List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country/monetary authority Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[2] 3726004 Sep 2013[1]
2  Japan 1288206 Feb 2014[2]
3 Eurozone.svg Eurozone 771789 Jan 2014[3]
4  Saudi Arabia 725685 Feb 2014[4]
5   Switzerland 543758 Feb 2014[5]
6  Russia 493326 Feb 2014[6]
7  Taiwan 423059 Feb 2014[7]
8  Brazil 362691 Feb 2014[8]
9  Republic of Korea 351792 Feb 2014[9]
10  Hong Kong 315919 Feb 2014[10]
11  India 306647.5 April 2014[11]
12  Singapore 273996 Feb 2014[12]
13  Germany 210554 Feb 2014[13]
14  Algeria 192500 Dec 2013[14]
15  Mexico 183763 Feb 2014[15]
16  Thailand 168081 Feb 2014[16]
17  France 159761 Feb 2014[17]
18  Italy 149685 Jan 2014[18]
19  United States 145963 Mar 2014[19]
20  United Kingdom 134966 Jan 2014[20]
21  Malaysia 130604 Feb 2014[21]
22  Turkey 124270 Jan 2014[22]
23  Libya 120900 Dec 2013[14]
24  Poland 104407 Feb 2014[23]
25  Indonesia 102741 Feb 2014[24]
26  Denmark 87988 Sep 2013[25]
27  Israel 85570 March 2014[26]
28  Philippines 80540 Feb 2014[27]
29  Canada 77169 Feb 2014[28]
30  Iraq 71240 Dec 2013[14]
31  Iran[3] 68060 Dec 2013[14]
32  Sweden 66246 Jan 2014[29]
33  Peru 65229 Feb 2014[30]
34  Norway 61643 Feb 2014[31]
35  United Arab Emirates 58040 Dec 2013[14]
36  Czech Republic 57037 Feb 2014[32]
37  Lebanon 51950 Dec 2013[14]
38  South Africa 50137 Feb 2014[33]
39  Romania 48634 Jan 2014[34]
40  Netherlands 48224 Feb 2014[35]
41  Spain 47575 Feb 2014[36]
42  Hungary 46671 Feb 2014[37]
43  Australia 46351 Feb 2014[38]
44  Colombia 43549 Feb 2014[39]
45  Qatar 40199 Feb 2014[40]
46  Chile 39977 Feb 2014[41]
47  Nigeria 39001 Mar 2014[42]
48  Angola 37940 Dec 2013[14]
49  Kuwait 34350 Dec 2013[14]
50  Vietnam 32490 Dec 2013[14]
51  Belgium 27873 Feb 2014[43]
52  Argentina 27546 Feb 2014[44]
53  Kazakhstan 26117 Feb 2014[45]
54  Austria 24548 Feb 2014[46]
55  Venezuela 21150 Dec 2013[14]
56  Bangladesh 20003 Apr 2014[47]
57  Portugal 19449 Feb 2014[48]
58  Bulgaria 18747 Jan 2014[49]
59  New Zealand 18419 Jan 2014[50]
60  Morocco 18317 Nov 2013[51]
61  Croatia 17541 Jan 2014[52]
62  Egypt 16654 Jan 2014[53]
63  Uruguay 16237 Jan 2014[54]
64  Serbia 15870 Dec 2013[14]
65  Macau 15468 Feb 2014[55]
66  Ukraine 15462 Feb 2014[56]
67  Bolivia 14460 Dec 2013[14]
68  Jordan 14251 Jan 2014[57]
69  Azerbaijan 13080 Dec 2013[14]
70  Finland 11285 Jan 2014[58]
71  Trinidad and Tobago 10070 Dec 2013[14]
72  Lithuania 8059 Feb 2014[59]
73  Pakistan 7911 Feb 2014[60]
74  Costa Rica 7258 Jan 2014[61]
75  Sri Lanka 7200 Dec 2013[14]
76  Guatemala 7161 Jan 2014[62]
77  Greece 6984 Feb 2014[63]
78  Paraguay 6336 Dec 2013[14]
79  Belarus 6144 Feb 2014[64]
80  Cambodia 5415 Dec 2013[14]
81  Iceland 4405 Feb 2014[65]
82  Dominican Republic 4379 Dec 2013[14]
83    Nepal 4339 Dec 2013[14]
84  Latvia 3527 Feb 2014[66]
85  Mauritius 3459 Jan 2014[67]
86  Honduras 2956 Feb 2014[68]
87  El Salvador 2850 Jan 2014[69]
88  Georgia 2626 Feb 2014[70]
89  Moldova 2488 Feb 2014[71]
90  Mongolia 2446 Jan 2014[72]
91  Slovakia 2199 Nov 2013[73]
92  Kyrgyzstan 2172 Jan 2014[74]
93  Armenia 2114 Jan 2014[75]
94  Nicaragua 1968 Feb 2014[76]
95  Ireland 1604 Jan 2014[77]
96  Slovenia 1191 Feb 2014[78]
97  Luxembourg 970 Feb 2014[79]
98  Cyprus 880 Jan 2014[80]
99  Laos 846 Dec 2013[14]
100  Malta 662 Jan 2014[81]
101  Estonia 395 Feb 2014[82]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ IMF - EURO AREA
  4. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  5. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  6. ^ IMF - Russian Federation
  7. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  8. ^ IMF - Brazil
  9. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  10. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  11. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  12. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  13. ^ IMF - Germany
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  15. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  16. ^ Bank of Thailand - IMF
  17. ^ IMF - France
  18. ^ IMF - ITALY
  19. ^ IMF - United States of America
  20. ^ IMF - UNITED KINGDOM
  21. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  22. ^ IMF - TURKEY
  23. ^ IMF - Poland
  24. ^ IMF - INDONESIA
  25. ^ IMF - DENMARK
  26. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  27. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  28. ^ IMF - Canada
  29. ^ IMF - SWEDEN
  30. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  31. ^ IMF - Norway
  32. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  33. ^ IMF - South Africa
  34. ^ IMF - ROMANIA
  35. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  36. ^ IMF - Spain
  37. ^ IMF - Hungary
  38. ^ IMF - Australia
  39. ^ IMF - Colombia
  40. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  41. ^ IMF - Chile
  42. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  43. ^ IMF - Belgium
  44. ^ IMF - Argentina
  45. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  46. ^ IMF - Austria
  47. ^ [1]
  48. ^ IMF - Portugal
  49. ^ IMF - BULGARIA
  50. ^ IMF - NEW ZEALAND
  51. ^ IMF - MOROCCO
  52. ^ IMF - CROATIA
  53. ^ IMF - Egypt
  54. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  55. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  56. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  57. ^ IMF - Jordan
  58. ^ IMF - FINLAND
  59. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  60. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  61. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  62. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  63. ^ IMF - Greece
  64. ^ IMF - Belarus
  65. ^ IMF - Iceland
  66. ^ IMF - Latvia
  67. ^ IMF - MAURITIUS
  68. ^ IMF - Honduras
  69. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  70. ^ IMF - Georgia
  71. ^ IMF - MOLDOVA
  72. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  73. ^ IMF - SLOVAK REPUBLIC
  74. ^ IMF - KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
  75. ^ IMF - ARMENIA, REPUBLIC OF
  76. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  77. ^ IMF - IRELAND
  78. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  79. ^ IMF - LUXEMBOURG
  80. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  81. ^ IMF - MALTA
  82. ^ IMF - ESTONIA

External links[edit]