quits Football And Converts To Islam". Goal.com . Retrieved 30 December 2009.
^ "Transcript of Sheikh Khalid Yasin-07/09/2003: Sunday Nights With John Cleary". Abc.net.au . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Parker, Laura (16 May 2004). "The Ordeal of Chaplain Lee". Usatoday.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ CNN.com – U.S. Army Muslim chaplain arrested – September 22, 2003
^ "Mohammed Yousuf". Content-usa.cricinfo.com . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ "Convert Plays Leadership Role in Muslim Community". NPR . Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ Lea, Brooke. "The Soul Searcher". Psychology Today . Retrieved 7 April 2010.