List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

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World map indicating the inequality-adjusted Human Development Index in 2012 (2013 report).
  0.850 and over
  0.800–0.849
  0.750–0.799
  0.700–0.749
  0.650–0.699
  0.600–0.649
  0.550–0.599
  0.500–0.549
  0.450–0.499
  0.400–0.449
  Data unavailable
  0.350–0.399
  0.300–0.349
  0.250–0.300
  0.200–0.250
  under 0.200

This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2013 and 2011 Human Development Reports. According to the 2010 Report, "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)" and the unadjusted calculations for "the HDI can be viewed as an index of “potential” human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".[1]

Methodology[edit]

The index captures the HDI of the average person in society, which is less than the aggregate HDI when there is inequality in the distribution of health, education and income. Under perfect equality, the HDI and IHDI are equal; the greater the difference between the two, the greater the inequality. In that sense, "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (taking into account inequality), while the HDI can be viewed as an index of the potential human development that could be achieved if there is no inequality."[2]

The IHDI, estimated for 132 countries (134 countries in 2011 report), captures the losses in human development due to inequality in health, education and income. Losses in all three dimensions vary across countries, ranging from just a few percent (Czech Republic, Slovenia) up to over 40% (Namibia, Angola). Overall loss takes into account all three dimensions.[citation needed]

This is an experimental measure that will be subject to changes in the future. One issue is in the inequality adjusted income index, which forms a third of the overall index. Effectively countries with much lower inequality adjusted GNI will score higher in the income index than other countries who have higher inequality adjusted GNI, but higher inequality. For example, country A has GNI per capita of $40,000 (index= .858), inequality adjusted GNI per capita of $30,000 (index=.816), and country B has a GNI per capita of $18,000 (.743), inequality adjusted GNI per capita of $16,000 (.735). So country A is clearly better off by both measures. However, this is not the way the inequality adjusted income index is calculated. As the text says, "The HDI income index is adjusted for inequality in income distribution based on data from household surveys." [3] It is the index itself which is adjusted for inequality. Thus, for country A, the index of (.858) gets multiplied by the ratio (.1478/.166)=.642. For country B, the index of (.735) gets multiplied by the ratio (16,000/18,000)=.661. Therefore, country B has a higher income index in terms of income even though it actually receives about half the income of country B.[citation needed]

List[edit]

The table below ranks countries according to their inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI) and compares it to their HDI. The "Loss (%)" column, given by the difference between the HDI and the IHDI and expressed as a percentage, indicates the “loss” in potential human development due to inequality. The "Rank change" column reflects a country's rank difference between both HDI and IHDI lists, when only the 132 countries (134 countries in 2011 report) with a calculated IHDI are considered.

All data is based on 2013 and 2011 estimates.[3][4]


2013 Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) (2014 report)[5][edit]


