List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country/monetary authority Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[2] 3,726,004 Sep 2013[1]
2  Japan 1,288,206 Feb 2014[2]
Eurozone.svg Eurozone 771,789 Jan 2014[3]
3  Saudi Arabia 725,685 Feb 2014[4]
4   Switzerland 543,758 Feb 2014[5]
5  Russia 493,326 Feb 2014[6]
6  Taiwan 423,059 Feb 2014[7]
7  Brazil 362,691 Feb 2014[8]
8  Republic of Korea 351,792 Feb 2014[9]
9  Hong Kong 315,919 Feb 2014[10]
10  India 309,445 April 11, 2014[11]
11  Singapore 273,996 Feb 2014[12]
12  Germany 210,554 Feb 2014[13]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[14]
14  Mexico 183,763 Feb 2014[15]
15  Thailand 168,081 Feb 2014[16]
16  France 159,761 Feb 2014[17]
17  Italy 149,685 Jan 2014[18]
18  United States 144,939 March 28, 2014[19]
19  United Kingdom 134,966 Jan 2014[20]
20  Malaysia 130,604 Feb 2014[21]
21  Turkey 124,270 Jan 2014[22]
22  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[14]
23  Poland 104,407 Feb 2014[23]
24  Indonesia 102,741 Feb 2014[24]
25  Denmark 87,988 Sep 2013[25]
26  Israel 85,570 March 2014[26]
27  Philippines 80,540 Feb 2014[27]
28  Canada 77,169 Feb 2014[28]
29  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[14]
30  Iran[3] 68,060 Dec 2013[14]
31  Sweden 66,246 Jan 2014[29]
32  Peru 65,229 Feb 2014[30]
33  Norway 61,643 Feb 2014[31]
34  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[14]
35  Czech Republic 57,037 Feb 2014[32]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[14]
37  South Africa 50,137 Feb 2014[33]
38  Romania 48,634 Jan 2014[34]
39  Netherlands 48,224 Feb 2014[35]
40  Spain 47,575 Feb 2014[36]
41  Hungary 46,671 Feb 2014[37]
42  Australia 46,351 Feb 2014[38]
43  Colombia 43,549 Feb 2014[39]
44  Qatar 40,199 Feb 2014[40]
45  Chile 39,977 Feb 2014[41]
46  Nigeria 39,001 Mar 2014[42]
47  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[14]
48  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[14]
49  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[14]
50  Belgium 27,873 Feb 2014[43]
51  Argentina 27,546 Feb 2014[44]
52  Kazakhstan 26,117 Feb 2014[45]
53  Austria 24,548 Feb 2014[46]
54  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[14]
55  Bangladesh 20,003 Apr 2014[47]
56  Portugal 19,449 Feb 2014[48]
57  Bulgaria 18,747 Jan 2014[49]
58  New Zealand 18,419 Jan 2014[50]
59  Morocco 18,317 Nov 2013[51]
60  Croatia 17,541 Jan 2014[52]
61  Egypt 16,654 Jan 2014[53]
62  Uruguay 16,237 Jan 2014[54]
63  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[14]
64  Macau 15,468 Feb 2014[55]
65  Ukraine 15,462 Feb 2014[56]
66  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[14]
67  Jordan 14,251 Jan 2014[57]
68  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[14]
69  Finland 11,285 Jan 2014[58]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 10,070 Dec 2013[14]
71  Lithuania 8,059 Feb 2014[59]
72  Pakistan 7,911 Feb 2014[60]
73  Costa Rica 7,258 Jan 2014[61]
74  Guatemala 7,161 Jan 2014[62]
75  Greece 6,984 Feb 2014[63]
76  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[14]
77  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[14]
78  Belarus 6,144 Feb 2014[64]
79  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[14]
80  Iceland 4,405 Feb 2014[65]
81  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[14]
82    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[14]
83  Mauritius 3,663 Feb 2014[66]
84  Latvia 3,527 Feb 2014[67]
85  Honduras 2,956 Feb 2014[68]
86  El Salvador 2,850 Jan 2014[69]
87  Georgia 2,626 Feb 2014[70]
88  Moldova 2,488 Feb 2014[71]
89  Mongolia 2,446 Jan 2014[72]
90  Slovakia 2,199 Nov 2013[73]
91  Kyrgyzstan 2,172 Jan 2014[74]
92  Armenia 2,114 Jan 2014[75]
93  Nicaragua 1,968 Feb 2014[76]
94  Ireland 1,604 Jan 2014[77]
95  Slovenia 1,191 Feb 2014[78]
96  Luxembourg 970 Feb 2014[79]
97  Cyprus 880 Jan 2014[80]
98  Laos 846 Dec 2013[14]
99  Malta 662 Jan 2014[81]
100  Estonia 395 Feb 2014[82]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ IMF - EURO AREA
  4. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  5. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  6. ^ IMF - Russian Federation
  7. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  8. ^ IMF - Brazil
  9. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  10. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  11. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  12. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  13. ^ IMF - Germany
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  15. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  16. ^ Bank of Thailand - IMF
  17. ^ IMF - France
  18. ^ IMF - ITALY
  19. ^ IMF - United States of America
  20. ^ IMF - UNITED KINGDOM
  21. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  22. ^ IMF - TURKEY
  23. ^ IMF - Poland
  24. ^ IMF - INDONESIA
  25. ^ IMF - DENMARK
  26. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  27. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  28. ^ IMF - Canada
  29. ^ IMF - SWEDEN
  30. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  31. ^ IMF - Norway
  32. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  33. ^ IMF - South Africa
  34. ^ IMF - ROMANIA
  35. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  36. ^ IMF - Spain
  37. ^ IMF - Hungary
  38. ^ IMF - Australia
  39. ^ IMF - Colombia
  40. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  41. ^ IMF - Chile
  42. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  43. ^ IMF - Belgium
  44. ^ IMF - Argentina
  45. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  46. ^ IMF - Austria
  47. ^ [1]
  48. ^ IMF - Portugal
  49. ^ IMF - BULGARIA
  50. ^ IMF - NEW ZEALAND
  51. ^ IMF - MOROCCO
  52. ^ IMF - CROATIA
  53. ^ IMF - Egypt
  54. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  55. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  56. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  57. ^ IMF - Jordan
  58. ^ IMF - FINLAND
  59. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  60. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  61. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  62. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  63. ^ IMF - Greece
  64. ^ IMF - Belarus
  65. ^ IMF - Iceland
  66. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  67. ^ IMF - Latvia
  68. ^ IMF - Honduras
  69. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  70. ^ IMF - Georgia
  71. ^ IMF - MOLDOVA
  72. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  73. ^ IMF - SLOVAK REPUBLIC
  74. ^ IMF - KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
  75. ^ IMF - ARMENIA, REPUBLIC OF
  76. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  77. ^ IMF - IRELAND
  78. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  79. ^ IMF - LUXEMBOURG
  80. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  81. ^ IMF - MALTA
  82. ^ IMF - ESTONIA

External links[edit]