List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[1] 4,055,812 Jun 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,264,405 Sep 2014[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 745,851 Aug 2014[3]
4   Switzerland 545,948 Aug 2014[4]
5  Russia 454,240 Sep 2014[5]
6  Republic of China (Taiwan) 428,213 Aug 2014[6]
7  Brazil 379,157 Aug 2014[7]
8  Republic of Korea 367,534 Aug 2014[8]
-  Hong Kong 331,323 Aug 2014[9]
9  India 314,182 Sep 2014[10]
10  Singapore 273,293 Aug 2014[11]
11  Germany 206,275 Aug 2014[12]
12  Mexico 193,374 Aug 2014[13]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[14]
14  Thailand 167,523 Aug 2014[15]
15  France 154,392 Aug 2014[16]
16  Italy 152,007 Aug 2014[17]
17  United Kingdom 142,094 Aug 2014[18]
18  United States 138,139 Sep 2014[19]
19  Turkey 134,088 Aug 2014[20]
20  Malaysia 132,043 Aug 2014[21]
21  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[14]
22  Indonesia 111,224 Aug 2014[22]
23  Poland 101,972 Aug 2014[23]
24  Israel 86,188 Sep 2014[24]
25  Philippines 80,873 Aug 2014[25]
26  Denmark 79,425 Aug 2014[26]
27  Canada 73,687 Sep 2014[27]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[14]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[14]
30  Sweden 65,223 Aug 2014[28]
31  Peru 64,900 Aug 2014[29]
32  Norway 63,237 Aug 2014[30]
33  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[14]
34  Czech Republic 56,945 Aug 2014[31]
35  Australia 56,134 Aug 2014[32]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[14]
37  South Africa 49,768 Aug 2014[33]
38  Spain 47,171 Aug 2014[34]
39  Hungary 46,864 Aug 2014[35]
40  Netherlands 46,441 Aug 2014[36]
41  Colombia 46,194 Aug 2014[37]
42  Romania 45,010 Aug 2014[38]
43  Qatar 43,496 Aug 2014[39]
44  Chile 40,297 Aug 2014[40]
45  Nigeria 39,521 Sep 2014[41]
46  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[14]
47  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[14]
48  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[14]
49  Argentina 28,620 Aug 2014[42]
50  Kazakhstan 27,790 Aug 2014[43]
51  Austria 26,863 Aug 2014[44]
52  Belgium 26,778 Aug 2014[45]
53  Turkmenistan 22,350 Dec 2013[14]
54  Bangladesh 22,094 Aug 2014[46]
55  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[14]
56  Bulgaria 20,218 Aug 2014[47]
57  Portugal 19,684 Aug 2014[48]
58  Morocco 19,160 Dec 2013[14]
59  New Zealand 18,838 Aug 2014[49]
60  Uruguay 18,146 Aug 2014[50]
61  Oman 17,700 Dec 2013[14]
62  Uzbekistan 17,000 Dec 2013[14]
63  Croatia 16,370 Aug 2014[51]
64  Egypt 16,289 Jun 2014[52]
-  Macau 16,153 Sep 2014[53]
65  Ukraine 15,928 Aug 2014[54]
66  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[14]
67  Jordan 14,708 Apr 2014[55]
68  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[14]
69  Pakistan 13,210 Oct 2014[56]
70  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[14]
71  Finland 11,153 Aug 2014[57]
72  Trinidad and Tobago 10,070 Dec 2013[14]
73  Burma 8,278 Dec 2013[14]
74  Tunisia 8,113 Dec 2013[14]
75  Lithuania 8,111 Sep 2014[58]
76  Botswana 7,933 Dec 2013[14]
77  Costa Rica 7,343 Aug 2014[59]
78  Guatemala 7,244 Aug 2014[60]
79  Greece 6,565 Aug 2014[61]
80  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[14]
81  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[14]
82  Belarus 6,290 Aug 2014[62]
83  Ghana 6,016 Dec 2013[14]
84  Afghanistan 5,983 Dec 2013[14]
85  Bahrain 5,933 Dec 2013[14]
86  Kenya 5,541 Dec 2013[14]
87  Yemen 5,538 Dec 2013[14]
88  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[14]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,239 Dec 2013[14]
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,002 Dec 2013[14]
91  Cuba 4,993 Dec 2013[14]
92  Iceland 4,489 Sep 2014[63]
93  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[14]
94  Tanzania 4,343 Dec 2013[14]
95    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[14]
96  Ivory Coast 4,085 Dec 2013[14]
97  Mauritius 4,052 Aug 2014[64]
98  Equatorial Guinea 4,027 Dec 2013[14]
99  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[14]
100  Latvia 3,464 Aug 2014[65]
101  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[14]
102  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[14]
103  Honduras 3,098 Aug 2014[66]
104  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[14]
105  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[14]
106  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[14]
107  El Salvador 2,764 Aug 2014[67]
108  Moldova 2,735 Aug 2014[68]
109  Georgia 2,701 Sep 2014[69]
110  Slovakia 2,299 Feb 2014[70]
111  Kyrgyzstan 2,145 Aug 2014[71]
112  Nicaragua 2,132 Sep 2014[72]
113  Armenia 1,751 Aug 2014[73]
114  Ireland 1,606 Aug 2014[74]
115  Mongolia 1,361 Aug 2014[75]
116  Slovenia 1,037 Sep 2014[76]
117  Luxembourg 949 Aug 2014[77]
118  Cyprus 908 Aug 2014[78]
119  Laos 846 Dec 2013[14]
120  Malta 661 Aug 2014[79]
121  Estonia 478 Sep 2014[80]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  7. ^ IMF - Brazil
  8. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  9. ^ IMF - Hong Kong
  10. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  11. ^ IMF - Singapore
  12. ^ IMF - Germany
  13. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  15. ^ IMF - Thailand
  16. ^ IMF - France
  17. ^ IMF - Italy
  18. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  19. ^ IMF - United States
  20. ^ IMF - Turkey
  21. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  22. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  23. ^ IMF - Poland
  24. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  25. ^ IMF - Philippines
  26. ^ IMF - Denmark
  27. ^ IMF - Canada
  28. ^ IMF - Sweden
  29. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  30. ^ IMF - Norway
  31. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  32. ^ IMF - Australia
  33. ^ IMF - South Africa
  34. ^ IMF - Spain
  35. ^ IMF - Hungary
  36. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  37. ^ IMF - Colombia
  38. ^ IMF - Romania
  39. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  40. ^ IMF - Chile
  41. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  42. ^ IMF - Argentina
  43. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  44. ^ IMF - Austria
  45. ^ IMF - Belgium
  46. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  47. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  48. ^ IMF - Portugal
  49. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  50. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  51. ^ IMF - Croatia
  52. ^ IMF - Egypt
  53. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  54. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  55. ^ IMF - Jordan
  56. ^ "TABLE-Pakistan forex reserves fall to $13.210 bln". Reuters. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  57. ^ IMF - Finland
  58. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  59. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  60. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  61. ^ IMF - Greece
  62. ^ IMF - Belarus
  63. ^ IMF - Iceland
  64. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  65. ^ IMF - Latvia
  66. ^ IMF - Honduras
  67. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  68. ^ IMF - Moldova
  69. ^ IMF - Georgia
  70. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  71. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  72. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  73. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  74. ^ IMF - Ireland
  75. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  76. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  77. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  78. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  79. ^ IMF - Malta
  80. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]