List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[1] 3,899,285 Dec 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,245,316 Mar 2015[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 697,992 Mar 2015[3]
4   Switzerland 583,260 Feb 2015[4]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 419,608 Mar 2015[5]
6  Brazil 362,744 Mar 2015[6]
7  South Korea 362,370 Feb 2015[7]
8  Russia 353,500 April 24, 2015[8][9][10]
9  India 344,606 April 24, 2015[11][12]
-  Hong Kong 332,211 Mar 2015[13]
10  Singapore 249,450 Mar 2015[14]
11  Mexico 197,765 Mar 2015[15][16]
12  Germany 193,463 Feb 2015[17]
13  Algeria 193,600 Dec 2014[18]
14  Thailand 156,319 Mar 2015[19]
15  United Kingdom 152,772 Mar 2015[20]
16  France 146,935 Feb 2015[21]
17  Italy 142,763 Feb 2015[22]
18  Turkey 128,354 Feb 2015[23]
19  United States 123,191 Mar 2015[24]
20  Indonesia 115,527 Feb 2015[25]
21  Denmark 113,334 Feb 2015[26]
22  Malaysia 110,476 Feb 2015[27]
23  Iran[2] 110,000 Dec 2014[18]
24  Libya 105,000 Dec 2014[18]
25  Poland 97,509 Feb 2015[28]
26  Israel 85,331 Feb 2015[29]
27  Philippines 80,837 Feb 2015[30]
28  Canada 77,681 Mar 2015[31]
29  United Arab Emirates 74,700 Dec 2014[18]
30  Iraq 74,000 Dec 2014[18]
31  Norway 66,335 Feb 2015[32]
32  Sweden 60,794 Feb 2015[33]
33  Peru 60,810 Mar 2015[34]
34  Spain 53,252 Feb 2015[35]
35  Czech Republic 52,357 Mar 2015[36]
36  Australia 50,119 Feb 2015[37]
37  Lebanon 49,430 Dec 2014[18]
38  South Africa 47,190 Feb 2015[38]
39  Colombia 46,544 Feb 2015[39]
40  Netherlands 41,847 Feb 2015[40]
41  Qatar 41,063 Jan 2015[41]
42  Hungary 40,921 Feb 2015[42]
43  Kuwait 38,500 Dec 2014[18]
44  Romania 38,286 Feb 2015[43]
45  Chile 38,032 Feb 2015[44]
46  Vietnam 35,700 Dec 2014[18]
47  Angola 33,590 Dec 2014[18]
48  Nigeria 32,386 Jan 2015[45]
49  Argentina 31,470 Feb 2015[46]
50  Kazakhstan 29,125 Feb 2015[47]
51  Turkmenistan 27,040 Dec 2014[18]
52  Austria 25,295 Feb 2015[48]
53  Belgium 24,877 Feb 2015[49]
54  Bangladesh 23,032 Feb 2015[50]
55  Portugal 21,319 Jan 2015[51]
56  Bulgaria 19,311 Feb 2015[52]
57  Morocco 20,970 Dec 2014[18]
58  Venezuela 20,200 Dec 2014[18]
59  New Zealand 18,479 Feb 2015[53]
60  Uruguay 18,306 Feb 2015[54]
61  Uzbekistan 18,000 Dec 2014[18]
62  Oman 17,850 Dec 2014[18]
63  Azerbaijan 17,710 Dec 2014[18]
-  Macau 16,443 Dec 2014[55]
64  Jordan 15,833 Jan 2015[56]
65  Pakistan 15,384 Mar 2015[57]
66  Bolivia 15,380 Dec 2014[18]
67  Egypt 15,130 Dec 2014[18]
68  Croatia 14,456 Feb 2015[58]
69  Serbia 13,700 Dec 2014[18]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 11,317 Dec 2014[59]
71  Finland 10,638 Feb 2015[60]
72  Cuba 10,400 Dec 2014[18]
73  Kenya 9,259 Dec 2014[18]
74  Botswana 8,885 Dec 2014[18]
75  Burma 8,727 Dec 2014[18]
76  Sri Lanka 8,314 Dec 2014[18]
77  Guatemala 7,621 Feb 2015[61]
78  Costa Rica 7,255 Feb 2015[62]
79  Paraguay 7,241 Dec 2014[18]
80  Tunisia 7,198 Dec 2014[18]
81  Afghanistan 6,442 Dec 2013[18]
82  Greece 6,433 Feb 2015[63]
83  Bahrain 6,011 Dec 2014[18]
84  Cambodia 5,801 Dec 2014[18]
85  Ukraine 5,626 Feb 2015[64]
86  Ghana 5,482 Dec 2014[18]
87    Nepal 5,439 Dec 2013[18]
88  Republic of the Congo 5,200 Dec 2014[18]
89  Belarus 5,059 Dec 2014[65]
90  Tanzania 4,758 Dec 2014[18]
91  Ivory Coast 4,752 Dec 2014[18]
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,750 Dec 2014[18]
93  Yemen 4,688 Dec 2014[18]
94  Dominican Republic 4,503 Dec 2014[18]
95  Iceland 4,319 Mar 2015[66]
96  Mauritius 3,919 Dec 2014[67]
97  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[18]
98  Honduras 3,458 Dec 2014[68]
99  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[18]
100  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[18]
101  Latvia 3,346 Feb 2015[69]
102  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[18]
103  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[18]
104  Macedonia 2,869 Dec 2014[18]
105  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[18]
106  Albania 2,825 Dec 2014[18]
107  Equatorial Guinea 2,763 Dec 2014[18]
108  Georgia 2,699 Dec 2014[70]
109  El Salvador 2,693 Dec 2014[71]
110  Panama 2,666 Dec 2013[18]
111  Slovakia 2,634 Dec 2014[72]
112  Ecuador 2,625 Dec 2013[18]
113  Gabon 2,397 Dec 2014[18]
114  Nicaragua 2,333 Mar 2015[73]
115  Namibia 2,267 Dec 2013[18]
116  Moldova 2,157 Dec 2014[74]
117  Senegal 2,150 Dec 2013[18]
118  Jamaica 1,900 Dec 2013[18]
119  Syria 1,895 Dec 2013[18]
120  Kyrgyzstan 1,855 Dec 2014[75]
121  Ireland 1,792 Dec 2014[76]
122  Mongolia 1,650 Dec 2014[77]
123  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,582 Dec 2013[18]
124  Armenia 1,489 Dec 2014[78]
125  Rwanda 1,354 Dec 2013[18]
126  Haiti 1,335 Dec 2013[18]
127  Chad 1,304 Dec 2013[18]
128  Madagascar 1,249 Dec 2013[18]
129  Lithuania 1,123 Mar 2015[79]
130  Burkina Faso 1,115 Dec 2013[18]
