List of sovereign states
The list contains 206 entries. The states are divided using two distinct methods:
- The membership within the United Nations system column divides the states into two categories: 193 member states two observer states, and 11 other states.
- The sovereignty disputes column divides the states into two categories: 190 undisputed states and 16 states whose sovereignty is disputed.
Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below.
List of states
|Short and formal names||Membership within the UN System [Note 1]||Sovereignty dispute [Note 2]||Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 4]|
|UN member states or observer states ↓↓|
|Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||UN member state||None|
|Albania – Republic of Albania||UN member state||None|
|Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria||UN member state||None|
|Andorra – Principality of Andorra||UN member state||None||Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, who himself is appointed by the Holy See.|
|Angola – Republic of Angola||UN member state||None|
|Antigua and Barbuda||UN member state||None||Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 6]|
|Argentina – Argentine Republic[Note 7]||UN member state||None||Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom. Argentina claims Argentine Antarctica as part of its national territory, officially a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands, which overlaps with the claims of the UK and Chile.[Note 8]|
|Armenia – Republic of Armenia||UN member state||Not recognized by Pakistan|
|Australia – Commonwealth of Australia||UN member state||None||Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 6 states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:|
|Austria – Republic of Austria||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] Austria is a federation of 9 states (Bundesländer).|
|Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan||UN member state||None||Azerbaijan contains 2 autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 6] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established.|
|Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas||UN member state||None||The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain||UN member state||None|
|Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh||UN member state||None|
|Barbados||UN member state||None||Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Belarus – Republic of Belarus||UN member state||None|
|Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.|
|Belize||UN member state||None||Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Benin – Republic of Benin[Note 9]||UN member state||None|
|Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan||UN member state||None|
|Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia||UN member state||None|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||UN member state||None||Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of 2 constituent units:|
|Botswana – Republic of Botswana||UN member state||None|
|Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil||UN member state||None||Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.|
|Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace||UN member state||None||Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 11]|
|Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Burkina Faso[Note 12]||UN member state||None|
|Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[Note 13]||UN member state||None|
|Burundi – Republic of Burundi||UN member state||None|
|Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia||UN member state||None|
|Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon||UN member state||None|
|Canada[Note 14]||UN member state||None||Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.|
|Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde||UN member state||None|
|Central African Republic||UN member state||None|
|Chad – Republic of Chad||UN member state||None|
|Chile – Republic of Chile||UN member state||None||Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region. Chile claims part of Antarctica as a commune in its Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region. Its claim overlaps with those of the UK and Argentina.[Note 8]|
|China – People's Republic of China[Note 15]||UN member state||Republic of ChinaClaimed by the||The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 6] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:
China claims, but does not control, the de facto independent Taiwan,[Note 17] and the Indian-controlled South Tibet. India claims the Chinese-controlled Aksai Chin.[Note 18] China has some control over the disputed Paracel[Note 19] and Spratly Islands.[Note 11]
|China, Republic of → Taiwan|
|Colombia – Republic of Colombia||UN member state||None||The Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank are under various claims by Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the United States.|
|Comoros – Union of the Comoros||UN member state||None||Comoros is a federation of 3 islands, and claims Mayotte, part of France, as a fourth.[Note 20] Comoros also disputes French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser.|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the[Note 21]||UN member state||None|
|Congo, Republic of the[Note 22]||UN member state||None|
|Cook IslandsCook Islands →|
|Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica||UN member state||None|
|Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)||UN member state||None|
|Croatia – Republic of Croatia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Cuba – Republic of Cuba||UN member state||None|
|Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus||UN member state||Not recognised by Turkey and Northern Cyprus||Member of the EU.[Note 3] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of South Cyprus".|
|Czech Republic[Note 23]||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, North|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the|
|Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]
The Danish Realm also includes two self-governing territories:
|Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti||UN member state||None|
|Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica||UN member state||None|
|Dominican Republic||UN member state||None|
|East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[Note 24]||UN member state||None|
|Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador||UN member state||None|
|Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt||UN member state||None|
|El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador||UN member state||None|
|Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea||UN member state||None|
|Eritrea – State of Eritrea||UN member state||None|
|Estonia – Republic of Estonia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||UN member state||None||Ethiopia is a federation of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities.|
|Fiji – Republic of Fiji||UN member state||None||Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 6]|
|Finland – Republic of Finland||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|France – French Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] France contains 5 overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Mayotte, and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.
