List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[1] 3,899,285 Dec 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,245,316 Mar 2015[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 697,992 Mar 2015[3]
4   Switzerland 582,487 Mar 2015[4]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 419,608 Mar 2015[5]
6  South Korea 362,750 Mar 2015[6][7]
7  Brazil 362,744 Mar 2015[8]
8  Russia 362,300 May 15, 2015[9][10][11]
9  India 353,876 May 15, 2015[12][13]
-  Hong Kong 332,211 Mar 2015[14]
10  Singapore 249,450 Mar 2015[15]
11  Mexico 197,765 Mar 2015[16][17]
12  Algeria 193,600 Dec 2014[18]
13  Germany 192,627 Apr 2015[19]
14  Thailand 156,319 Mar 2015[20]
15  United Kingdom 152,772 Mar 2015[21]
16  France 143,408 Mar 2015[22]
17  Italy 139,889 Mar 2015[23]
18  United States 123,191 Mar 2015[24]
19  Turkey 120,742 Mar 2015[25]
20  Denmark 113,334 Feb 2015[26]
21  Indonesia 111,554 Mar 2015[27]
22  Iran[2] 110,000 Dec 2014[18]
23  Malaysia 105,106 Mar 2015[28][29]
24  Libya 105,000 Dec 2014[18]
25  Poland 97,126 Mar 2015[30]
26  Israel 84,656 Mar 2015[31]
27  Philippines 80,459 Mar 2015[32]
28  Canada 77,681 Mar 2015[33]
29  United Arab Emirates 74,700 Dec 2014[18]
30  Iraq 74,000 Dec 2014[18]
31  Norway 65,821 Mar 2015[34]
32  Peru 61,131 Apr 2015[35]
33  Sweden 59,802 Mar 2015[36]
34  Australia 56,873 Mar 2015[37]
35  Spain 55,247 Mar 2015[38]
36  Czech Republic 52,357 Mar 2015[39]
37  Lebanon 49,430 Dec 2014[18]
38  South Africa 47,190 Feb 2015[40]
39  Colombia 46,662 Apr 2015[41]
40  Netherlands 40,642 Mar 2015[42]
41  Hungary 39,709 Mar 2015[43]
42  Qatar 39,076 Feb 2015[44]
43  Kuwait 38,500 Dec 2014[18]
44  Chile 38,427 Mar 2015[45]
45  Romania 36,864 Mar 2015[46]
46  Vietnam 35,700 Dec 2014[18]
47  Angola 33,590 Dec 2014[18]
48  Argentina 31,490 Mar 2015[47]
49  Nigeria 29,357 Mar 2015[48]
50  Kazakhstan 29,101 Mar 2015[49]
51  Turkmenistan 27,040 Dec 2014[18]
52  Belgium 24,504 Mar 2015[50]
53  Austria 23,700 Mar 2015[51]
54  Bangladesh 23,053 Mar 2015[52]
55  Bulgaria 21,833 Apr 2015[53]
56  Portugal 21,165 Mar 2015[54]
57  Morocco 20,970 Dec 2014[18]
58  Venezuela 20,200 Dec 2014[18]
59  Uruguay 18,584 Mar 2015[55]
60  New Zealand 18,510 Mar 2015[56]
61  Uzbekistan 18,000 Dec 2014[18]
62  Oman 17,850 Dec 2014[18]
63  Azerbaijan 17,710 Dec 2014[18]
-  Macau 16,443 Dec 2014[57]
64  Jordan 16,049 Mar 2015[58]
65  Pakistan 15,384 Mar 2015[59]
66  Bolivia 15,380 Dec 2014[18]
67  Croatia 15,351 Mar 2015[60]
68  Egypt 15,130 Dec 2014[18]
69  Serbia 13,700 Dec 2014[18]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 11,317 Dec 2014[61]
71  Cuba 10,400 Dec 2014[18]
72  Finland 10,358 Mar 2015[62]
73  Ukraine 9,970 Mar 2015[63]
74  Kenya 9,259 Dec 2014[18]
75  Botswana 8,885 Dec 2014[18]
76  Burma 8,727 Dec 2014[18]
77  Costa Rica 8,342 Mar 2015[64]
78  Sri Lanka 8,314 Dec 2014[18]
79  Guatemala 7,766 Mar 2015[65]
80  Paraguay 7,241 Dec 2014[18]
81  Tunisia 7,198 Dec 2014[18]
82  Greece 6,466 Mar 2015[66]
83  Afghanistan 6,442 Dec 2013[18]
84  Bahrain 6,011 Dec 2014[18]
85  Cambodia 5,801 Dec 2014[18]
86  Ghana 5,482 Dec 2014[18]
87    Nepal 5,439 Dec 2013[18]
88  Republic of the Congo 5,200 Dec 2014[18]
89  Belarus 5,059 Dec 2014[67]
90  Tanzania 4,758 Dec 2014[18]
91  Ivory Coast 4,752 Dec 2014[18]
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,750 Dec 2014[18]
93  Yemen 4,688 Dec 2014[18]
94  Dominican Republic 4,503 Dec 2014[18]
95  Iceland 4,319 Mar 2015[68]
96  Mauritius 3,919 Dec 2014[69]
97  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[18]
98  Honduras 3,458 Dec 2014[70]
99  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[18]
100  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[18]
101  Latvia 3,257 Mar 2015[71]
102  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[18]
103  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[18]
104  Macedonia 2,869 Dec 2014[18]
105  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[18]
106  Albania 2,825 Dec 2014[18]
107  Equatorial Guinea 2,763 Dec 2014[18]
108  Georgia 2,699 Dec 2014[72]
109  El Salvador 2,693 Dec 2014[73]
110  Panama 2,666 Dec 2013[18]
111  Slovakia 2,634 Dec 2014[74]
112  Ecuador 2,625 Dec 2013[18]
113  Gabon 2,397 Dec 2014[18]
114  Nicaragua 2,333 Mar 2015[75]
115  Namibia 2,267 Dec 2013[18]
116  Moldova 2,157 Dec 2014[76]
117  Senegal 2,150 Dec 2013[18]
118  Jamaica 1,900 Dec 2013[18]
119  Syria 1,895 Dec 2013[18]
120  Kyrgyzstan 1,855 Dec 2014[77]
121  Ireland 1,792 Dec 2014[78]
122  Mongolia 1,650 Dec 2014[79]
123  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,582 Dec 2013[18]
124  Armenia 1,489 Dec 2014[80]
125  Rwanda 1,354 Dec 2013[18]
126  Haiti 1,335 Dec 2013[18]
127  Chad 1,304 Dec 2013[18]
128  Madagascar 1,249 Dec 2013[18]
129  Lithuania 1,123 Mar 2015[81]
130  Burkina Faso 1,115 Dec 2013[18]
131  Tajikistan 1,072 Dec 2013[18]
