Corruption Perceptions Index
Since 1995, Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit."
The CPI currently ranks 176 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)."
Transparency International commissioned Johann Graf Lambsdorff of the University of Passau to produce the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). The 2012 CPI draws on 13 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions. The institutions are the African Development Bank, the Bertelsmann Foundation, the Economist Intelligence Unit, Freedom House, Global Insight, International Institute for Management Development, Political and Economic Risk Consultancy, Political Risk Services, the World Economic Forum, the World Bank and the World Justice Project.
Countries must be assessed by at least three sources to appear in the CPI. The 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts. Early CPIs used public opinion surveys.
The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.
A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: Black Market activity and overabundance of regulation. All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap). The Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest.
For the 2013 report the countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were: Denmark, New Zealand, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Iceland, United Kingdom, Barbados, and Belgium.
The countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were: Afghanistan, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Libya, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Syria, Yemen, Haiti, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, and Guinea Bissau.
For the 2012 report the countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were: Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, Singapore, Switzerland, Australia, Norway, Canada, Netherlands, Iceland, Luxembourg, Germany, and Barbados.
The countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were: Afghanistan, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, Myanmar, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Burundi, Chad, Haiti, Venezuela, Equatorial Guinea, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Laos, and Libya.
Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI. The researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth, as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score. Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.
Because corruption is willfully hidden, it is impossible to measure directly; instead, proxies for corruption are used.
Media outlets frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance, without clarifying what the numbers mean. The local Transparency International chapter in Bangladesh disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused the country's scores to increase; media reported it as an "improvement". Other critics point out that definitional problems with the term "corruption" makes the tool problematic for social science.
- Transparency International (2011). "Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2
- Transparency International (2012). "Corruption Perceptions Index 2012: In detail". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005)". Retrieved 22 November 2005.
- CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 1
- Transparency International (2010). Corruption Perceptions Index 2010: Sources of information (Report). Transparency International. http://www.transparency.org/content/download/55815/891318/CPI2010_sources_EN.pdf. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 7
- Transparency International (2010). "Frequently asked questions (FAQs)". Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- Wilhelm, Paul G. (2002). "International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education". Journal of Business Ethics (Springer Netherlands) 35 (3): 177–89. doi:10.1023/A:1013882225402. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- Corruption Perceptions Index 2013. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
- Corruption Perceptions Index 2012. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 February 2013.
- Shao, J.; Ivanov, P. C.; Podobnik, B.; Stanley, H. E. (2007). "Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors". The European Physical Journal B 56 (2): 157. arXiv:0705.0161. Bibcode:2007EPJB...56..157S. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2007-00098-2.
- Podobnik, B.; Shao, J.; Njavro, D.; Ivanov, P. C.; Stanley, H. E. (2008). "Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment". The European Physical Journal B 63 (4): 547. arXiv:0710.1995. Bibcode:2008EPJB...63..547P. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2008-00210-2.
- "TI's Index: Local Chapter Not Having It". Global Integrity.
- Transparency International (2010). Corruption Perceptions Index 2010: Long methodological brief (Report). Transparency International. http://www.transparency.org/content/download/55903/892623/CPI2010_long_methodology_En.pdf. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- Official site
- Corruption Perceptions Index 2012
- Interactive world map of the Corruption Perception Index: 2000-2008
- A Users' Guide to Measuring Corruption critiques the CPI and similar indices.
- Global Integrity Index
- Business Anti-Corruption Portal