2012 Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) (2013 report)[6] 2011 Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) (2012 report)[7]
Rank Country IHDI HDI Loss
(%)
Rank
change 2011/12
1  Norway 0.894 0.955 6.4 0
2  Australia 0.864 0.938 7.9 0
3  Sweden 0.859 0.916 6.2 0
4  Netherlands 0.857 0.921 6.9 0
5  Germany 0.856 0.920 6.9 2
6  Ireland 0.850 0.916 7.2 0
7   Switzerland 0.849 0.913 7.0 2
8  Iceland 0.848 0.906 6.4 −3
9  Denmark 0.845 0.901 6.2 −1
10  Slovenia 0.840 0.892 5.8 0
11  Finland 0.839 0.892 6.0 0
12  Austria 0.837 0.895 6.6 2
13  Canada 0.832 0.911 8.7 −1
14  Czech Republic 0.826 0.873 5.4 −1
15  Belgium 0.825 0.897 8.0 0
16  United States 0.821 0.937 12.4 7
17  Luxembourg 0.813 0.875 7.2 1
18  France 0.812 0.893 9.0 −2
19  United Kingdom 0.802 0.875 8.2 0
20  Spain 0.796 0.885 10.1 −3
21  Israel 0.790 0.900 12.3 0
22  Slovakia 0.788 0.840 6.3 −2
23  Malta 0.778 0.847 8.2 /
24  Italy 0.776 0.881 11.9 −2
25  Estonia 0.770 0.846 9.0 −1
26  Hungary 0.769 0.831 7.4 −1
27  Greece 0.760 0.860 11.5 −1
28  South Korea 0.758 0.909 16.5 0
29  Cyprus 0.751 0.848 11.5 −2
30  Poland 0.740 0.821 9.9 −1
31  Montenegro 0.733 0.791 7.4 1
32  Portugal 0.729 0.816 10.8 −1
33  Lithuania 0.727 0.818 11.0 −3
34  Belarus 0.727 0.793 8.3 1
35  Latvia 0.726 0.814 10.9 −2
36  Bulgaria 0.704 0.782 9.9 1
37  Serbia 0.696 0.769 9.5 −3
38  Romania 0.687 0.786 12.6 −2
39  Croatia 0.683 0.805 15.1 −1
40  Ukraine 0.672 0.740 9.2 0
41  Chile 0.664 0.819 19.0 3
42  Uruguay 0.662 0.792 16.4 1
43  Argentina 0.653 0.811 19.5 4
44  Kazakhstan 0.652 0.754 13.6 −2
45  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.650 0.735 11.5 0
46  Azerbaijan 0.650 0.734 11.4 6
47  Armenia 0.649 0.729 10.9 1
48  Albania 0.645 0.749 13.9 1
49  Trinidad and Tobago 0.640 0.760 15.3 −3
50  Mauritius 0.639 0.737 13.3 0
51  Georgia 0.631 0.745 15.3 0
52  Rep. of Macedonia 0.631 0.740 14.7 2
53  Sri Lanka 0.607 0.715 15.1 5
54  Costa Rica 0.606 0.773 21.5 1
55  Mexico 0.593 0.775 23.4 1
56  Jamaica 0.591 0.730 19.1 −3
57  Panama 0.588 0.780 24.6 0
58  Moldova 0.584 0.660 11.6 2
59  Lebanon 0.575 0.745 22.8 0
60  Jordan 0.568 0.700 19.0 1
61  Mongolia 0.568 0.675 15.9 1
62  Peru 0.561 0.741 24.3 1
63  Turkey 0.560 0.722 22.5 3
64  Uzbekistan 0.551 0.654 15.8 0
65  Gabon 0.550 0.683 19.5 0
66  Venezuela 0.549 0.748 26.6 1
67  China 0.543 0.699 22.4 3
68  Thailand 0.543 0.690 21.3 0
69  Ecuador 0.537 0.724 25.8 0
70  Brazil 0.531 0.730 27.2 3
71  Vietnam 0.531 0.617 14.0 5
72  Suriname 0.526 0.684 23.0 2
73  Philippines 0.524 0.654 19.9 2
74  Colombia 0.519 0.719 27.8 12
75  Kyrgyzstan 0.516 0.622 17.1 −4
76  Maldives 0.515 0.688 25.2 6
77  Syria 0.515 0.648 20.4 3
78  Guyana 0.514 0.636 19.1 6
79  Indonesia 0.514 0.629 18.3 0
80  Dominican Republic 0.510 0.702 27.3 −3
81  Tajikistan 0.507 0.622 18.4 0
82  Egypt 0.503 0.662 24.1 3
83  El Salvador 0.499 0.680 26.6 0
84  Honduras 0.458 0.632 27.5 5
85  Bolivia 0.444 0.675 34.2 2
86  Nicaragua 0.434 0.599 27.5 2
87  Bhutan 0.430 0.538 20.0 /
88  Morocco 0.415 0.591 29.7 2
89  Laos 0.409 0.543 24.7 2
90  Cambodia 0.402 0.543 25.9 5
91  India 0.392 0.554 29.3 2
92  Guatemala 0.389 0.581 33.1 0
93  Timor-Leste 0.386 0.576 33.0 12
94  Ghana 0.379 0.558 32.2 2
95  Bangladesh 0.374 0.515 27.4 3
96  Rep. of the Congo 0.368 0.534 31.1 1
97  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.358 0.525 31.7 3
98  Pakistan 0.356 0.515 30.9 3
99  Swaziland 0.346 0.536 35.4 4
