List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent

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This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals, including the following entities:

This list divides the world using the seven-continent model, with islands grouped into adjacent continents. The continents are:

In other models, Asia and Europe can be combined as Eurasia, while North and South America can be combined as the Americas (for a detailed description of how the world is divided into continents, including different models, see Continent: definitions and application).

There are sovereign states and dependent territories that can be considered to belong to more than one continent, according to geographical, political, or historical criteria.

Classification according to United Nations geoscheme[edit]

In this list, the sovereign states and dependent territories are classified according to the geoscheme created by the United Nations Statistics Division.[1] According to the UN, the assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories.[2]

Africa[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Africa: territories and regions.

Flag Name Capital Status
Algeria Algeria Algiers
Angola Angola Luanda
Benin Benin Porto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (seat of government)
Botswana Botswana Gaborone
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Ouagadougou
Burundi Burundi Bujumbura
Cameroon Cameroon Yaoundé
Cape Verde Cape Verde Praia
Central African Republic Central African Republic Bangui
Chad Chad N'Djamena
Comoros Comoros Moroni
Republic of the Congo Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Brazzaville
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Yamoussoukro (official)
Abidjan (seat of government)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) Kinshasa
Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti
Egypt Egypt Cairo
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Malabo
Eritrea Eritrea Asmara
Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa
Gabon Gabon Libreville
The Gambia Gambia Banjul
Ghana Ghana Accra
Guinea Guinea Conakry
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Bissau
Kenya Kenya Nairobi
Lesotho Lesotho Maseru
Liberia Liberia Monrovia
Libya Libya Tripoli
Madagascar Madagascar Antananarivo
Malawi Malawi Lilongwe
Mali Mali Bamako
Mauritania Mauritania Nouakchott
Mauritius Mauritius Port Louis
Mayotte Mayotte Mamoudzou Overseas department of France
Morocco Morocco Rabat
Mozambique Mozambique Maputo
Namibia Namibia Windhoek
Niger Niger Niamey
Nigeria Nigeria Abuja
Réunion Réunion Saint-Denis Overseas department of France
Rwanda Rwanda Kigali
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic El Aaiún (official)
Bir Lehlou and Sahrawi
refugee camps
(seat of government)
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition.
It claims the territory of Western Sahara, most of which is controlled by Morocco.
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Jamestown (Saint Helena)
Georgetown (Ascension Island)
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (Tristan da Cunha)
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé
Senegal Senegal Dakar
Seychelles Seychelles Victoria
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Freetown
Somalia Somalia Mogadishu
Somaliland Somaliland Hargeisa De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by the United Nations as part of Somalia
South Africa South Africa Pretoria (administrative/executive)
Cape Town (legislative)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
South Sudan South Sudan Juba
Sudan Sudan Khartoum
Swaziland Swaziland Mbabane (administrative)
Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Tanzania Tanzania Dodoma (official)
Dar es Salaam (seat of government)
Togo Togo Lomé
Tunisia Tunisia Tunis
Uganda Uganda Kampala
Zambia Zambia Lusaka
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Harare

Asia[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Asia: territories and regions.

Flag Name Capital Status
Abkhazia Abkhazia Sukhumi De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by the United Nations as part of Georgia
Afghanistan Afghanistan Kabul
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Armenia Armenia [Europe] Yerevan
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan [Europe] Baku
Bahrain Bahrain Manama
Bangladesh Bangladesh Dhaka
Bhutan Bhutan Thimphu
British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory Diego Garcia Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Brunei Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan
Cambodia Cambodia Phnom Penh
China China Beijing
Christmas Island Christmas Island Flying Fish Cove External territory of Australia
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands West Island External territory of Australia
Cyprus Cyprus [Europe] Nicosia
East Timor East Timor (Timor-Leste) Dili
Georgia (country) Georgia [Europe] Tbilisi
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Special administrative region of China
India India New Delhi
Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta
Iran Iran Tehran
Iraq Iraq Baghdad
Israel Israel Jerusalem
Japan Japan Tokyo
Jordan Jordan Amman
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Astana
Kuwait Kuwait Kuwait City
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Bishkek
Laos Laos Vientiane
Lebanon Lebanon Beirut
Macau Macau Special administrative region of China
Malaysia Malaysia Kuala Lumpur (official)
Putrajaya (seat of government)
Maldives Maldives Malé
Mongolia Mongolia Ulaanbaatar
Myanmar Myanmar (Burma) Naypyidaw
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Stepanakert De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by the United Nations as part of Azerbaijan
Nepal Nepal Kathmandu
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Nicosia De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by the United Nations as part of Cyprus
North Korea North Korea Pyongyang
Oman Oman Muscat
Pakistan Pakistan Islamabad
Palestinian territories Palestine East Jerusalem (claimed capital)
Ramallah (West Bank seat of government)
Gaza (Gaza Strip seat of government)
Philippines Philippines Manila
Qatar Qatar Doha
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh
Singapore Singapore Singapore
South Korea South Korea Seoul
South Ossetia South Ossetia Tskhinvali De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by the United Nations as part of Georgia
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte
Syria Syria Damascus
Taiwan Taiwan Taipei De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by the United Nations as part of China.
Tajikistan Tajikistan Dushanbe
Thailand Thailand Bangkok
Turkey Turkey [Europe] Ankara
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Ashgabat
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Tashkent
Vietnam Vietnam Hanoi
Yemen Yemen Sana'a

