List of countries by date of transition to republican system of government

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This is a list of countries by date of their last transition from a monarchy to a republican form of government. There were two periods in recent history when many such transitions took place:

  • during or within five years after World War I (1914–1923) – marked in green;
  • during or within five years after World War II (1940–1950) – marked in pink.

Some of the countries on this list were part of larger, now extinct, states (such as the Russian Empire or Yugoslavia) when the transition to a republic took place. Countries where non-republican forms of government (such as a monarchy, theocracy etc.) persist are not included in this list. Some were also former Commonwealth realms. Countries marked in yellow have since ceased to be republics in favour of another form of government.

List[edit]

Country Republic since Notes
San Marino September 3, 301 San Marino was declared a republic, independent of the Roman Empire, by Saint Marinus of Rab. It is considered the "world's oldest republic".
Netherlands July 26, 1581 The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands declared its independence from King Philip II of Spain on 26 July 1581 with the Act of Abjuration, and became the Batavian Republic in 1795. The Kingdom of Holland was formed on 5 June 1806.
Switzerland October 24, 1648 Switzerland recognized as independent from the Holy Roman Empire by the Treaty of Westphalia
England May 19, 1649 The Commonwealth of England, later known as the Protectorate, was established on 19 May 1649 following the execution of King Charles I. At its height, it ruled over all the British Isles. The monarchy was restored on 29 May 1660.
United States September 3, 1783 Definitive independence with signing of Treaty of Paris
Paraguay May 15, 1811 Independence from Spain
Argentina July 9, 1816 Independence won from the Spanish Empire. Republican governments established from 1811 onwards. Republican constitutions of 1819 and 1826 led to the adoption of the 1853 text
Chile February 12, 1818 Independence declared from the Spanish Empire. Between 1810 and 1814 there were Republican governments although nominally remained loyal to the Spanish monarchy. In 1817 there was re-established the independentist government and established a republican system in different constitutional texts.
Venezuela August 15, 1819 Venezuelan constitution of 1819 adopted
Colombia December 17, 1819 Republic of Colombia declared during Congress of Angostura
Panama
Ecuador May 24, 1822 Incorporated into Republic of Colombia, end of Royal Audiencia of Quito
Costa Rica July 1, 1823 Independence of United Provinces of Central America
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua
Peru December 9, 1824 Treaty signed after Battle of Ayacucho
Bolivia August 6, 1825 Constitutional congress declared Bolivia a republic
Uruguay August 25, 1825 Independence from Empire of Brazil
Liberia July 26, 1847 Independent Republic of Liberia created
Haiti January 15, 1859 Abdication of Emperor Faustin
Dominican Republic March 25, 1865 Adoption of new constitution near end of Dominican Restoration War
Mexico July 15, 1867 Emperor Maxmilian shot; Federal Republic officially restored
France September 4, 1870 Emperor Napoleon III deposed and French Third Republic proclaimed as a result of the Franco-Prussian War
Brazil November 15, 1889 Emperor Pedro II deposed by a military coup led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, Republic proclaimed.
Madagascar February 28, 1897 End of Merina Kingdom
Philippines July 1, 1902 The Philippine Organic Act, enacted into law on July 1, 1902, established a Philippine legislature with a popularly elected lower house.[1]
Portugal October 5, 1910 King Manuel II deposed and Portuguese First Republic proclaimed as a result of the 1910 revolution
Angola Republican government instituted when metropole became a republic
Cape Verde
East Timor
Guinea-Bissau
Mozambique
São Tomé and Príncipe
China October 10, 1911 Republic of China (ROC) proclaimed as a result of the Xinhai Revolution. The ROC was initially in control of China but later relocated to Taiwan. It is now commonly known as "Taiwan".
The People's Republic of China was proclaimed on 1 October 1949 and is now in control of mainland China. It is commonly known as "China".