132  Slovenia 1,017 Dec 2014[82]
133  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[18]
134  Fiji 981 Dec 2014[18]
135  Cyprus 899 Apr 2015[83]
136  Lesotho 858 Dec 2013[18]
137  Guyana 855 Dec 2013[18]
138  Laos 846 Dec 2013[18]
139  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[18]
140  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[18]
141  Benin 801 Dec 2013[18]
142  Luxembourg 793 Mar 2015[84]
143  Barbados 713 Dec 2013[18]
144  Malta 619 Dec 2014[85]
145  Togo 531 Dec 2013[18]
146  Estonia 437 Dec 2014[86]
147  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[18]
148  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[18]
149  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[18]
150  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[18]
151  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[18]
152  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[18]
153  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[18]
154  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[18]
155  Belize 273 Dec 2013[18]
156  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[18]
157  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[18]
158  Eritrea 193 Dec 2013[18]
159  Guinea 183 Dec 2013[18]
160  Vanuatu 174 Dec 2013[18]
161  Samoa 169 Dec 2013[18]
162  Tonga 147 Dec 2013[18]
163  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 115 Dec 2013[18]
164  Dominica 90 Dec 2013[18]
165  Federated States of Micronesia 75 Dec 2013[18]
166  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 Dec 2013[18]
167  Montserrat 32 Dec 2013[18]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  6. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  7. ^ Bank of Korea - Official Foreign Reserves
  8. ^ IMF - Brazil
  9. ^ IMF - Russia
  10. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  11. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  12. ^ IMF - India
  13. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  14. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  15. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  16. ^ IMF - Mexico
  17. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  19. ^ IMF - Germany
  20. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  21. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  22. ^ IMF - France
  23. ^ IMF - Italy
  24. ^ IMF - United States
  25. ^ IMF - Turkey
  26. ^ IMF - Denmark
  27. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  28. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  29. ^ Bank Negara Malaysia - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  30. ^ IMF - Poland
  31. ^ IMF - Israel
  32. ^ IMF - Philippines
  33. ^ IMF - Canada
  34. ^ IMF - Norway
  35. ^ IMF- Peru
  36. ^ IMF - Sweden
  37. ^ IMF - Australia
  38. ^ IMF - Spain
  39. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  40. ^ IMF - South Africa
  41. ^ IMF - Colombia
  42. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  43. ^ IMF - Hungary
  44. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  45. ^ IMF - Chile
  46. ^ IMF - Romania
  47. ^ IMF - Argentina
  48. ^ Central Bank of Nigeria - Statistics Database
  49. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  50. ^ IMF - Belgium
  51. ^ IMF - Austria
  52. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  53. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  54. ^ IMF - Portugal
  55. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  56. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  57. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  58. ^ IMF - Jordan
  59. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  60. ^ IMF - Croatia
  61. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  62. ^ IMF - Finland
  63. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  64. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  65. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  66. ^ IMF - Greece
  67. ^ IMF - Belarus
  68. ^ IMF - Iceland
  69. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  70. ^ IMF - Honduras
  71. ^ IMF - Latvia
  72. ^ IMF - Georgia
  73. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  74. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  75. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  76. ^ IMF - Moldova
  77. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  78. ^ IMF - Ireland
  79. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  80. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  81. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  82. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  83. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  84. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  85. ^ IMF - Malta
  86. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]