Europe[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Europe: political geography.

Flag Name Capital Status
Åland Islands Åland Islands Mariehamn Autonomous region of Finland (recognized by international treaty)
Albania Albania Tirana
Andorra Andorra Andorra la Vella
Austria Austria Vienna
Belarus Belarus Minsk
Belgium Belgium Brussels
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo
Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia
Croatia Croatia Zagreb
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen
Estonia Estonia Tallinn
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Tórshavn Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm
Finland Finland Helsinki
France France Paris
Germany Germany Berlin
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltar Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Greece Greece Athens
Guernsey Guernsey Saint Peter Port Crown dependency of the United Kingdom
Hungary Hungary Budapest
Iceland Iceland Reykjavík
Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin
Isle of Man Isle of Man Douglas Crown dependency of the United Kingdom
Italy Italy Rome
Jersey Jersey Saint Helier Crown dependency of the United Kingdom
Kosovo Kosovo Pristina De facto sovereign state recognized by 107 UN member states
A United Nations mandate in Serbian territory was put in place starting in 1999.
Latvia Latvia Riga
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Vaduz
Lithuania Lithuania Vilnius
Luxembourg Luxembourg Luxembourg
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Skopje
Malta Malta Valletta
Moldova Moldova Chişinău
Monaco Monaco Monaco
Montenegro Montenegro Podgorica
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam
Norway Norway Oslo
Poland Poland Warsaw
Portugal Portugal Lisbon
Romania Romania Bucharest
Russia Russia Moscow
San Marino San Marino San Marino
Serbia Serbia Belgrade
Slovakia Slovakia Bratislava
Slovenia Slovenia Ljubljana
Spain Spain Madrid
Svalbard Svalbard Longyearbyen Special territory of Norway (recognized by international treaty)
Sweden Sweden Stockholm
Switzerland Switzerland Bern
Transnistria Transnistria Tiraspol De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by the United Nations as part of Moldova
Ukraine Ukraine Kiev
United Kingdom United Kingdom London
Vatican City Vatican City/Holy See Vatican City
Notes

North America[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see North America: countries and territories.

Flag Name Capital Status
Anguilla Anguilla The Valley Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda St. John's
Aruba Aruba Oranjestad Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Bahamas Bahamas Nassau
Barbados Barbados Bridgetown
Belize Belize Belmopan
Bermuda Bermuda Hamilton Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Bonaire Bonaire Kralendijk Special municipality of the Netherlands
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands Road Town Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Canada Canada Ottawa
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands George Town Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Clipperton Island Clipperton Island Overseas territory of France
Costa Rica Costa Rica San José
Cuba Cuba Havana
Curaçao Curaçao Willemstad Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dominica Dominica Roseau
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo
El Salvador El Salvador San Salvador
Greenland Greenland Nuuk Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm
Grenada Grenada St. George's
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Basse-Terre Overseas department of France
Guatemala Guatemala Guatemala City
Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince
Honduras Honduras Tegucigalpa
Jamaica Jamaica Kingston
Martinique Martinique Fort-de-France Overseas department of France
Mexico Mexico Mexico City
Montserrat Montserrat Plymouth (official)
Brades (seat of government)
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Navassa Island Navassa Island Insular area of the United States of America
Nicaragua Nicaragua Managua
Panama Panama Panama City
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico San Juan Insular area of the United States of America
Saba Saba The Bottom Special municipality of the Netherlands
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy Gustavia Overseas collectivity of France
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Castries
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin Marigot Overseas collectivity of France
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre Overseas collectivity of France
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown
Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius Oranjestad Special municipality of the Netherlands
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten Philipsburg Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Cockburn Town Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United States United States Washington, D.C.
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands Charlotte Amalie Insular area of the United States of America

South America[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see South America: demographics.