|Gabon – Gabonese Republic||UN member state||None|
|Gambia, The – Republic of the Gambia||UN member state||None|
|Georgia||UN member state||None||Georgia contains 2 autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 6] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.|
|Germany – Federal Republic of Germany||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).|
|Ghana – Republic of Ghana||UN member state||None|
|Greece – Hellenic Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.|
|Grenada||UN member state||None||Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala||UN member state||None|
|Guinea – Republic of Guinea[Note 26]||UN member state||None|
|Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau||UN member state||None|
|Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana||UN member state||None||All land west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela.|
|Haiti – Republic of Haiti||UN member state||None|
|Holy See → Vatican City|
|Honduras – Republic of Honduras||UN member state||None|
|Hungary||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Iceland – Republic of Iceland||UN member state||None|
|India – Republic of India||UN member state||None||India is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China. India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federated state of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 18]|
|Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia||UN member state||None||Indonesia has 5 provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 6]|
|Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran||UN member state||None|
|Iraq – Republic of Iraq||UN member state||None||Iraq is a federation[Note 20] of 18 governorates, 3 of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 6]|
|Ireland[Note 27]||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Israel – State of Israel||UN member state||Not recognised by 33 states||In 1967, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. Israel annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. These areas are not internationally-recognised as being part of Israel. Between 1982 and 2000, Israel occupied part of southern Lebanon, in what was known as the Security Zone. Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt as part of the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty. Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, but is still considered the occupying power under international law. Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.|
|Italy – Italian Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 6]|
|Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire|
|Jamaica||UN member state||None||Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Japan||UN member state||None||Japan disputes Russian administration of the South Kuril Islands.|
|Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan||UN member state||None|
|Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan||UN member state||None|
|Kenya – Republic of Kenya||UN member state||None|
|Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati||UN member state||None|
|Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea||UN member state||South KoreaClaimed by||North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 28]|
|Korea, South – Republic of Korea||UN member state||North KoreaClaimed by||South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 6] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 28]|
|Kuwait – State of Kuwait||UN member state||None|
|Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic||UN member state||None|
|Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic||UN member state||None|
|Latvia – Republic of Latvia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Lebanon – Lebanese Republic||UN member state||None|
|Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho||UN member state||None|
|Liberia – Republic of Liberia||UN member state||None|
|Libya – State of Libya||UN member state||None||Libya has one self-declared autonomous region:|
|Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein||UN member state||None|
|Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia||UN member state||None||Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".|
|Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar||UN member state||None||Madagascar claims the French territories of Banc du Geyser, Juan de Nova Island, and the Glorioso Islands.|
|Malawi – Republic of Malawi||UN member state||None|
|Malaysia||UN member state||None||Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 11]|
|Maldives – Republic of Maldives||UN member state||None|
|Mali – Republic of Mali||UN member state||None|
|Malta – Republic of Malta||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands||UN member state||None||Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.|
|Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania||UN member state||None|
|Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius||UN member state||None||Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 6] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.|
|Mexico – United Mexican States||UN member state||None||Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.|
|Micronesia, Federated States of||UN member state||None||Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of 4 states.|
|Moldova – Republic of Moldova||UN member state||None||Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.|
|Monaco – Principality of Monaco||UN member state||None|
|Mongolia||UN member state||None|
|Montenegro||UN member state||None|
|Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco||UN member state||None||Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla and the "Plazas de soberanía".|
|Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique||UN member state||None|
|Myanmar → Burma|
|Namibia – Republic of Namibia||UN member state||None|
|Nauru – Republic of Nauru||UN member state||None|
|Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal||UN member state||None||Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.|
|Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:
The monarch and his ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of its constituent country, the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.
