List of countries by income equality

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Income Gini index map according to The World Bank (2014).[1]

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients, according to the United Nations (UN), the World Bank, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution data are not strictly comparable across countries.

The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has zero income). Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[2][3]

List[edit]

Click sorting buttons to sort alphabetically or numerically. Can sort in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left sorts independently from the columns to the right of it.

Key:
R/P 10%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%
R/P 20%: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%
Gini: Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve

UN: Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
CIA: Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.
GPI: Data from the Global Peace Index.



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Country UN R/P
10%[4]
UN R/P
20%[5]
World Bank
Gini (%)[6]
WB Gini
(year)
CIA R/P
10%[7]
Year CIA Gini
(%)[8]
CIA Gini
(year)
GPI Gini
(%)[9]

Afghanistan 27.8 2008 29.4 2008 60.0
Albania 7.2 4.8 29.0 2012 7.2 2004 34.5 2008
Algeria 9.6 6.1 35.3 1995 9.6 1995 35.3 1995
Angola 58.6 2000 62.0
Argentina 31.6 17.8 43.6 2011 35.0 2007 Jan.-Mar. 45.8 2009
Armenia 8.0 5.0 30.3 2012 25.8 2004 30.9 2008
Australia 12.5 7.0 30.5 2006 12.7 1994 30.3 2008
Austria 6.9 4.4 26.0 2007 6.8 2004 26.0 2007
Azerbaijan 9.7 6.0 33.7 2008 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
Bahrain 36.0
Bangladesh 7.5 4.9 32.1 2010 7.5 2000 est. 33.2 2005
Belarus 6.9 4.5 26.5 2011 6.9 2002 27.2 2008
Belgium 8.2 4.9 33.0 2000 8.3 2000 28.0 2005
Belize 53.1 1999 49.2
Benin 9.4 6.0 38.6 2003 9.4 2003 36.5 2003
Bhutan 38.1 2007 32
Bolivia 93.9 42.3 56.3 2008 157.3 2002 53 2010
Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.4 3.8 36.2 2007 5.5 2001 36.2 2007
Botswana 43.0 20.4 61.0 1994 63 1993
Brazil 40.6 21.8 54.7 2009 53.6 2009 50.8 2012
Bulgaria 7.0 4.4 28.2 2007 8.8 2005 45.3 2007
Burkina Faso 11.6 6.9 39.8 2009 11.5 2003 39.5 2007
Burundi 19.3 9.5 33.3 2006 19.3 1998 42.4 1998
Cambodia 12.2 7.3 37.9 2008 12.0 2004 37.9 2008 est.
Cameroon 15.7 9.1 38.9 2007 15.4 2001 44.6 2001
Canada 9.4 5.5 32.6 2000 9.5 2000 32.1 2005
Cape Verde 50.5 2002
Central African Republic 69.2 32.7 56.3 2008 68.1 1993 61.3 1993
Chad 39.8 2003 52.3
Chile 26.2 15.7 52.1 2009 32.1 2003 52.1 2009
China 21.6 12.2 42.1 2010 21.8 2004 47.4 2012 46.9[10]
Colombia 60.4 25.3 53.5 2012 56.3 2008 58.5 2011
Comoros 64.3 2004
Congo-Brazzaville 47.3 2005 56.2
Costa Rica 23.4 15.6 50.7 2009 37.4 2003 50.3 2009
Côte d'Ivoire 16.6 9.7 41.5 2008 17.0 2002 41.5 2008