100  Tanzania 0.346 0.476 27.3 6
101  Namibia 0.344 0.608 43.5 −2
102  Kenya 0.344 0.519 33.6 0
103  Madagascar 0.335 0.483 30.7 1
104  Cameroon 0.330 0.495 33.4 3
105  Senegal 0.315 0.470 33.0 4
106  Yemen 0.310 0.458 32.3 2
107  Mauritania 0.306 0.467 34.4 5
108  Togo 0.305 0.459 33.5 6
109    Nepal 0.304 0.463 34.2 2
110  Uganda 0.304 0.463 34.2 3
111  Lesotho 0.296 0.461 35.9 4
112  Rwanda 0.287 0.434 33.9 5
113  Malawi 0.287 0.418 31.4 7
114  Angola 0.285 0.508 43.9 /
115  Djibouti 0.285 0.445 36.0 3
116  Zimbabwe 0.284 0.397 28.5 6
117  Zambia 0.283 0.448 36.7 −7
118  Benin 0.280 0.436 35.8 1
119  Nigeria 0.276 0.471 41.4 −3
120  Haiti 0.273 0.456 40.2 1
121  Ethiopia 0.269 0.396 31.9 2
122  Côte d'Ivoire 0.265 0.432 38.6 2
123  Liberia 0.251 0.388 35.3 4
124  Burkina Faso 0.226 0.343 34.2 2
125  Mozambique 0.220 0.327 32.7 0
126  Guinea 0.217 0.355 38.8 2
127  Guinea-Bissau 0.213 0.364 41.4 2
128  Sierra Leone 0.210 0.359 41.6 3
129  Central African Republic 0.209 0.352 40.5 1
130  Chad 0.203 0.340 40.1 2
131  Niger 0.200 0.304 34.2 2
132  Dem. Rep. of the Congo 0.183 0.304 39.9 0
Rank Country IHDI HDI Loss
(%)
Rank
change IDHI/HDI
1  Norway 0.890 0.943 5.6 0
2  Australia 0.856 0.929 7.9 0
3  Sweden 0.851 0.904 5.9 5
4  Netherlands 0.846 0.910 7.0 −1
5  Iceland 0.845 0.898 5.9 5
6  Ireland 0.843 0.908 7.2 0
7  Germany 0.842 0.905 6.9 0
8  Denmark 0.842 0.895 6.0 4
9   Switzerland 0.840 0.903 7.0 0
10  Slovenia 0.837 0.884 5.3 7
11  Finland 0.833 0.882 5.6 7
12  Canada 0.829 0.908 8.7 −7
13  Czech Republic 0.821 0.865 5.0 9
14  Austria 0.820 0.885 7.4 1
15  Belgium 0.819 0.886 7.6 −1
16  France 0.804 0.884 9.1 0
17  Spain 0.799 0.878 8.9 2
18  Luxembourg 0.799 0.867 7.8 3
19  United Kingdom 0.791 0.863 8.4 4
20  Slovakia 0.787 0.834 5.7 7
21  Israel 0.779 0.888 12.3 −8
22  Italy 0.779 0.874 10.9 −2
23  United States 0.771 0.910 15.3 −19
24  Estonia 0.769 0.835 7.9 2
25  Hungary 0.759 0.816 7.0 3
26  Greece 0.756 0.861 12.2 −2
27  Cyprus 0.755 0.840 10.1 −2
28  South Korea 0.749 0.897 16.5 −17
29  Poland 0.734 0.813 9.7 0
30  Lithuania 0.730 0.810 9.8 0
31  Portugal 0.726 0.809 10.2 0
32  Montenegro 0.718 0.771 6.9 7
33  Latvia 0.717 0.805 10.9 −1
34  Serbia 0.694 0.766 9.5 9
35  Belarus 0.693 0.756 8.3 10
36  Romania 0.683 0.781 12.6 1
37  Bulgaria 0.683 0.771 11.4 3
38  Croatia 0.675 0.796 15.1 −3
39  Russia 0.670 0.755 11.3 7
40  Ukraine 0.662 0.729 9.2 14
41  The Bahamas 0.658 0.771 14.7 −3
42  Kazakhstan 0.656 0.745 11.9 5
43  Uruguay 0.654 0.783 16.4 −7
44  Chile 0.652 0.805 19.0 −11
45  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.649 0.733 11.6 7
46  Trinidad and Tobago 0.644 0.760 15.3 −2
47  Argentina 0.641 0.797 19.5 −13
48  Armenia 0.639 0.716 10.8 13
49  Albania 0.637 0.739 13.9 0
50  Mauritius 0.631 0.728 13.3 5
51  Georgia 0.630 0.733 14.1 2
52  Azerbaijan 0.620 0.700 11.4 11
53  Jamaica 0.610 0.727 16.2 4
54  Rep. of Macedonia 0.609 0.728 16.4 2
55  Costa Rica 0.591 0.744 20.5 −7
56  Mexico 0.589 0.770 23.5 −15
57  Panama 0.579 0.768 24.6 −15
58  Sri Lanka 0.579 0.691 16.2 9
59  Lebanon 0.570 0.739 22.8 −9
60  Moldova 0.569 0.649 12.2 18
61  Jordan 0.565 0.698 19.0 5
62  Mongolia 0.563 0.653 13.8 15
63  Peru 0.557 0.725 23.2 −5
64  Uzbekistan 0.544 0.641 15.1 17
65  Gabon 0.543 0.674 19.5 8
66  Turkey 0.542 0.699 22.5 −2
67  Venezuela 0.540 0.735 26.6 −16
68  Thailand 0.537 0.682 21.3 2
69  Ecuador 0.535 0.720 25.8 −10
70  China 0.534 0.687 22.3 −1
71  Kyrgyzstan 0.526 0.615 14.4 17