The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.
|New Zealand||UN member state||None||New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[Note 5] and has the dependent territories of:
New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:
The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 39 and 8 UN members respectively. They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN, and are members of some UN specialized agencies.
|Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua||UN member state||None||Claims the San Andrés archipelago, part of Colombian territorial waters|
|Niger – Republic of Niger||UN member state||None|
|Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria||UN member state||None||Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.|
|Northern CyprusNorthern Cyprus →|
|North Korea → Korea, North|
|Norway – Kingdom of Norway||UN member state||None||
Norway has the dependent territories of:
|Oman – Sultanate of Oman||UN member state||None|
|Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan||UN member state||None||Pakistan is a federation of 4 provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it, instead regarding it as a disputed territory. The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 18]|
|Palau – Republic of Palau||UN member state||None||Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.|
|Palestine – State of Palestine||UN observer state; member of UNESCO||IsraelDisputed by||The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 134 states. The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on the territory that it proclaimed. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO, and an observer state in the UN.|
|Panama – Republic of Panama||UN member state||None|
|Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea||UN member state||None||Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 6]|
|Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay||UN member state||None|
|Peru – Republic of Peru||UN member state||None|
|Philippines – Republic of the Philippines||UN member state||None||The Philippines contains one autonomous region, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[Note 6] There has been efforts to establish the Cordillera Administrative Region as an autonomous region as well, however in the last referendum of 1998, the people of the Cordillera region voted against the proposition. The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[Note 11] and claims sovereignty over Sabah, which is part of Malaysia.|
|Poland – Republic of Poland||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Portugal – Portuguese Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] Portugal contains 2 autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 6] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.|
|Pridnestrovie → Transnistria|
|Qatar – State of Qatar||UN member state||None|
|Republic of Korea → Korea, South|
|Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the|
|Romania||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Russia – Russian Federation||UN member state||None||Russia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 6] Sovereignty over the South Kuril Islands is disputed by Japan.|
|Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda||UN member state||None|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic →|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis||UN member state||None||Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and is a federation[Note 20] of 14 parishes.|
|Saint Lucia||UN member state||None||Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||UN member state||None||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Samoa – Independent State of Samoa||UN member state||None|
|San Marino – Republic of San Marino||UN member state||None|
|São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe||UN member state||None||São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 6]|
|Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia||UN member state||None|
|Senegal – Republic of Senegal||UN member state||None|
|Serbia – Republic of Serbia||UN member state||None||Serbia contains 2 autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 6] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.|
|Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles||UN member state||None||Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory.|
|Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone||UN member state||None|
|Singapore – Republic of Singapore||UN member state||None|
|Slovakia – Slovak Republic||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Solomon Islands||UN member state||None||The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia||UN member state||None||Somalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the TFG does not recognise),[need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.|
|South Africa – Republic of South Africa||UN member state||None|
|South Korea → Korea, South|
|South OssetiaSouth Ossetia →|
|South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan||UN member state||None||South Sudan is a federation of 10 states. Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the Sudan.|
|Spain – Kingdom of Spain||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[Note 6] Sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain calls for sovereignty over Gibraltar.|
|Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka||UN member state||None||Formerly known as Ceylon.|
|Sudan – Republic of the Sudan||UN member state||None||Sudan is a federation of 17 states. Disputes Abyei and Kafia Kingi with South Sudan.|
|South SudanSudan, South →|
|Suriname – Republic of Suriname||UN member state||None|
|Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland||UN member state||None|
|Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3]|
|Switzerland – Swiss Confederation||UN member state||None||Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.|
|Syria – Syrian Arab Republic||UN member state||None||Israel occupies the Golan Heights.
The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.