Comoros 1912 End of last of indigenous sultanates
Armenia September 14, 1917 Emperor Nicholas II of Russia abdicated as a result of the February Revolution and Russia was proclaimed a republic
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Estonia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Russia
Ukraine
Czech Republic October 18, 1918 Czechoslovak Republic proclaimed
Slovakia
Lithuania November 2, 1918 King Mindaugas II deposed and Republic of Lithuania proclaimed
Germany November 9, 1918 Emperor William II abdicated as a result of the German Revolution
Austria November 12, 1918 Republic of German Austria proclaimed following the dethronement of Emperor Charles
Poland November 14, 1918 Power transferred from the Regency Council to State Leader Józef Piłsudski
Finland December 14, 1918 King Frederic Charles renounced the throne
Turkmenistan April 26, 1920 Khan Abd Allah Khan deposed and Khorezm People's Soviet Republic proclaimed
Lebanon July 23, 1920 French Mandate of Syria established after the Battle of Maysalun
Syria
Tajikistan October 8, 1920 Emir Mohammed Alim Khan deposed and Bukharan People's Republic proclaimed
Uzbekistan
Togo July 20, 1922 Formal beginning of French Togoland League of Nations Mandate
Turkey October 29, 1923 Republic of Turkey proclaimed as a result of the Turkish War of Independence
Mongolia November 25, 1925 Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed
Spain April 14, 1931 The First Spanish Republic was declared in 1873, but lasted less than two years. The Second Spanish Republic came to power on 14 April 1931 following the economic crisis caused by the 1929 Wall Street Crash. The Republic lost power after the Spanish Civil War. The dictator Francisco Franco then led Spain until his death on 20 November 1975 when the monarchy was restored.
Moldova August 2, 1940 Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed following the annexation of Romanian Moldavia by the Soviet Union
Iceland June 17, 1944 Republic of Iceland established after a referendum
Korea August 15, 1945 Korea liberated from Japan and People's Republic of Korea established, divided into North Korea and South Korea a month later
Indonesia August 17, 1945 Republic of Indonesia proclaimed triggering the Indonesian National Revolution
Vietnam August 25, 1945 Emperor Bảo Đại abdicated and Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed
Bosnia and Herzegovina November 29, 1945 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia proclaimed while King Peter II was in exile
Croatia
Macedonia
Montenegro
Serbia
Slovenia
Albania January 1, 1946 People's Republic of Albania proclaimed while King Zog was in exile
Hungary February 1, 1946 Second Hungarian Republic proclaimed
Italy June 12, 1946 King Umberto II renounced the throne and Italian Republic was established after a referendum
Bulgaria September 15, 1946 Tsar Simeon II deposed and People's Republic of Bulgaria proclaimed after a referendum
Marshall Islands July 18, 1947 end of South Pacific Mandate and beginning of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Federated States of Micronesia
Palau
Romania December 30, 1947 King Michael abdicated and the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed
Burma January 4, 1948 Burmese independence declared
Israel May 14, 1948 State of Israel proclaimed
Ireland April 18, 1949 Republic of Ireland Act came into force
India August 15, 1945 Constitution of India came into effect
Egypt June 18, 1953 Republic proclaimed after revolution in 1952
South Sudan January 1, 1956 Independence of Republic of Sudan
Sudan
Bangladesh March 23, 1956 Constitution of Pakistan came into effect and Governor General Iskander Mirza became President
Pakistan
Tunisia July 25, 1957 King Muhammad VIII al-Amin deposed
Iraq July 14, 1958 Faisal II deposed/killed in 14 July Revolution
Somalia June 26, 1960 Independence of State of Somaliland, which was united with the Trust Territory of Somalia on July 1 to form the Somali Republic
Democratic Republic of Congo June 30, 1960 Gained independence as a republic
Ghana July 1, 1960 Constitutional change after referendum on April 27
Cyprus August 16, 1960 Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus adopted
South Africa May 31, 1961 Republican constitution adopted
Rwanda July 1, 1962 Independence as a republic following monarchy referendum in 1961
