List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

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This page contains lists of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level.

Methodology[edit]

The lists are commonly used in Economics literature to compare the levels of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious fractionalization in different countries.[1][2] Fractionalization measures are computing the probability that two randomly drawn individuals (from a country) are not from the same group (ethnic, religious, or whatever the criterion is). The two lists have been described by Alesina and Ferrara as follows:[1]

"Fearon[3] and Alesina et al.[4] have compiled various measures of ethnic heterogeneity which try to tackle the fact that the difference amongst groups manifests itself in different ways in different places. The two classifications are constructed differently. Alesina et al.[4] do not take a stand on what ethnicity (or language or religion) are more salient than others and adopt the country breakdown suggested by original sources, mainly the Encyclopedia Britannica. Fearon[3] instead is trying to construct the ”right list” of ethnic groups which ”depends on what people in the country identify as the most socially relevant ethnic groupings”. This approach has the advantage of being closer to what the theory would want and the disadvantage of having to make judgement calls (or adopt others’ judgement calls) about what is the ”right list”."

List based on Fearon's analysis[edit]

In the Fearon list, cultural fractionalization is approximated by a measure of similarity between languages, varying from 1 = the population speaks two or more unrelated languages to 0 = the entire population speaks the same language.[3] This index of cultural diversity is biased towards linguistic variations as opposed to genetic diversity and other variations.