|TaiwanTaiwan (Republic of China) →|
|Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan||UN member state||None||Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 6]|
|Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania||UN member state||None||Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 6]|
|Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand||UN member state||None|
|Timor-Leste → East Timor|
|Togo – Togolese Republic||UN member state||None|
|Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga||UN member state||None|
|Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago||UN member state||None||Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 6]|
|Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia||UN member state||None|
|Turkey – Republic of Turkey||UN member state||None|
|Turkmenistan||UN member state||None|
|Tuvalu||UN member state||None||Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]|
|Uganda – Republic of Uganda||UN member state||None|
|Ukraine||UN member state||None||Ukraine contains 1 autonomous region, Crimea.[Note 6]|
|United Arab Emirates||UN member state||None||The United Arab Emirates is a federation of 7 emirates.|
|United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||UN member state||None||Member of the EU.[Note 3] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:
The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:
|United States – United States of America||UN member state||None||The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:
It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:
|Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay||UN member state||None|
|Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan||UN member state||None||Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 6]|
|Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu||UN member state||None|
|Vatican City – Vatican City State||UN observer state; member of multiple UN specialized agencies and the IAEA||None||Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 179 states. The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State") and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy.|
|Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela||UN member state||None||Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.|
|Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam||UN member state||None||Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[Note 19] and Spratly Islands.[Note 11]|
|Yemen – Republic of Yemen||UN member state||None|
|Zambia – Republic of Zambia||UN member state||None|
|Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe||UN member state||None|
|UN member states and observer states ↑↑|
|↓ Other states ↓|
|Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia||No membership||GeorgiaClaimed by||Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Tuvalu, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.|
|Cook Islands||UN specialized agenciesMember of multiple||None||A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands has relations with 41 other states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship. While in practice the Cook Islands' status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, it is not universally accepted as a sovereign state due to its constitutional link with New Zealand.|
|Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo||IMF and WBGMember of the||SerbiaClaimed by||Kosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has received diplomatic recognition from 106 UN member states and Taiwan. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.|
|Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic||No membership||AzerbaijanClaimed by||A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.|
|Niue||UN specialized agenciesMember of multiple||None||A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue has relations with nine other states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship. While in practice Niue's status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, it is not universally accepted as a sovereign state due to its constitutional link with New Zealand.|
|Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus||No membership||Claimed by Cyprus||Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, which is a part of Azerbaijan, regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||No membership||MoroccoClaimed by||Recognised by 84 UN member states, 38 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.|
|Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland||No membership||SomaliaClaimed by||A de facto independent state, not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.|
|South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia||No membership||GeorgiaClaimed by||A de facto independent state, recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.|
|Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 15]||No membership||People's Republic of ChinaClaimed by the||A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 11] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland. The Republic of China is recognised by 21 UN member states and the Holy See as of 2013. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 17] The Republic of China participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The Republic of China was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the security council. See China and the United Nations.|
|Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic||No membership||MoldovaClaimed by||A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.|
|↑ Other states ↑|
Criteria for inclusion
The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:
- (a) consider themselves sovereign (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood
- (b) are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state
Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.
- 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state
- Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
- One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland
- ISO 3166-1
- Adjectivals and demonyms for countries and nations
- Sovereign state
- List of countries and capitals in native languages
- List of country-name etymologies
- List of international rankings
- List of micronations
- List of states with limited recognition
- List of territorial disputes
- Table of administrative divisions by country
- Template:Clickable world map
- Terra nullius
- List of rebel groups that control territory
- This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations. It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
- This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed. Minor territorial disputes are detailed in the Further information column.
- The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranationalism. The EU has 28 member states.
- Information is included on:
- the extent to which a state's sovereignty is recognised internationally. More information can be found at List of states with limited recognition,
- membership in the European Union,[Note 3] where applicable,
- any overseas dependencies, if applicable, which are generally not part of the territory of the sovereign state,
- federal structure of the state, where applicable. More information can be found at Federated state,
- any autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state,
- any situations where one person is the Head of State of more than one state,
- any major territorial disputes,
- any governments in exile recognised by at least one state.
- Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
- For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
- The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
- The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty System. Under this treaty, territorial claims in this region are neither recognised nor disputed. Claimant countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom, with all those save Argentina and Chile mutually recognising each others claims.
- Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
- For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
- Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
- Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
- The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
- The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
- See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
- In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
- Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
- The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes);
- More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
- Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
- Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
- A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
- The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
- Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
- Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
- The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
- Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
- The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.
- Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006). "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- "Andorra country profile". BBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act". Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- "Disputes – International". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- Government of the United States, Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1989). Polar prospects: a minerals treaty for Antarctica. United States Government Printing Office. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4289-2232-7. "Mutual recognition of claims has been limited to Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom ... Chile and Argentina do not recognize each other's claims ..."
- Pakistan Worldview – Report 21 – Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008[dead link]
- Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] – Today.Az
- Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
- "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
- See Republic of Turkey Ministry for European Union Affairs Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Retrieved 2010-07-10.[dead link]
- Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
- Source: Iraqi constitution
- "Constitution of Ireland – Burnreacht na hÉireann". Government of Ireland. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011. "Article 3: It is the firm will of the Irish Nation...to unite all the people who share the territory of the island of Ireland...recognising that a united Ireland shall be brought about only by peaceful means"
- Occupied territory:
- "Israeli-occupied Golan Heights" (Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook 2010, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 2009. pg. 339. ISBN 1-60239-727-9.)