Flag Name Capital Status
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires
Bolivia Bolivia Sucre (official)
La Paz (seat of government)
Brazil Brazil Brasília
Chile Chile Santiago
Colombia Colombia Bogotá
Ecuador Ecuador Quito
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Stanley Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
French Guiana French Guiana Cayenne Overseas department of France
Guyana Guyana Georgetown
Paraguay Paraguay Asunción
Peru Peru Lima
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Suriname Suriname Paramaribo
Uruguay Uruguay Montevideo
Venezuela Venezuela Caracas

Oceania[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Oceania: territories and regions.

Flag Name Capital Status
American Samoa American Samoa Pago Pago Insular area of the United States of America
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Ashmore and Cartier Islands External territory of Australia
Australia Australia Canberra
Baker Island Baker Island Insular area of the United States of America
Cook Islands Cook Islands Avarua Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship, but is independent in its international affairs.
Coral Sea Islands Coral Sea Islands External territory of Australia
Fiji Fiji Suva
French Polynesia French Polynesia Papeete Overseas collectivity of France
Guam Guam Hagåtña Insular area of the United States of America
Howland Island Howland Island Insular area of the United States of America
Jarvis Island Jarvis Island Insular area of the United States of America
Johnston Atoll Johnston Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Insular area of the United States of America
Kiribati Kiribati South Tarawa
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands Majuro
Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia Palikir
Midway Atoll Midway Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Nauru Nauru Yaren (seat of government)
France
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Nouméa Sui generis collectivity (special collectivity) of France
New Zealand New Zealand Wellington
Niue Niue Alofi Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship, but is independent in its international affairs.
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Kingston Self-governing territory of Australia
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands Saipan Insular area of the United States of America
Palau Palau Melekeok
Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Port Moresby
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands Adamstown Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Samoa Samoa Apia
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Honiara
Tokelau Tokelau Nukunonu (main settlement, although each atoll has its own administrative centre) Dependent territory of New Zealand
Tonga Tonga Nukuʻalofa
Tuvalu Tuvalu Funafuti
Vanuatu Vanuatu Port Vila
Wake Island Wake Island Insular area of the United States of America
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu Overseas collectivity of France

Antarctica[edit]

Antarctica is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S, and has no government and belongs to no country. However, the following territorial claims in Antarctica have been made:

Moreover, the following dependent territories are situated in the wider Antarctic Region:

Flag Name Capital Status
Bouvet Island Bouvet Island Dependent territory of Norway
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands Alfred Faure (Crozet Islands)
Port-aux-Français (Kerguelen Islands)
Martin-de-Viviès (Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands)
Overseas territory of France
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands External territory of Australia
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point Overseas territory of the United Kingdom

Geographical boundaries of continents[edit]

In this section, the geographical boundaries of the continents are used to divide the world into continents, where differences from the previous list according to the United Nations geoscheme are noted.

Boundaries of Africa[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Africa, see Borders of the continents: Africa.

Suez Canal[edit]

Considering the Suez Canal as a boundary between Africa and Asia, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  • Egypt: Africa, west of the Suez Canal; to the east, Asia.

Continental shelf of Africa[edit]

Considering the continental shelf of Africa, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Boundaries between Asia and Europe[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Asia and Europe, see Borders of the continents: Europe and Asia.

Sea of Marmara and Turkish Straits[edit]

Considering the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosporus and the Dardanelles) as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  • Turkey: Asia, east and south of the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits; to the west and north, Europe.

Ural definitions[edit]

Considering the Ural definition that follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains, and then the Ural River until the Caspian Sea, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the previous list occur:

  • Kazakhstan: Asia, east of the Ural River; to the west, Europe.
  • Russia: Europe, west and north of the Ural Mountains watershed and the Ural River; to the east and south, Asia.