Croatia 7.3 4.8 33.7 2008 7.2 2003 est. 32 2010
Cuba 30.0
Cyprus 29.0 2005
Czech Republic 5.2 3.5 26.0 2005 5.2 1996 31.0 2009
Democratic Republic of the Congo 44.4 2006 55
Denmark 8.1 4.3 24.0 2005 12.0 2000 est. 24.8 2011 est.
Djibouti 40.0 2002
Dominican Republic 25.3 14.3 47.2 2010 29.4 2005 47.2 2010 est.
Ecuador 35.2 17.3 49.3 2010 17.5 2006 Oct.[11] 47.7 2012 Dec.[12]
Egypt 8.0 5.1 30.8 2008 8.0 2000 34.4 2001
El Salvador 38.6 20.9 48.3 2009 55.4 2002 46.9 2007
Equatorial Guinea 65
Estonia 10.8 6.4 36.0 2004 11.0 2003 31.3 2010
Ethiopia 6.6 4.3 29.8 2005 6.5 2000 30.0 2000
European Union 30.4 2009 est.
Fiji 42.8 2009
Finland 5.6 3.8 26.9 2000 5.7 2000 26.8 2008
France 9.1 5.6 32.7 2008 8.3 2004 32.7 2008
Gabon 41.5 2005 60
The Gambia 20.2 11.2 47.3 2003 20.6 1998 50.2 1998
Georgia 15.4 8.3 41.3 2008 15.2 2003 46 2011
Germany 6.9 4.3 30.6 2010 6.9 2000 27.0 2006
Ghana 14.1 8.4 42.8 2006 13.7 1999 39.4 2005–2006
Greece 10.2 6.2 34.3 2000 10.4 2000 est. 33.0 2005
Guatemala 33.9 20.3 55.9 2006 48.2 2002 55.1 2007
Guinea 10.5 6.6 39.4 2007 21.6 2006 39.4 2007
Guinea-Bissau 19.0 10.3 35.5 2002 84.8 1991
Guyana 44.5 1998 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
Haiti 54.4 26.6 59.2 2001 68.1 2001 59.2 2001
Honduras 59.4 17.2 57.0 2009 35.2 2003 57.7 2007
Hong Kong 17.8 9.7 53.3 2007 53.7 2011
Hungary 5.5 3.8 31.2 2007 5.6 2002 24.7 2009
Iceland 28.0 2006
India 8.6 5.6 33.9 2009 8.6 2004 36.8 2004
Indonesia 7.8 5.2 34.0 2005 7.9 2002 36.8 2009
Iran 17.2 9.7 38.3 2005 16.9 1998 44.5 2006 38.3[13]
Iraq 30.9 2007 42
Ireland 9.4 5.6 34.3 2000 9.4 2000 33.9 2010
Israel 13.4 7.9 39.2 2001 11.8 2005 37.6 [14] 2012
Italy 11.6 6.5 36.0 2000 11.7 2000 31.9 2011
Jamaica 17.3 9.8 45.5 2004 17.0 2004 45.5 2004
Japan 4.5 3.4 38.1 2002 4.5 1993 37.6 2008
Jordan 11.3 6.9 35.4 2010 11.3 2003 39.7 2007
Kazakhstan 8.5 5.6 29.0 2009 8.0 2004 est. 28.9 2011
Kenya 13.6 8.2 47.7 2005 18.6 2000 42.5 2008 est.
North Korea 31.0
South Korea 7.8 4.7 31.3 2007 5.9 2011 31.1 2011
Kuwait 30
Kyrgyzstan 6.4 4.4 36.2 2009 6.4 2003 33.4 2007
Laos 8.3 5.4 36.7 2008 8.4 2002 36.7 2008
Latvia 11.6 6.8 36.6 2008 11.6 2003 35.2 2010
Lebanon 45
Lesotho 39.8 44.2 52.5 2003 48.2 2002 est. 63.2 1995
Liberia 12.8 38.2 2007 38.2 2007
Libya 36.0
Lithuania 10.4 6.3 37.6 2008 10.3 2003 35.5 2009
Luxembourg 30.8 2000 6.8 2000 26.0 2005
Macedonia 12.5 7.5 43.2 2009 12.3 2003 43.2 2009
Madagascar 19.2 11.0 44.1 2010 19.3 2001 47.5 2001
Malawi 10.9 6.7 39.0 2004 11.0 2004 39.0 2004
Malaysia 22.1 12.4 46.2 2009 28.0 2003 est. 46.2 2009
Maldives 37.4 2004
Mali 12.5 7.6 33.0 2010 12.6 2001 40.1 2001
Malta 27.4 2011
Mauritania 12.0 7.4 40.5 2008 11.8 2000 39.0 2000
Mauritius 39.0 2006 est.
Mexico 21.6 12.8 47.0 2012 24.6 2004 51.7 2008
Moldova 8.2 5.3 33.0 2010 8.3 2003 38.0 2008
Mongolia 8.2 5.4 36.5 2008 8.2 2002 36.5 2008
Montenegro 30.0 2008 24.3 2010
Morocco 11.7 7.2 40.9 2007 11.9 1999 40.9 2007 est.
