List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[1] 3,945,932 Sep 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,261,103 Jan 2015[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 734,500 Jan 2015[3]
4   Switzerland 585,463 Jan 2015[4]
5  Taiwan 420,788 Jan 2015[5]
6  Brazil 362,547 Feb 2015[6]
7  South Korea 362,186 Jan 2015[7]
8  Russia 352,900 Mar 20, 2015[8][9][10]
9  India 339,992 Mar 20, 2015[11][12]
-  Hong Kong 324,821 Jan 2015[13]
10  Singapore 251,464 Jan 2015[14]
11  Mexico 199,161 Jan 2015[15][16]
12  Germany 193,463 Feb 2015[17]
13  Algeria 192,500 Dec 2013[18]
14  Thailand 155,423 Jan 2015[19]
15  France 147,758 Jan 2015[20]
16  Italy 146,669 Jan 2015[21]
17  United Kingdom 139,182 Jan 2015[22]
18  Turkey 130,543 Jan 2015[23]
19  United States 122,357 Mar 20, 2015[24]
20  Libya 120,900 Dec 2013[18]
21  Indonesia 114,250 Jan 2015[25]
22  Malaysia 110,616 Jan 2015[26][27]
23  Poland 99,462 Jan 2015[28]
24  Israel 85,331 Feb 2015[29][30]
25  Philippines 80,716 Jan 2015[31]
26  Denmark 76,259 Oct 2014[32]
27  Canada 74,768 Feb 2015[33]
28  Iraq 71,240 Dec 2013[18]
29  Iran[2] 68,060 Dec 2013[18]
30  Norway 64,857 Dec 2014[34][35]
31  Sweden 62,533 Dec 2014[36]
32  Peru 60,962 Mar 7, 2015[37]
33  United Arab Emirates 58,040 Dec 2013[18]
34  Australia 53,891 Dec 2014[38]
35  Czech Republic 53,524 Feb 2015[39]
36  Spain 53,252 Feb 2015[40]
37  Lebanon 51,950 Dec 2013[18]
38  South Africa 49,102 Dec 2014[41]
39  Colombia 46,577 Jan 2015[42]
40  Romania 43,107 Dec 2014[43]
41  Netherlands 42,921 Dec 2014[44]
42  Hungary 41,982 Dec 2014[45]
43  Qatar 41,063 Jan 2015[46]
44  Chile 40,453 Dec 2014[47]
45  Angola 37,940 Dec 2013[18]
46  Kuwait 34,350 Dec 2013[18]
47  Vietnam 32,490 Dec 2013[18]
48  Nigeria 32,386 Jan 2015[48]
49  Argentina 31,408 Dec 2014[49]
50  Kazakhstan 28,873 Dec 2014[50]
51  Belgium 25,388 Dec 2014[51]
52  Austria 24,940 Dec 2014[52]
53  Bangladesh 23,032 Feb 2015[53]
54  Turkmenistan 22,350 Dec 2013[18]
55  Venezuela 21,150 Dec 2013[18]
56  Bulgaria 20,074 Dec 2014[54]
57  Portugal 19,616 Dec 2014[55]
58  Morocco 19,160 Dec 2013[18]
59  Uruguay 17,810 Dec 2014[56]
60  Oman 17,700 Dec 2013[18]
61  Uzbekistan 17,000 Dec 2013[18]
-  Macau 16,443 Dec 2014[57]
62  Pakistan 15,044 Feb 2015[58]
63  Jordan 16,044 Dec 2014[59]
64  Serbia 15,870 Dec 2013[18]
65  New Zealand 15,860 Dec 2014[60]
66  Croatia 15,424 Dec 2014[61]
67  Egypt 14,877 Dec 2014[62]
68  Bolivia 14,460 Dec 2013[18]
69  Azerbaijan 13,080 Dec 2013[18]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 11,317 Dec 2014[63]
71  Finland 10,662 Dec 2014[64]
72  Lithuania 8,728 Dec 2014[65]
73  Burma 8,278 Dec 2013[18]
74  Tunisia 8,113 Dec 2013[18]
75  Botswana 7,933 Dec 2013[18]
76  Ukraine 7,533 Dec 2014[66]
77  Guatemala 7,329 Dec 2014[67]
78  Costa Rica 7,211 Dec 2014[68]
79    Nepal 6,574 Jan 2014[18]
80  Sri Lanka 6,452 Dec 2013[18]
81  Paraguay 6,336 Dec 2013[18]
82  Greece 6,213 Dec 2014[69]
83  Ghana 6,016 Dec 2013[18]
84  Afghanistan 5,983 Dec 2013[18]
85  Bahrain 5,933 Dec 2013[18]
86  Kenya 5,541 Dec 2013[18]
87  Yemen 5,538 Dec 2013[18]
88  Cambodia 5,415 Dec 2013[18]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,239 Dec 2013[18]
90  Belarus 5,059 Dec 2014[70]
91  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,002 Jan 2014[18]
92  Cuba 4,993 Dec 2013[18]
93  Dominican Republic 4,379 Dec 2013[18]
94  Tanzania 4,343 Dec 2013[18]
95  Iceland 4,177 Dec 2014[71]
96  Ivory Coast 4,085 Dec 2013[18]
97  Equatorial Guinea 4,027 Dec 2013[18]
98  Mauritius 3,919 Dec 2014[72]
99  Uganda 3,579 Dec 2013[18]
100  Honduras 3,458 Dec 2014[73]
101  Ethiopia 3,382 Dec 2013[18]
102  Cameroon 3,353 Dec 2013[18]
103  Latvia 3,226 Dec 2014[74]
104  Mozambique 2,990 Dec 2013[18]
105  Papua New Guinea 2,926 Dec 2013[18]
106  Zambia 2,833 Dec 2013[18]
107  Albania 2,827 Dec 2013[18]
108  Macedonia 2,747 Dec 2013[18]
109  Georgia 2,699 Dec 2014[75]
110  El Salvador 2,693 Dec 2014[76]
111  Panama 2,666 Dec 2013[18]
112  Slovakia 2,634 Dec 2014[77]
113  Ecuador 2,625 Dec 2013[18]
114  Gabon 2,470 Dec 2013[18]
115  Nicaragua 2,276 Dec 2014[78]
116  Namibia 2,267 Dec 2013[18]
117  Moldova 2,157 Dec 2014[79]
118  Senegal 2,150 Dec 2013[18]
119  Jamaica 1,900 Dec 2013[18]
120  Syria 1,895 Dec 2013[18]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,855 Dec 2014[80]
122  Ireland 1,792 Dec 2014[81]
123  Mongolia 1,650 Dec 2014[82]
124  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,582 Dec 2013[18]
125  Armenia 1,489 Dec 2014[83]
126  Rwanda 1,354 Dec 2013[18]
127  Haiti 1,335 Dec 2013[18]
128  Chad 1,304 Dec 2013[18]
129  Madagascar 1,249 Dec 2013[18]
130  Burkina Faso 1,115 Dec 2013[18]
131  Tajikistan 1,072 Dec 2013[18]
132  Slovenia 1,017 Dec 2014[84]
133  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[18]
134  Fiji 964 Dec 2013[18]
135  Luxembourg 863 Dec 2014[85]
136  Lesotho 858 Dec 2013[18]
137  Guyana 855 Dec 2013[18]
138  Cyprus 855 Nov 2014[86]
139  Laos 846 Dec 2013[18]