Yemen September 27, 1962 King Muhammad al-Badr deposed and Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) proclaimed
Tanganyika December 9, 1962 Republican constitution adopted
Nigeria October 1, 1963 Constitutional amendment
Uganda October 9, 1963 Constitutional amendment
Zanzibar January 12, 1964 Sultanate overthrown in Zanzibar Revolution
Zambia October 24, 1964 Gained independence as a republic
Kenya December 12, 1964 Republican constitution adopted
Singapore August 9, 1965 Ousted from the Federation of Malaysia
Malawi July 6, 1966 Republican constitution adopted
Botswana September 30, 1966 Gained independence as a republic
Burundi November 28, 1966 Republic declared after army coup d'état
South Yemen November 30, 1967 Independence of People's Republic of South Yemen
Nauru January 31, 1968 Gained independence as a republic
Equatorial Guinea October 12, 1968 Gained independence as a republic
Maldives November 11, 1968 Sultan Muhammad Fareed Didi deposed and Maldivian Second Republic established after a referendum
Libya September 1, 1969 King Idris I deposed by Muammar Gaddafi's coup d'état
Guyana February 23, 1970 Co-operative Republic of Guyana proclaimed
Cambodia March 18, 1970 The Khmer Republic (later known as Democratic Kampuchea, then the People's Republic of Kampuchea, and finally the State of Cambodia) was declared in 1970 when Prince Norodom Sihanouk was deposed. The monarchy was restored in 1993.
The Gambia April 24, 1970 Republic proclaimed following constitutional referendum
Sierra Leone April 19, 1971 Republican constitution adopted
Sri Lanka May 22, 1972 Sri Lankan constitution adopted
Afghanistan July 17, 1973 King Mohammed Zahir Shah abdicated after Mohammed Daoud Khan's coup d'état
Greece December 8, 1974 Final abolition of monarchy; referendum
Malta December 13, 1974 Republic of Malta proclaimed
Eritrea March 21, 1975 Monarchy of Ethiopian Empire finally abolished
Ethiopia
Suriname November 25, 1975 Gained independence as a republic
Laos December 2, 1975 King Savang Vatthana abdicated as a result of a communist revolution
Seychelles June 29, 1976 Gained independence as a republic
Trinidad and Tobago August 1, 1976 Republican constitution adopted
Dominica November 3, 1978 Gained independence as a republic
Iran February 11, 1979 Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi deposed and Islamic Republic of Iran (a theocratic republic) proclaimed as a result of the Iranian Revolution
Kiribati July 12, 1979 Gained independence as a republic
Central African Republic September 21, 1979 Emperor Bokassa I deposed in a coup d'état
Zimbabwe April 17, 1980 Full independence of Zimbabwe
Fiji October 6, 1987 Fiji Republic proclaimed as a result of the coup d'état of Sitiveni Rabuka
Mauritius March 12, 1992 Republic of Mauritius proclaimed as a result of constitutional changes
Nepal May 28, 2008 Monarchy abolished and replaced with secular federal republic

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some historians do not consider the government established by the Philippine Organic Act to be the first republican government established in the Philippines, crediting earlier insurgent revolutionary movements which proclaimed Republican governments.
    • Some historians (e.g., Agoncillo 1990, pp. 177–179) consider the Tejeros Convention on March 27, 1897, which established an elected insurgent revolutionary government, as the establishment of a national Republican system of government;
    • Some historians (e.g., Agoncillo 1990, pp. 183–184) describe a proclamation of a Republican government by Philippine revolutionaries on November 1–2, 1897, and consider that to have been the establishment of a national Republican system of government;
    • Some historians (e.g., Zaide 1994, pp. 263–277, in Chapter 20, "First Republic in Asia") consider the First Philippine Republic, a short-lived revolutionary insurgent government which established itself on September 15, 1898 and which styled itself as a national government as having been a national Republic.

References[edit]

  • Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) [1960], History of the Filipino People (Eighth ed.), R.P. Garcia Publishing Company, ISBN 971-10-2415-2 
  • Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), "Chapter 20. First Republic in Asia", The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing Co., pp. 263–277, ISBN 971-642-071-4