Considering the Ural definition that follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains, and then the Ural River until it reaches Kazakhstan's border for the first time, and then the Or River and the Emba River, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the previous list occur:

  • Kazakhstan: Asia, east of the Or River and the Emba River; to the west, Europe.
  • Russia: Europe, west of the Ural Mountains watershed and the Ural River (until it reaches Kazakhstan's border for the first time); to the east, Asia.

Caucasus definitions[edit]

Considering the Caucasus definition that follows the watershed of the Greater Caucasus of the Caucasus Mountains as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the previous list occur:

  • Azerbaijan: Asia, south of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the north, Europe (very small area).
  • Georgia: Asia, south of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the north, Europe (very small area).
  • Russia: Europe, north of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the south, Asia (very small area).

Considering the Caucasus definition that follows the Kuma-Manych Depression, marked by the Kuma River and the Manych River, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  • Russia: Europe, north of the Kuma River and the Manych River; to the south, Asia.

Continental shelfs of Asia and Europe[edit]

Considering the continental shelfs of Asia and Europe, the following change from the previous list occurs:

Boundaries between Asia and North America[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Asia and North America, see Borders of the continents: Asia and North America.

Continental shelfs of Asia and North America[edit]

Considering the continental shelfs of Asia and North America, the following change from the previous list occurs:

Boundaries between Europe and North America[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Europe and North America, see Borders of the continents: Europe and North America.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge[edit]

Though very rare, considering the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as a boundary between Europe and North America, the following change from the previous list occurs:

Boundaries between North and South America[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between North and South America, see Borders of the continents: the Americas.

Panama Canal[edit]

Considering the Panama Canal as a boundary between North and South America, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  • Panama: North America, west of the Panama Canal; to the east, South America.

Continental shelfs of North and South America[edit]

Considering the continental shelfs of North and South America, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Boundaries of Oceania[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Oceania, see Borders of the continents: Asia and Oceania.

Pacific Islands[edit]

Considering all Pacific Islands as being part of Oceania, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Boundaries of Antarctica[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Antarctica, see Borders of the continents: Antarctica.

Sub-Antarctic islands[edit]

Considering sub-Antarctic islands north of 60°S which are fully integrated with its country, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Continental intergovernmental organizations[edit]

There are a number of intergovernmental organizations with continental scope and having the most wide and possibly non-overlapping membership:

Therefore, a member of one of these organizations may be considered as belonging to that particular continent according to political criteria. Considering this, the following changes from the previous list occur:

However, in general only internationally recognized sovereign states are members of intergovernmental organizations, and not every one of them is a member of one of the organizations listed above.

Dependent territories[edit]

Dependent territories, through political ties with their mother countries, may be associated with another continent other than its own geographical continent. For example, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion, all overseas departments of France, are part of the EU and use the euro as their official currency. Other dependent territories of EU members, such as Greenland, while not part of the EU, enjoy special relationships with the EU.

The following dependent territories, all of them sparsely populated islands remote from continental mass, may be grouped into more than one continent, as there is no general convention as to which continent they belong to:

  • The British Indian Ocean Territory is geographically located in the Indian Ocean, about equidistant from Africa and Asia. Politically it is administered from the United Kingdom, while historically it is part of Mauritius. It may be grouped into either Africa or Asia.
  • Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are geographically located in the Indian Ocean, much closer to Asia than to Australia. Politically they are administered from Australia. They may be grouped into Asia or Oceania.
  • Clipperton Island is geographically located in the Pacific Ocean, much closer to North America than to other Pacific Islands. Politically they are administered from France, previously from French Polynesia. They may be grouped into North America or Oceania.
  • The French Southern Territories, which exclude the Antarctic territorial claim of Adélie Land, are geographically located in the Indian Ocean; the Îles Éparses are close to Madagascar, while other islands are approximately equidistant from Africa, Antarctica and Australia. Politically they are administered from Réunion. They may be grouped into Africa or Antarctica.
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is geographically in the Atlantic Ocean, about equidistant from South America and Antarctica. Politically it is administered from the Falkland Islands. It may be grouped into South America or Antarctica.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. 
  2. ^ "Standard country or area codes and geographical regions for statistical use". United Nations Statistics Division. 

External links[edit]