Ethnic and Cultural diversity (2003)[3]
Ethnic Diversity Rank Country Ethnic Fractionalization Index Cultural Diversity Index
1  Papua New Guinea 1.000000
2  Tanzania 0.953000 0.564000
3  Democratic Republic of Congo 0.933000 0.628000
4  Uganda 0.930000 0.647000
5  Liberia 0.899000 0.644000
6  Cameroon 0.887000 0.733000
7  Togo 0.883000 0.602000
8  South Africa 0.880000 0.530000
9  Congo 0.878000 0.562000
10  Madagascar 0.861000 0.192000
11  Gabon 0.857000 0.382000
12  Kenya 0.852000 0.601000
13  Ghana 0.846000 0.388000
14  Malawi 0.829000 0.294000
15  Guinea-Bissau 0.818000 0.568000
16  Somalia 0.812000 0.290000
17  India 0.811000 0.667000
18  Nigeria 0.805000 0.660000
19  Yugoslavia (1943–1992) 0.801000 0.385000
20  Central African Republic 0.791000 0.511000
21  Ivory Coast 0.784000 0.557000
22  Lebanon 0.780000 0.195000
23  Chad 0.772000 0.727000
24  Indonesia 0.766000 0.522000
25  Mozambique 0.765000 0.285000
26  Gambia 0.764000 0.548000
27  Sierra Leone 0.764000 0.534000
28  Ethiopia 0.760000 0.562000
29  Angola 0.756000 0.242000
30  Mali 0.754000 0.590000
31  Afghanistan 0.751000 0.679000
32  Bolivia 0.743000 0.662000
33  United Arab Emirates 0.737000 0.650000
34  Senegal 0.727000 0.402000
35  Zambia 0.726000 0.189000
36  Namibia 0.724000 0.589000
37  USSR (1922–1991) 0.711000 0.596000
38  Sudan (1955–2011) 0.708000 0.698000
39  Kuwait 0.708000 0.540000
40  Burkina Faso 0.704000 0.354000
41  Bosnia 0.681000 0.146000
42  Kyrgyzstan 0.679000 0.624000
43    Nepal 0.677000 0.542000
44  Iran 0.669000 0.542000
45  Guinea 0.669000 0.490000
46  Kazakhstan 0.664000 0.620000
47  Colombia 0.656000 0.020000
48  Ecuador 0.655000 0.480000
49  Eritrea 0.647000 0.398000
50  Trinidad and Tobago 0.647000 0.380000
51  Peru 0.638000 0.506000
52  Niger 0.637000 0.600000
53  Mauritius 0.632000 0.448000
54  Mauritania 0.625000 0.272000
55  Benin 0.622000 0.400000
56  Guyana 0.620000 0.460000
57  Djibouti 0.606000 0.404000
58  Bhutan 0.605000 0.518000
59  Malaysia 0.596000 0.564000
60  Canada 0.596000 0.499000
61  Latvia 0.585000 0.441000
62  Syria 0.581000 0.235000
63   Switzerland 0.575000 0.418000
64  Yugoslavia (1918–1943) 0.575000 0.392000
65  Belgium 0.567000 0.462000
66  Fiji 0.566000 0.553000
67  Saudi Arabia 0.553000 0.413000
68  Bahrain 0.551000 0.460000
69  Iraq 0.549000 0.355000
70  Brazil 0.549000 0.020000
71  Mexico 0.542000 0.434000
72  Macedonia 0.535000 0.432000
73  Pakistan 0.532000 0.289000
74  Israel 0.526000 0.246000
75  Burma 0.522000 0.419000
76  Tajikistan 0.513000 0.492000
77  Estonia 0.511000 0.492000
78  Moldova 0.510000 0.401000
79  Jordan 0.509000 0.049000
80  Panama 0.507000 0.168000
81  Czechoslovakia (1918–1992) 0.505000 0.290000
82  Spain 0.502000 0.263000
83  Chile 0.497000 0.167000
84  Guatemala 0.493000 0.493000
85  United States 0.491000 0.271000
86  Georgia 0.490000 0.404000
87  Uzbekistan 0.485000 0.442000
88  Venezuela 0.483000 0.020000
89  Laos 0.481000 0.020000
90  Morocco 0.479000 0.360000
91  Oman 0.439000 0.404000
92  Thailand 0.431000 0.431000
93  Sri Lanka 0.428000 0.386000
94  Ukraine 0.419000 0.258000
95  Nicaragua 0.402000 0.095000
96  Turkmenistan 0.392000 0.328000
97  Singapore 0.388000 0.388000
98  Dominican Republic 0.387000 0.000000
99  Croatia 0.375000 0.185000
100  Belarus 0.372000 0.228000
101  Zimbabwe 0.366000 0.141000
102  New Zealand 0.363000 0.363000
103  Cyprus 0.359000 0.359000
104  Botswana 0.351000 0.161000
105  Lithuania 0.338000 0.259000
106  Russia 0.333000 0.311000
107  Slovakia 0.332000 0.293000
108  Burundi 0.328000 0.040000
109  UK 0.324000 0.184000
110  Czech Republic 0.322000 0.064000
111  Algeria 0.320000 0.237000
112  Romania 0.300000 0.265000
113  Turkey 0.299000 0.299000
114  Bulgaria 0.299000 0.250000
115  Swaziland 0.280000 0.143000
116  Taiwan 0.274000 0.169000
117  France 0.272000 0.251000
118  Mongolia 0.272000 0.227000
119  Lesotho 0.255000 0.057000
120  Argentina 0.255000 0.000000
121  Costa Rica 0.238000 0.078000
122  Vietnam 0.233000 0.210000
123  Slovenia 0.231000 0.170000
124  Bangladesh 0.223000 0.141000
125  Uruguay 0.218000 0.000000
126  Cuba 0.213000 0.020000
127  El Salvador 0.198000 0.180000
128  Sweden 0.189000 0.189000
129  Azerbaijan 0.188000 0.187000
130  Hungary 0.186000 0.185000
131  Cambodia 0.186000 0.150000
132  Honduras 0.185000 0.167000
133  Rwanda 0.180000 0.000000
134  Ireland 0.171000 0.157000
135  Jamaica 0.166000 0.027000
136  Egypt 0.164000 0.000000
137  Philippines 0.161000 0.116000
138  China 0.154000 0.154000
139  Libya 0.151000 0.127000
140  Australia 0.149000 0.147000
141  Armenia 0.134000 0.124000
142  Finland 0.132000 0.132000
143  Paraguay 0.132000 0.039000
144  Denmark 0.128000 0.128000
145  Austria 0.126000 0.100000
146  Norway 0.098000 0.098000
147  Albania 0.097000 0.082000
148  Germany 0.095000 0.090000
149  Haiti 0.095000 0.000000
150  Yemen 0.078000 0.078000
151  Netherlands 0.077000 0.077000
152  Greece 0.059000 0.050000
153  Poland 0.047000 0.041000
154  Portugal 0.040000 0.040000
155  Italy 0.040000 0.040000
156  Tunisia 0.039000 0.033000
157  Japan 0.012000 0.012000
158  South Korea 0.004000 0.004000
159  North Korea 0.002000 0.002000

List based on Alesina et al's analysis[edit]

This list is based on the analysis of Alesina and others,[4] they develop fractionalization scores based on ethnicity, religious and linguistic data directly from the Encyclopædia Britannica lists. This list is biased by how the Britannica chooses to list ethnic groups, but it does not make a judgement call on which identities are more salient than others. According to Patsiurko et al.

