List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[1] 4,009,553 Mar 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,283,921 Jun 2014[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 737,715 Apr 2014[3]
4   Switzerland 556,793 Jun 2014[4]
5  Russia 478,250 Jun 2014[5]
6  Republic of China (Taiwan) 428,608 Jun 2014[6]
7  Brazil 376,792 Jul 2014[7]
8  Republic of Korea 366,546 Jun 2014[8]
-  Hong Kong 320,934 Jun 2014[9]
9  India 320,564 Jul 2014[10]
10  Singapore 277,967 Jun 2014[11]
11  Germany 208,991 Jun 2014[12]
12  Mexico 192,539 Jun 2014[13]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[14]
14  Thailand 168,207 Jun 2014[15]
15  Italy 154,636 Jun 2014[16]
16  France 151,724 May 2014[17]
17  United States 144,203 Jul 2014[18]
18  United Kingdom 143,377 Jun 2014[19]
19  Turkey 133,534 Jun 2014[20]
20  Malaysia 131,865 Jun 2014[21]
21  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[14]
22  Indonesia 107,678 Jun 2014[22]
23  Poland 101,951 Jun 2014[23]
24  Israel 86,813 Jun 2014[24]
25  Denmark 85,413 Mar 2014[25]
26  Philippines 80,733 Jun 2014[26]
27  Canada 75,874 Jun 2014[27]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[14]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[14]
30  Sweden 66,177 Jun 2014[28]
31  Norway 64,940 Jun 2014[29]
32  Peru 64,684 Jun 2014[30]
33  Australia 59,225 Jun 2014[31]
34  Czech Republic 58,992 Jun 2014[32]
35  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[14]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[14]
37  Hungary 49,278 Jun 2014[33]
38  South Africa 48,646 Jun 2014[34]
39  Spain 47,576 Jun 2014[35]
40  Netherlands 47,037 Jul 2014[36]
31  Romania 45,665 Jul 2014[37]
42  Colombia 45,585 Jul 2014[38]
43  Qatar 41,468 May 2014[39]
44  Chile 41,088 Jun 2014[40]
45  Nigeria 39,001 Mar 2014[41]
46  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[14]
47  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[14]
48  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[14]
49  Argentina 29,278 Jun 2014[42]
50  Belgium 27,319 Jun 2014[43]
51  Kazakhstan 26,500 Jun 2014[44]
52  Austria 25,759 Jun 2014[45]
53  Turkmenistan 22,350 Dec 2013[14]
54  Bangladesh 21,467 Jun 2014[46]
55  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[14]
56  Bulgaria 19,562 Jun 2014[47]
57  Portugal 19,413 Jun 2014[48]
58  Uruguay 18,603 Jun 2014[49]
59  New Zealand 18,496 Jun 2014[50]
60  Morocco 18,317 Nov 2013[51]
61  Ukraine 17,083 Jun 2014[52]
62  Oman 17,700 Dec 2013[14]
63  Uzbekistan 17,000 Dec 2013[14]
64  Egypt 16,824 May 2014[53]
65  Croatia 16,790 Jun 2014[54]
66  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[14]
-  Macau 15,369 May 2014[55]
67  Jordan 14,708 Apr 2014[56]
68  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[14]
69  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[14]
70  Pakistan 12,591 May 2014[57]
71  Finland 11,291 Jun 2014[58]
72  Trinidad and Tobago 10,070 Dec 2013[14]
73  Burma 8,278 Dec 2013[14]
74  Tunisia 8,113 Dec 2013[14]
75  Lithuania 8,088 May 2014[59]
76  Botswana 7,933 Dec 2013[14]
77  Costa Rica 7,704 May 2014[60]
78  Guatemala 7,170 May 2014[61]
79  Greece 6,866 Jun 2014[62]
80  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[14]
81  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[14]
82  Ghana 6,016 Dec 2013[14]
83  Afghanistan 5,983 Dec 2013[14]
84  Bahrain 5,933 Dec 2013[14]
85  Kenya 5,541 Dec 2013[14]
86  Yemen 5,538 Dec 2013[14]
87  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[14]
88  Belarus 5,393 May 2014[63]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,239 Dec 2013[14]
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,002 Dec 2013[14]
91  Cuba 4,993 Dec 2013[14]
92  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[14]
93  Tanzania 4,343 Dec 2013[14]
94    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[14]
95  Iceland 4,258 Jun 2014[64]
96  Ivory Coast 4,085 Dec 2013[14]
97  Equatorial Guinea 4,027 Dec 2013[14]
98  Mauritius 3,928 May 2014[65]
99  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[14]
100  Latvia 3,548 May 2014[66]
101  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[14]
102  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[14]
103  Honduras 3,159 May 2014[67]
104  El Salvador 3,027 May 2014[68]
105  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[14]
106  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[14]
107  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[14]
108  Moldova 2,741 Jun 2014[69]
109  Georgia 2,498 Jun 2014[70]
110  Slovakia 2,299 Feb 2014[71]
111  Kyrgyzstan 2,126 Jun 2014[72]
112  Nicaragua 2,076 May 2014[73]
113  Armenia 1,879 Apr 2014[74]
114  Ireland 1,635 May 2014[75]
115  Mongolia 1,318 Jun 2014[76]
116  Malta 1,172 Jun 2014[77]
117  Slovenia 1,170 Jun 2014[78]
118  Luxembourg 996 Jun 2014[79]
119  Cyprus 925 Jun 2014[80]
120  Laos 846 Dec 2013[14]
121  Estonia 418 Jul 2014[81]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity — Russia | Bank of Russia
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  7. ^ IMF - Brazil
  8. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  9. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  10. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  11. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  12. ^ IMF - Germany
  13. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  15. ^ Bank of Thailand - IMF
  16. ^ IMF - Italy
  17. ^ IMF - France
  18. ^ IMF - United States of America
  19. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  20. ^ IMF - Turkey
  21. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  22. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  23. ^ IMF - Poland
  24. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  25. ^ IMF - Denmark
  26. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  27. ^ IMF - Canada
  28. ^ IMF - Sweden
  29. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  30. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  31. ^ IMF - Australia
  32. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  33. ^ IMF - Hungary
  34. ^ IMF - South Africa
  35. ^ IMF - Spain
  36. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  37. ^ IMF - Romania
  38. ^ IMF - Colombia
  39. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  40. ^ IMF - Chile
  41. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  42. ^ IMF - Argentina
  43. ^ IMF - Belgium
  44. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  45. ^ IMF - Austria
  46. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  47. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  48. ^ IMF - Portugal
  49. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  50. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  51. ^ IMF - MOROCCO
  52. ^ IMF - UKRAINE
  53. ^ IMF - Egypt
  54. ^ IMF - Croatia
  55. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  56. ^ IMF - Jordan
  57. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  58. ^ IMF - Finland
  59. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  60. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  61. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  62. ^ IMF - Greece
  63. ^ IMF - Belarus
  64. ^ IMF - Iceland
  65. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  66. ^ IMF - Latvia
  67. ^ IMF - Honduras
  68. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  69. ^ IMF - Moldova
  70. ^ IMF - Georgia
  71. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  72. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  73. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  74. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  75. ^ IMF - Ireland
  76. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  77. ^ IMF - Malta
  78. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  79. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  80. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  81. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]