72  Tunisia 0.523 0.698 25.2 −7
73  Brazil 0.519 0.718 27.7 −13
74  Suriname 0.518 0.680 23.8 −3
75  Philippines 0.516 0.644 19.9 4
76  Vietnam 0.510 0.593 14.0 14
77  Dominican Republic 0.510 0.689 25.9 −9
78  Paraguay 0.505 0.665 24.0 −4
79  Indonesia 0.504 0.617 18.3 8
80  Syria 0.503 0.632 20.4 4
81  Tajikistan 0.500 0.607 17.6 8
82  Maldives 0.495 0.661 25.2 −6
83  El Salvador 0.495 0.674 26.6 −11
84  Guyana 0.492 0.633 22.3 −1
85  Egypt 0.489 0.644 24.1 −5
86  Colombia 0.479 0.710 32.5 −24
87  Bolivia 0.437 0.663 34.1 −12
88  Nicaragua 0.427 0.589 27.5 3
89  Honduras 0.427 0.625 31.7 −3
90  Morocco 0.409 0.582 29.7 2
91  Laos 0.405 0.524 22.8 6
92  Guatemala 0.393 0.574 31.6 1
93  India 0.392 0.547 28.3 1
94  Fed. Sts. of Micronesia 0.390 0.636 38.6 −12
95  Cambodia 0.380 0.523 27.2 3
96  Ghana 0.367 0.541 32.2 −1
97  Rep. of the Congo 0.367 0.533 31.1 -1
98  Bangladesh 0.363 0.500 27.4 5
99  Namibia 0.353 0.625 43.5 −14
100  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.348 0.509 31.5 1
101  Pakistan 0.346 0.504 31.4 1
102  Kenya 0.338 0.509 33.6 −2
103  Swaziland 0.338 0.522 35.4 −4
104  Madagascar 0.332 0.480 30.7 2
105  Timor-Leste 0.332 0.495 32.9 −1
106  Tanzania 0.332 0.466 28.8 1
107  Cameroon 0.321 0.482 33.4 −2
108  Yemen 0.312 0.462 32.3 0
109  Senegal 0.304 0.459 33.8 0
110  Zambia 0.303 0.430 29.5 7
111    Nepal 0.301 0.458 34.3 0
112  Mauritania 0.298 0.453 34.2 1
113  Uganda 0.296 0.446 33.6 2
114  Togo 0.289 0.435 33.5 2
115  Lesotho 0.288 0.450 35.9 −1
116  Nigeria 0.278 0.459 39.3 −6
117  Rwanda 0.276 0.429 35.7 2
118  Djibouti 0.275 0.430 35.9 0
119  Benin 0.274 0.427 35.8 1
120  Malawi 0.272 0.400 32.0 2
121  Haiti 0.271 0.454 40.2 −9
122  Zimbabwe 0.268 0.376 28.7 1
123  Ethiopia 0.247 0.363 31.9 1
124  Côte d'Ivoire 0.246 0.400 38.6 −3
125  Mozambique 0.229 0.322 28.9 7
126  Burkina Faso 0.215 0.331 35.1 3
127  Liberia 0.213 0.329 35.3 3
128  Guinea 0.211 0.344 38.8 −2
129  Guinea-Bissau 0.207 0.353 41.4 −4
130  Central African Republic 0.204 0.343 40.6 −3
131  Sierra Leone 0.196 0.336 41.6 −3
132  Chad 0.196 0.328 40.1 −1
133  Niger 0.195 0.295 34.2 0
134  Dem. Rep. of the Congo 0.172 0.286 39.9 0

Missing data[edit]

2013 report

Data are missing for the following 55 countries with a calculated HDI: Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Burundi, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cuba, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Gambia, Grenada, Hong Kong, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Kiribati, Kuwait, Libya, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Mali, Myanmar, New Zealand, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Qatar, Russia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sudan, The Bahamas, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates and Vanuatu.

2011 report

Data are missing for the following 53 countries with a calculated HDI: Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei, Burundi, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cuba, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gambia, Grenada, Hong Kong, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Kiribati, Kuwait, Libya, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Myanmar, New Zealand, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sudan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates and Vanuatu.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]