Mozambique 18.8 9.9 45.7 2008 18.8 2002 45.6 2008
Myanmar 11.6 1998 40
Namibia 106.6 56.1 63.9 2004 129.0 2003 59.7 2010
Nepal 15.8 9.1 32.8 2010 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
Netherlands 9.2 5.1 30.9 2007 9.2 1999 30.9 2007
New Zealand 12.4 6.8 36.2 1997 36.2 1997
Nicaragua 31.0 8.8 40.5 2005 15.4 2001 40.5 2010
Niger 46.0 20.7 34.6 2008 44.3 1995 34.0 2007
Nigeria 17.8 9.7 48.8 2010 17.5 2003 43.7 2003
Norway 6.1 3.9 25.8 2000 6.0 2000 25.0 2008
Oman 32
Pakistan 6.5 4.3 30.0 2008 6.6 2002 30.6 2007–2008
Panama 49.9 23.9 51.9 2010 61.4 2003 51.9 2010 est.
Papua New Guinea 23.8 12.6 50.9 1996 23.8 1996 50.9 1996
Paraguay 38.8 25.7 52.4 2010 65.9 2003 53.2 2009
Peru 26.1 15.2 48.1 2010 31.5 2003 46.0 2010
Philippines 15.5 9.3 43.0 2009 15.5 2003 44.8 2009
Poland 8.8 5.6 34.1 2009 8.7 2002 34.1 2009
Portugal 15.0 8.0 38.5 2007 9.2 1995 est. 38.5 2007
Qatar 41.1 2007 39
Romania 7.5 4.9 30.0 2009 7.4 2003 33.2 2011
Russia 12.7 7.6 40.1 2009 12.8 2002 41.7 2011
Rwanda 18.6 9.9 50.8 2011 18.2 2000 46.8 2000
Sao Tome and Principe 50.8 2001
Saudi Arabia 32.0
Senegal 12.3 7.4 39.2 2005 12.4 2001 41.3 2001
Serbia 27.8 2009 28.2 2008
Seychelles 65.8 2007
Sierra Leone 87.2 57.6 42.5 2003 87.2 1989 62.9 1989
Singapore 17.7 9.7 28.1 2008 17.3 1998 27.8 2012
Slovakia 6.7 4.0 26.0 2009 6.7 1996 26.0 2005
Slovenia 5.9 3.9 31.2 2004 5.9 1998 23.8 2011
Somalia 30
South Africa 33.1 17.9 63.1 2009 31.9 2000 65.0 2005
South Sudan 45.5 2009
Spain 10.3 6.0 34.7 2000 10.2 2000 32.0 2005
Sri Lanka 11.1 6.9 36.4 2010 36.1 2003/04 fiscal year 49.0 2010
St. Lucia 42.6 1995
Sudan 35.3 2009 51
Suriname 52.9 1999
Swaziland 25.1 13.0 51.5 2010 25.4 2001 50.4 2001
Sweden 6.2 4.0 25.0 2000 6.2 2000 23.0 2005
Switzerland 9.0 5.5 33.7 2000 8.9 2000 29.6 2010
Syria 35.8 2004 42.0
Taiwan 6.1 2002 est. 34.2 2011
Tajikistan 7.8 5.2 30.8 2009 7.8 2003 32.6 2006
Tanzania 9.2 5.8 37.6 2007 9.3 2000 37.6 2007
Thailand 12.6 7.7 40.0 2009 12.4 2002 53.6 2009
Timor-Leste 31.9 2007 31.9 2007 est.
Togo 34.4 2006
Trinidad and Tobago 12.9 7.6 40.3 1992
Tunisia 13.4 7.9 41.4 2005 13.7 2000 40.0 2005 est.
Turkey 6.6 4.6 39.0 2008 17.1 2003 40.2 2010
Turkmenistan 12.3 7.7 40.8 1998 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
Uganda 16.6 9.2 44.3 2009 16.4 2002 44.3 2009
Ukraine 5.9 4.1 26.4 2009 7.6 2006 28.2 2009
United Arab Emirates 31
United Kingdom 13.8 7.2 34.0 2005 13.6 1999 40 2008–2009
United States 15.9 8.4 48 2014 15.0 2007 est. 45.0 2007
Uruguay 11.8 39.7 2012 17.9 2003 45.3 2010
Uzbekistan 10.6 6.2 36.7 2003 10.6 2003 36.8 2003
Venezuela 18.8 16.0 44.8 2006 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
Vietnam 6.9 4.9 35.6 2008 10.0 2004 37.6 2008
Palestine 35.5 2009
Yemen 8.6 5.6 37.7 2005 8.6 2003 37.7 2005
Zambia 54.6 2006 50.8 2004
Zimbabwe 50.1 1995 50.1 2006
 World 12.0 2002 est. 39 2007

