List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[1] 4,009,553 Mar 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,283,920 May 2014[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 737,715 Apr 2014[3]
4   Switzerland 548,861 Apr 2014[4]
5  Russia 467,227 May 2014[5]
6  Taiwan 426,784 May 2014[6]
7  Brazil 368,752 May 2014[7]
8  Republic of Korea 360,913 May 2014[8]
-  Hong Kong 320,225 May 2014[9]
9  India 315,779 Jun 2014[10]
10  Singapore 276,142 May 2014[11]
11  Germany 208,991 Jun 2014[12]
12  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[13]
13  Mexico 190,594 May 2014[14]
14  Thailand 168,885 Apr 2014[15]
15  Italy 152,824 Apr 2014[16]
16  France 151,724 May 2014[17]
17  United States 145,079 Jun 2014[18]
18  United Kingdom 143,377 Jun 2014[19]
19  Malaysia 131,167 Apr 2014[20]
20  Turkey 130,591 May 2014[21]
21  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[13]
22  Indonesia 105,563 Apr 2014[22]
23  Poland 102,466 Apr 2014[23]
24  Israel 86,491 Apr 2014[24]
25  Denmark 85,413 Mar 2014[25]
26  Philippines 80,242 May 2014[26]
27  Canada 77,295 Apr 2014[27]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[13]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[13]
30  Sweden 66,022 Apr 2014[28]
31  Peru 64,794 Apr 2014[29]
32  Norway 63,517 May 2014[30]
33  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[13]
34  Czech Republic 57,861 May 2014[31]
35  Australia 57,771 Apr 2014[32]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[13]
37  Hungary 49,941 Apr 2014[33]
38  South Africa 49,554 Apr 2014[34]
39  Spain 46,908 May 2014[35]
40  Netherlands 46,594 May 2014[36]
31  Romania 45,940 May 2014[37]
42  Colombia 43,549 Feb 2014[38]
43  Qatar 41,468 May 2014[39]
44  Chile 40,904 May 2014[40]
45  Nigeria 39,001 Mar 2014[41]
46  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[13]
47  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[13]
48  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[13]
49  Argentina 28,542 May 2014[42]
50  Kazakhstan 28,440 Apr 2014[43]
51  Belgium 27,114 May 2014[44]
52  Austria 24,203 Mar 2014[45]
53  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[13]
54  Bangladesh 20,268 May 2014[46]
55  Bulgaria 18,809 May 2014[47]
56  Portugal 18,456 May 2014[48]
57  Morocco 18,317 Nov 2013[49]
58  New Zealand 18,139 May 2014[50]
59  Ukraine 17,899 May 2014[51]
60  Croatia 17,719 May 2014[52]
61  Egypt 17,029 Apr 2014[53]
62  Uruguay 16,497 Mar 2014[54]
63  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[13]
-  Macau 15,369 May 2014[55]
64  Jordan 14,708 Apr 2014[56]
65  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[13]
66  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[13]
67  Pakistan 12,591 May 2014[57]
68  Finland 11,432 Mar 2014[58]
69  Trinidad and Tobago 10,070 Dec 2013[13]
70  Lithuania 8,088 May 2014[59]
71  Costa Rica 7,704 May 2014[60]
72  Guatemala 7,170 May 2014[61]
73  Greece 6,750 May 2014[62]
74  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[13]
75  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[13]
76  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[13]
77  Belarus 5,393 May 2014[63]
78  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[13]
79    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[13]
80  Iceland 4,155 Mar 2014[64]
81  Mauritius 3,723 Mar 2014[65]
82  Latvia 3,534 Mar 2014[66]
83  Honduras 3,019 Mar 2014[67]
84  El Salvador 2,957 Mar 2014[68]
85  Moldova 2,727 Mar 2014[69]
86  Georgia 2,599 Mar 2014[70]
87  Slovakia 2,299 Feb 2014[71]
88  Kyrgyzstan 2,080 Mar 2014[72]
89  Nicaragua 2,005 Mar 2014[73]
90  Armenia 1,970 Mar 2014[74]
91  Ireland 1,658 Mar 2014[75]
92  Mongolia 1,605 May 2014[76]
93  Slovenia 1,157 Mar 2014[77]
94  Luxembourg 958 Mar 2014[78]
95  Malta 912 Apr 2014[79]
96  Cyprus 910 Apr 2014[80]
97  Laos 846 Dec 2013[13]
98  Estonia 462 May 2014[81]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity — Russia | Bank of Russia
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  7. ^ IMF - Brazil
  8. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  9. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  10. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  11. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  12. ^ IMF - Germany
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  14. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  15. ^ Bank of Thailand - IMF
  16. ^ IMF - Italy
  17. ^ IMF - France
  18. ^ IMF - United States of America
  19. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  20. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  21. ^ IMF - Turkey
  22. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  23. ^ IMF - Poland
  24. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  25. ^ IMF - Denmark
  26. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  27. ^ IMF - Canada
  28. ^ IMF - Sweden
  29. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  30. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  31. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  32. ^ IMF - Australia
  33. ^ IMF - Hungary
  34. ^ IMF - South Africa
  35. ^ IMF - Spain
  36. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  37. ^ IMF - Romania
  38. ^ IMF - Colombia
  39. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  40. ^ IMF - Chile
  41. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  42. ^ IMF - Argentina
  43. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  44. ^ IMF - Belgium
  45. ^ IMF - Austria
  46. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  47. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  48. ^ IMF - Portugal
  49. ^ IMF - MOROCCO
  50. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  51. ^ National Bank of Ukraine - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  52. ^ IMF - Croatia
  53. ^ IMF - Egypt
  54. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  55. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  56. ^ IMF - Jordan
  57. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  58. ^ IMF - Finland
  59. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  60. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  61. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  62. ^ IMF - Greece
  63. ^ IMF - Belarus
  64. ^ IMF - Iceland
  65. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  66. ^ IMF - Latvia
  67. ^ IMF - Honduras
  68. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  69. ^ IMF - Moldova
  70. ^ IMF - Georgia
  71. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  72. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  73. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  74. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  75. ^ IMF - Ireland
  76. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  77. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  78. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  79. ^ IMF - Malta
  80. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  81. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]