131  Tajikistan 1,072 Dec 2013[18]
132  Slovenia 1,017 Dec 2014[80]
133  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[18]
134  Fiji 981 Dec 2014[18]
135  Cyprus 866 Feb 2015[81]
136  Lesotho 858 Dec 2013[18]
137  Guyana 855 Dec 2013[18]
138  Luxembourg 846 Feb 2015[82]
139  Laos 846 Dec 2013[18]
140  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[18]
141  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[18]
142  Benin 801 Dec 2013[18]
143  Barbados 713 Dec 2013[18]
144  Malta 619 Dec 2014[83]
145  Togo 531 Dec 2013[18]
146  Estonia 437 Dec 2014[84]
147  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[18]
148  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[18]
149  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[18]
150  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[18]
151  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[18]
152  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[18]
153  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[18]
154  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[18]
155  Belize 273 Dec 2013[18]
156  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[18]
157  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[18]
158  Eritrea 193 Dec 2013[18]
159  Guinea 183 Dec 2013[18]
160  Vanuatu 174 Dec 2013[18]
161  Samoa 169 Dec 2013[18]
162  Tonga 147 Dec 2013[18]
163  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 115 Dec 2013[18]
164  Dominica 90 Dec 2013[18]
165  Federated States of Micronesia 75 Dec 2013[18]
166  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 Dec 2013[18]
167  Montserrat 32 Dec 2013[18]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  6. ^ IMF - Brazil
  7. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  8. ^ IMF - Russia
  9. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  10. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  11. ^ IMF - India
  12. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  13. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  14. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  15. ^ IMF - Mexico
  16. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  17. ^ IMF - Germany
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  19. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  20. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  21. ^ IMF - France
  22. ^ IMF - Italy
  23. ^ IMF - Turkey
  24. ^ IMF - United States
  25. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  26. ^ IMF - Denmark
  27. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  28. ^ IMF - Poland
  29. ^ IMF - Israel
  30. ^ IMF - Philippines
  31. ^ IMF - Canada
  32. ^ IMF - Norway
  33. ^ IMF - Sweden
  34. ^ IMF- Peru
  35. ^ IMF - Spain
  36. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  37. ^ IMF - Australia
  38. ^ IMF - South Africa
  39. ^ IMF - Colombia
  40. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  41. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  42. ^ IMF - Hungary
  43. ^ IMF - Romania
  44. ^ IMF - Chile
  45. ^ Central Bank of Nigeria - Statistics Database
  46. ^ IMF - Argentina
  47. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  48. ^ IMF - Austria
  49. ^ IMF - Belgium
  50. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  51. ^ IMF - Portugal
  52. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  53. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  54. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  55. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  56. ^ IMF - Jordan
  57. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  58. ^ IMF - Croatia
  59. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  60. ^ IMF - Finland
  61. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  62. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  63. ^ IMF - Greece
  64. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  65. ^ IMF - Belarus
  66. ^ IMF - Iceland
  67. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  68. ^ IMF - Honduras
  69. ^ IMF - Latvia
  70. ^ IMF - Georgia
  71. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  72. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  73. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  74. ^ IMF - Moldova
  75. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  76. ^ IMF - Ireland
  77. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  78. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  79. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  80. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  81. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  82. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  83. ^ IMF - Malta
  84. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]