"One of the most ambitious and widely used of these new [fractionalization] indices was created by Alesina et al. (2003) who developed measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in 190 countries using more current data from the Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year (2001) ... and other sources. But again scholars offered criticisms (e.g. Fearon 2003; Posner 2004). First, there is inconsistency in terms of the years covered. For instance, the Encyclopaedia Britannica provides ethnicity data for only 124 of 190 countries, so Alesina had to resort to other sources for the rest. Hence, his ethnicity data covered years ranging from 1979 to 2001, depending on the country. Second, he offered one-time measures of fractionalization, thereby being unable to say anything about change over time"[2]
Ethnic, Linguistic and Religious Fractionalization[4]
Number Country Ethnic Fractionalization Linguistic Fractionalization Religious Fractionalization
1  Afghanistan 0.769300 0.614100 0.271700
2  Albania 0.220400 0.039900 0.471900
3  Algeria 0.339400 0.442700 0.009100
4  American Samoa 0.000000 0.173300 0.639500
5  Andorra 0.713900 0.684800 0.232600
6  Angola 0.786700 0.787000 0.627600
7  Antigua and Barbuda 0.164300 0.106300 0.684000
8  Argentina 0.255000 0.061800 0.223600
9  Armenia 0.127200 0.129100 0.457600
10  Aruba 0.000000 0.388900 0.410700
11  Australia 0.092900 0.334900 0.821100
12  Austria 0.106800 0.152200 0.414600
13  Azerbaijan 0.204700 0.205400 0.489900
14  Bahamas 0.422800 0.185500 0.681500
15  Bahrain 0.502100 0.434400 0.552800
16  Bangladesh 0.045400 0.092500 0.209000
17  Barbados 0.142300 0.092600 0.693400
18  Belarus 0.322200 0.466600 0.611600
19  Belgium 0.555400 0.540900 0.212700
20  Belize 0.701500 0.630300 0.581300
21  Benin 0.787200 0.790500 0.554400
22  Bermuda 0.000000 0.000000 0.711200
23  Bhutan 0.605000 0.605600 0.378700
24  Bolivia 0.739600 0.224000 0.208500
25  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.630000 0.675100 0.685100
26  Botswana 0.410200 0.411000 0.598600
27  Brazil 0.540800 0.046800 0.605400
28  Brunei 0.541600 0.343800 0.440400
29  Bulgaria 0.402100 0.303100 0.596500
30  Burkina Faso 0.737700 0.722800 0.579800
31  Burundi 0.295100 0.297700 0.515800
32  Cambodia 0.210500 0.210400 0.096500
33  Cameroon 0.863500 0.889800 0.733800
34  Canada 0.712400 0.577200 0.695800
35  Cape Verde 0.417400 0.000000 0.076600
36  Central African Republic 0.829500 0.833400 0.791600
37  Chad 0.862000 0.863500 0.641100
38  Chile 0.186100 0.187100 0.384100
39  China 0.153800 0.132700 0.664300
40  Colombia 0.601400 0.019300 0.147800
41  Comoros 0.000000 0.010300 0.013700
42  Democratic Republic of Congo 0.874700 0.870500 0.702100
43  Congo 0.874700 0.687100 0.664200
44  Costa Rica 0.236800 0.048900 0.241000
45  Ivory Coast 0.820400 0.784200 0.755100
46  Croatia 0.369000 0.076300 0.444700
47  Cuba 0.590800 0.000000 0.505900
48  Cyprus 0.093900 0.396200 0.396200
49  Czech Republic 0.322200 0.323300 0.659100
50  Denmark 0.081900 0.104900 0.233300
51  Djibouti 0.796200 0.655800 0.043500
52  Dominica 0.200300 0.000000 0.462800
53  Dominican Republic 0.429400 0.039500 0.311800
54  East Timor 0.000000 0.526100 0.425400
55  Ecuador 0.655000 0.130800 0.141700
56  Egypt 0.183600 0.023700 0.197900
57  El Salvador 0.197800 0.000000 0.355900
58  Equatorial Guinea 0.346700 0.322000 0.119500
59  Eritrea 0.652400 0.653000 0.425300
60  Estonia 0.506200 0.494400 0.498500
61  Ethiopia 0.723500 0.807300 0.624900
62  Faroe Islands 0.000000 0.000000 0.314700
63  Fiji 0.547900 0.547900 0.568200
64  Finland 0.131500 0.141200 0.253100
65  France 0.103200 0.122100 0.402900
66  French Guiana 0.000000 0.115400 0.495900
67  French Polynesia 0.000000 0.607800 0.581300
68  Gabon 0.769000 0.782100 0.667400
69  Gambia, The 0.786400 0.807600 0.097000
70  Gaza Strip 0.000000 0.010400 0.034200
71  Georgia 0.492300 0.474900 0.654300