OECD countries[edit]

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[edit]



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Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[15]
Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.468
Austria 0.433 0.472
Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
Estonia 0.504 0.458
Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
Iceland 0.365 0.382
Ireland
Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
Poland 0.542 0.470
Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
Slovak Republic 0.458 0.416
Slovenia 0.452 0.423
South Korea 0.331 0.344
Spain 0.461
Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
Switzerland 0.409
Turkey 0.470
United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[edit]



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Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[15]
Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
Estonia 0.349 0.315
Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
Iceland 0.257 0.301
Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
Slovak Republic 0.268 0.257
Slovenia 0.246 0.236
South Korea 0.306 0.315
Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Table 2.9 of World Development Indicators: Distribution of income or consumption The World Bank (various 1994-2011)
  2. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011. Global & Local Economic Review.
  3. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  4. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, accessed on July 30, 2011.
  5. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2007/2008, UNDP, accessed on February 3, 2008.
  6. ^ World Bank GINI index, accessed on November 24, 2011.
  7. ^ Data show the ratio of the household income or consumption share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Household income or consumption by percentage share (%), The World Factbook, CIA, updated on January 24, 2008. Note: To calculate the value given in the table for this article, the highest 10% value was divided by the lowest 10% value.
  8. ^ Distribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on November 24, 2011.
  9. ^ Global Peace Index calculation incorporates UN Gini scores where available, so countries with a UN Gini calculation are left blank in this column. At [1] click on each country to see its Gini coefficient. Year is not given. "There are, nevertheless, some problems with the Gini-coefficient; there is a considerable lag in the publication of statistics for many countries suffers, forcing the Economist Intelligence Unit to estimate the coefficient for a sizeable proportion of the 153 countries in the GPI. These problems of measurement look likely to persist for the foreseeable future, and the use of other measures of income inequality may be more effective."
  10. ^ Stephen Young (2010) Geni Coefficient Nation Multimedia
  11. ^ Data for urban households only.
  12. ^ Data for urban households only.
  13. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ a b Income distribution – Inequality — OECD Stats

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]