List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  People's Republic of China[1] 3,945,932 Sep 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,260,548 Dec 2014[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 740,400 Nov 2014[3]
4   Switzerland 526,172 Nov 2014[4]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 426,438 Nov 2014[5]
6  Russia 379,400 Jan 16, 2015[6][7]
7  Brazil 375,426 Nov 2014[8]
8  Republic of Korea 363,095 Nov 2014[9]
-  Hong Kong 327,930 Nov 2014[10]
9  India 322,149 Jan 16, 2015[11]
10  Singapore 260,553 Nov 2014[12]
11  Mexico 196,719 Nov 2014[13]
12  Germany 194,016 Nov 2014[14]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[15]
14  Thailand 158,544 Nov 2014[16]
15  France 141,944 Nov 2014[17]
16  Italy 141,609 Nov 2014[18]
17  United Kingdom 139,476 Nov 2014[19]
18  Turkey 133,452 Nov 2014[20]
19  United States 130,047 Jan 2, 2015[21]
20  Malaysia 125,731 Nov 2014[22]
21  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[15]
22  Indonesia 111,144 Nov 2014[23]
23  Poland 100,394 Nov 2014[24]
24  Israel 86,314 Nov 2014[25]
25  Philippines 78,679 Nov 2014[26]
26  Denmark 76,259 Oct 2014[27]
27  Canada 74,700 Dec 2014[28]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[15]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[15]
30  Norway 66,683 Nov 2014[29]
31  Sweden 63,115 Nov 2014[30]
32  Peru 62,982 Dec 7, 2014[31]
33  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[15]
34  Czech Republic 54,506 Nov 2014[32]
35  Australia 52,426 Nov 2014[33]
36  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[15]
37  Spain 49,093 Nov 2014[34]
38  South Africa 48,541 Nov 2014[35]
39  Colombia 46,874 Nov 2014[36]
40  Qatar 46,457 Nov 2014[37]
41  Netherlands 43,277 Nov 2014[38]
42  Romania 43,239 Nov 2014[39]
43  Hungary 42,610 Nov 2014[40]
44  Chile 39,911 Nov 2014[41]
45  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[15]
46  Nigeria 36,804 Nov 2014[42]
47  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[15]
48  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[15]
49  Argentina 28,911 Nov 2014[43]
50  Kazakhstan 28,640 Nov 2014[44]
51  Austria 26,170 Nov 2014[45]
52  Belgium 25,635 Nov 2014[46]
53  Turkmenistan 22,350 Dec 2013[15]
54  Bangladesh 22,310 Dec 2014[47]
55  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[15]
56  Bulgaria 20,049 Nov 2014[48]
57  Morocco 19,160 Dec 2013[15]
58  Portugal 18,548 Oct 2014[49]
59  New Zealand 18,252 Nov 2014[50]
60  Oman 17,700 Dec 2013[15]
61  Uruguay 17,441 Nov 2014[51]
62  Uzbekistan 17,000 Dec 2013[15]
63  Jordan 16,033 Oct 2014[52]
-  Macau 16,018 Nov 2014[53]
64  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[15]
65  Croatia 15,529 Nov 2014[54]
66  Egypt 15,425 Nov 2014[55]
67  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[15]
68  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[15]
69  Pakistan 12,033 Nov 2014[56]
70  Finland 10,471 Nov 2014[57]
71  Trinidad and Tobago 11,300 Dec 2014[58]
72  Ukraine 9,966 Nov 2014[59]
73  Burma 8,278 Dec 2013[15]
74  Tunisia 8,113 Dec 2013[15]
75  Lithuania 8,100 Nov 2014[60]
76  Botswana 7,933 Dec 2013[15]
77  Costa Rica 7,252 Nov 2014[61]
78  Guatemala 7,050 Nov 2014[62]
79  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[15]
80  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[15]
81  Greece 6,168 Nov 2014[63]
82  Ghana 6,016 Dec 2013[15]
83  Afghanistan 5,983 Dec 2013[15]
84  Bahrain 5,933 Dec 2013[15]
85  Belarus 5,820 Nov 2014[64]
86  Kenya 5,541 Dec 2013[15]
87  Yemen 5,538 Dec 2013[15]
88  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[15]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,239 Dec 2013[15]
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,002 Dec 2013[15]
91  Cuba 4,993 Dec 2013[15]
92  Iceland 4,573 Nov 2014[65]
93  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[15]
94  Tanzania 4,343 Dec 2013[15]
95    Nepal 4,339 Dec 2013[15]
96  Ivory Coast 4,085 Dec 2013[15]
97  Equatorial Guinea 4,027 Dec 2013[15]
98  Mauritius 3,796 Nov 2014[66]
99  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[15]
100  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[15]
101  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[15]
102  Latvia 3,202 Nov 2014[67]
103  El Salvador 3,011 Nov 2014[68]
104  Honduras 3,009 Nov 2014[69]
105  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[15]
106  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[15]
107  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[15]
108  Albania 2,827 Dec 2013[15]
109  Macedonia 2,747 Dec 2013[15]
110  Panama 2,666 Dec 2013[15]
111  Ecuador 2,625 Dec 2013[15]
112  Georgia 2,608 Nov 2014[70]
113  Slovakia 2,509 Nov 2014[71]
114  Gabon 2,470 Dec 2013[15]
115  Moldova 2,367 Nov 2014[72]
116  Namibia 2,267 Dec 2013[15]
117  Senegal 2,150 Dec 2013[15]
118  Nicaragua 2,126 Nov 2014[73]
119  Jamaica 1,900 Dec 2013[15]
120  Syria 1,895 Dec 2013[15]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,867 Nov 2014[74]
122  Ireland 1,808 Nov 2014[75]
123  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,582 Dec 2013[15]
124  Armenia 1,538 Nov 2014[76]
125  Rwanda 1,354 Dec 2013[15]
126  Mongolia 1,352 Nov 2014[77]