- "...the United States considers the Golan Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("title=CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Congressional Research Service, April 5, 2002. pg. 5. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "Occupied Golan Heights" (Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * "In the ICRC's view, the Golan is an occupied territory." (ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007, International Committee of the Red Cross, April 24, 2008.) * "...occupied Syrian Golan Heights..." (The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002, www.al-bab.com. Retrieved August 1, 2010.) * In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favour of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. (General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, December 5, 2008.)
- Knesset website, Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
- BBC News. Regions and territories: The Golan Heights.
- Online NewsHour: Final Pullout – May 24, 2000 (Transcript). "Israelis evacuate southern Lebanon after 22 years of occupation." Retrieved 15 August 2009.
- Bard, Mitchell. "Israel Makes Peace With Egypt". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- "East Libya declares self-government". Al Jazeera. November 3, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
- Radio New Zealand International (26 March 2007). "American Samoa governor ready to resist Tokelau's claim to Swains Island". Radio New Zealand Ltd. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Government of New Zealand; Government of Tokelau (8 October 2007). "Draft Constitution of Tokelau – English". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-16. For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
- China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
- Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group).
- Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9.
- Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9.
- Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. Retrieved 2011-07-28.
- See the following on statehood criteria:
- Mendes, Errol (30 March 2010). Statehood and Palestine for the purposes of Article 12 (3) of the ICC Statute. 30 March 2010. pp. 28, 33. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "...the Palestinian State also meets the traditional criteria under the Montevideo Convention..."; "...the fact that a majority of states have recognised Palestine as a State should easily fulfill the requisite state practice".
- McKinney, Kathryn M. (1994). "The Legal Effects of the Israeli-PLO Declaration ofPrinciples: Steps Toward Statehood for Palestine". Seattle University Law Review (Seattle University) 18 (93): 97. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory".
- McDonald, Avril (Spring 2009). "Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute". Human Rights Brief (Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law) 25. Retrieved 2011-04-17: "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."
- "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4230-0.
- "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu. | The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Abkhazia". Mfaabkhazia.net. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
- "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (in Russian). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
- Gillard, Charles Andrew (2012). "Sovereignty, Self-Determination and the South-West Pacific: A comparison of the status of Pacific Island territorial entities in international law". University of Waikato. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford University Press. p. 53. "...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland."
- Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9.
- Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", – сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." – сказал он."
- "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
- See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
- "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland and the Case for Justified Secession". Minnesota Journal of International Law 19:2: 380–381. 2010. "Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood."
- International Crisis Group (23 May 2006). "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership". Africa Report (110): 10–13. Retrieved 2011-04-19
- Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009). "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland". ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8. Retrieved 2011-04-19
- Arieff, Alexis. "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland". Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved 2011-04-17
- See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
- Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm". Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3
- "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com (Cable News Network). 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08.
- 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
- The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.
- Federal Foreign Office of Germany (22 April 2009). "Amtliche Bezeichnungen ausländischer Staaten in den Landessprachen" (PDF). Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- Bissio, Roberto Remo, ed. (1995). The World: A Third World Guide: 1995/96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1. OCLC 476299738.
- "Countries or areas, codes and abbreviations". Statistics Division, United Nations. 1 April 2010.
- Davis, Tim (19 February 2009). "World Countries and States List". Timdavis.com.au.
- "Geographic Names". Department of Public Information, Cartographic Section, United Nations. 7 September 2000.
- "ISO 3166-1 Country names and code elements". International Organization for Standardization. 2010.
- "List of countries, territories and currencies". Publications Office of the European Union. 4 May 2010.
- Madore, David (3 August 2003). "How many countries are there in the world?". Madore.org.
- "The World Factbook". United States: Central Intelligence Agency. 2010.
- World of Information (Firm), and International Chamber of Commerce (2003). Middle East Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report (27th ed.). London: Kogan Page. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4. OCLC 51992589.