140  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[18]
141  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[18]
142  Benin 801 Dec 2013[18]
143  Barbados 713 Dec 2013[18]
144  Malta 619 Dec 2014[87]
145  Togo 531 Dec 2013[18]
146  Estonia 437 Dec 2014[88]
147  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[18]
148  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[18]
149  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[18]
150  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[18]
151  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[18]
152  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[18]
153  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[18]
154  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[18]
155  Belize 273 Dec 2013[18]
156  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[18]
157  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[18]
158  Eritrea 193 Dec 2013[18]
159  Guinea 183 Dec 2013[18]
160  Vanuatu 174 Dec 2013[18]
161  Samoa 169 Dec 2013[18]
162  Tonga 147 Dec 2013[18]
163  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 115 Dec 2013[18]
164  Dominica 90 Dec 2013[18]
165  Federated States of Micronesia 75 Dec 2013[18]
166  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 Dec 2013[18]
167  Montserrat 32 Dec 2013[18]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)". Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)". 
  6. ^ IMF - Brazil
  7. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  8. ^ IMF - Russia
  9. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  10. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  11. ^ IMF - India
  12. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  13. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  14. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  15. ^ IMF - Mexico
  16. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  17. ^ IMF - Germany
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  19. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  20. ^ IMF - France
  21. ^ IMF - Italy
  22. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  23. ^ IMF - Turkey
  24. ^ IMF - United States
  25. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  26. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  27. ^ Bank Negara Malaysia - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  28. ^ IMF - Poland
  29. ^ IMF - Israel
  30. ^ Bank of Israel - Press Releases - Foreign exchange reserves, foreign currency market
  31. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  32. ^ IMF - Denmark
  33. ^ IMF - Canada
  34. ^ IMF - Norway
  35. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly, preliminary figures - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  36. ^ IMF - Sweden
  37. ^ IMF- Peru
  38. ^ IMF - Australia
  39. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  40. ^ IMF - Spain
  41. ^ IMF - South Africa
  42. ^ IMF - Colombia
  43. ^ IMF - Romania
  44. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  45. ^ IMF - Hungary
  46. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  47. ^ IMF - Chile
  48. ^ Central Bank of Nigeria - Statistics Database
  49. ^ IMF - Argentina
  50. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  51. ^ IMF - Belgium
  52. ^ IMF - Austria
  53. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  54. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  55. ^ IMF - Portugal
  56. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  57. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  58. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  59. ^ IMF - Jordan
  60. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  61. ^ IMF - Croatia
  62. ^ Central Bank Of Egypt - "International Reserves and Reserve Template"
  63. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  64. ^ IMF - Finland
  65. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  66. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  67. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  68. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  69. ^ IMF - Greece
  70. ^ IMF - Belarus
  71. ^ IMF - Iceland
  72. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  73. ^ IMF - Honduras
  74. ^ IMF - Latvia
  75. ^ IMF - Georgia
  76. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  77. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  78. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  79. ^ IMF - Moldova
  80. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  81. ^ IMF - Ireland
  82. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  83. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  84. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  85. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  86. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  87. ^ IMF - Malta
  88. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]