127  Haiti 1,335 Dec 2013[15]
128  Chad 1,304 Dec 2013[15]
129  Madagascar 1,249 Dec 2013[15]
130  Burkina Faso 1,115 Dec 2013[15]
131  Tajikistan 1,072 Dec 2013[15]
132  Slovenia 1,056 Nov 2014[78]
133  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[15]
134  Fiji 964 Dec 2013[15]
135  Luxembourg 909 Nov 2014[79]
136  Lesotho 858 Dec 2013[15]
137  Guyana 855 Dec 2013[15]
138  Cyprus 855 Nov 2014[80]
139  Laos 846 Dec 2013[15]
140  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[15]
141  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[15]
142  Benin 801 Dec 2013[15]
143  Barbados 713 Dec 2013[15]
144  Malta 631 Nov 2014[81]
145  Togo 531 Dec 2013[15]
146  Estonia 457 Nov 2014[82]
147  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[15]
148  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[15]
149  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[15]
150  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[15]
151  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[15]
152  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[15]
153  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[15]
154  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[15]
155  Belize 273 Dec 2013[15]
156  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[15]
157  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[15]
158  Eritrea 193 Dec 2013[15]
159  Guinea 183 Dec 2013[15]
160  Vanuatu 174 Dec 2013[15]
161  Samoa 169 Dec 2013[15]
162  Tonga 147 Dec 2013[15]
163  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 115 Dec 2013[15]
164  Dominica 90 Dec 2013[15]
165  Federated States of Micronesia 75 Dec 2013[15]
166  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 Dec 2013[15]
167  Montserrat 32 Dec 2013[15]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  6. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  7. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  8. ^ IMF - Brazil
  9. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  10. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  11. ^ . 16January 2015 http://in.mobile.reuters.com/article/idINS8N0TE01N20150123?irpc=932. Retrieved 16 January 2015.  Check date values in: |date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  13. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  14. ^ IMF - Germany
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  16. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  17. ^ IMF - France
  18. ^ IMF - Italy
  19. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  20. ^ IMF - Turkey
  21. ^ IMF - United States
  22. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  23. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  24. ^ IMF - Poland
  25. ^ IMF - Israel
  26. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  27. ^ IMF - Denmark
  28. ^ IMF - Canada
  29. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  30. ^ IMF - Sweden
  31. ^ IMF- Peru
  32. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  33. ^ IMF - Australia
  34. ^ IMF - Spain
  35. ^ IMF - South Africa
  36. ^ IMF - Colombia
  37. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  38. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  39. ^ IMF - Romania
  40. ^ IMF - Hungary
  41. ^ IMF - Chile
  42. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Movement in Foreign Reserves". 
  43. ^ IMF - Argentina
  44. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  45. ^ IMF - Austria
  46. ^ IMF - Belgium
  47. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  48. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  49. ^ IMF - Portugal
  50. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  51. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  52. ^ IMF - Jordan
  53. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  54. ^ IMF - Croatia
  55. ^ Central Bank Of Egypt - "International Reserves and Reserve Template"
  56. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  57. ^ IMF - Finland
  58. ^ http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2015/01/09/trinidad-and-tobago-points-to-record-high-foreign-reserves/
  59. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  60. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  61. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  62. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  63. ^ IMF - Greece
  64. ^ IMF - Belarus
  65. ^ IMF - Iceland
  66. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  67. ^ IMF - Latvia
  68. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  69. ^ IMF - Honduras
  70. ^ IMF - Georgia
  71. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  72. ^ IMF - Moldova
  73. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  74. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  75. ^ IMF - Ireland
  76. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  77. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  78. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  79. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  80. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  81. ^ IMF - Malta
  82. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]