72  Germany 0.168200 0.164200 0.657100
73  Ghana 0.673300 0.673100 0.798700
74  Greece 0.157600 0.030000 0.153000
75  Greenland 0.000000 0.218800 0.459200
76  Grenada 0.266100 0.000000 0.589800
77  Guadeloupe 0.000000 0.093300 0.306900
78  Guam 0.000000 0.732000 0.408200
79  Guatemala 0.512200 0.458600 0.375300
80  Guinea 0.738900 0.772500 0.264900
81  Guinea-Bissau 0.808200 0.814100 0.612800
82  Guyana 0.619500 0.068800 0.787600
83  Haiti 0.095000 0.000000 0.470400
84  Honduras 0.186700 0.055300 0.235700
85  Hong Kong 0.062000 0.212800 0.419100
86  Hungary 0.152200 0.029700 0.524400
87  Iceland 0.079800 0.082000 0.191300
88  India 0.418200 0.806900 0.326000
89  Indonesia 0.735100 0.768000 0.234000
90  Iran 0.668400 0.746200 0.115200
91  Iraq 0.368900 0.369400 0.484400
92  Ireland 0.120600 0.031200 0.155000
93  Isle of Man 0.000000 0.000000 0.472900
94  Israel 0.343600 0.552500 0.346900
95  Italy 0.114500 0.114700 0.302700
96  Jamaica 0.412900 0.109800 0.616000
97  Japan 0.011900 0.017800 0.540600
98  Jersey 0.000000 0.000000 0.547900
99  Jordan 0.592600 0.039600 0.065900
100  Kazakhstan 0.617100 0.662100 0.589800
101  Kenya 0.858800 0.886000 0.776500
102  Kiribati 0.051100 0.023700 0.554100
103  Korea, North 0.039200 0.002800 0.489100
104  Korea, South 0.002000 0.002100 0.660400
105  Kyrgyzstan 0.675200 0.594900 0.447000
106  Kuwait 0.660400 0.344400 0.674500
107  Laos 0.513900 0.638200 0.545300
108  Latvia 0.586700 0.579500 0.555600
109  Lebanon 0.131400 0.131200 0.788600
110  Lesotho 0.255000 0.254300 0.721100
111  Liberia 0.908400 0.903800 0.488300
112  Libya 0.792000 0.075800 0.057000
113  Liechtenstein 0.572600 0.224600 0.334300
114  Lithuania 0.322300 0.321900 0.414100
115  Luxembourg 0.530200 0.644000 0.091100
116  Macau 0.000000 0.251900 0.551100
117  Macedonia 0.502300 0.502100 0.589900
118  Madagascar 0.879100 0.020400 0.519100
119  Malawi 0.674400 0.602300 0.819200
120  Malaysia 0.588000 0.597000 0.665700
121  Mali 0.690600 0.838800 0.182000
122  Malta 0.041400 0.090700 0.122300
123  Marshall Islands 0.060300 0.073400 0.520700
124  Martinique 0.000000 0.000000 0.233600
125  Mauritania 0.615000 0.326000 0.014900
126  Mauritius 0.463400 0.454700 0.638500
127  Mayotte 0.000000 0.721200 0.062000
128  Mexico 0.541800 0.151100 0.179600
129  Micronesia 0.700500 0.748300 0.646900
130  Moldova 0.553500 0.553300 0.560300
131  Monaco 0.683800 0.730500 0.304700
132  Mongolia 0.368200 0.373400 0.079900
133  Morocco 0.484100 0.468300 0.003500
134  Mozambique 0.693200 0.812500 0.675900
135  Burma 0.506200 0.507200 0.197400
136  Namibia 0.632900 0.700500 0.662600
137  Nauru 0.583200 0.616100 0.619400
138    Nepal 0.663200 0.716700 0.141700
139  Netherlands Antilles 0.000000 0.250800 0.386600
140  Netherlands 0.105400 0.514300 0.722200
141  New Caledonia 0.000000 0.663300 0.546200
142  New Zealand 0.396900 0.165700 0.811000
143  Nicaragua 0.484400 0.047300 0.429000
144  Niger 0.651800 0.651900 0.201300
145  Nigeria 0.850500 0.831600 0.742100
146  Northern Mariana Islands 0.000000 0.775400 0.481100
147  Norway 0.058600 0.067300 0.204800
148  Oman 0.437300 0.356700 0.432200
149  Pakistan 0.709800 0.719000 0.384800
150  Palau 0.431200 0.315700 0.714700
151  Panama 0.552800 0.387300 0.333800
152  Papua New Guinea 0.271800 0.352600 0.552300
153  Paraguay 0.168900 0.597500 0.212300
154  Peru 0.656600 0.335800 0.198800
155  Philippines 0.238500 0.836000 0.305600
156  Poland 0.118300 0.046800 0.171200
157  Portugal 0.046800 0.019800 0.143800
158  Puerto Rico 0.000000 0.035200 0.495200
159  Qatar 0.745600 0.480000 0.095000
160  Reunion 0.000000 0.157800 0.195200
161  Romania 0.306900 0.172300 0.237300
162  Russian Federation 0.245200 0.248500 0.439800
163  Rwanda 0.323800 0.000000 0.506600
164  Saint Lucia 0.176900 0.316900 0.332000
165  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.306600 0.017500 0.702800
166  Western Samoa 0.137600 0.011100 0.787100
167  San Marino 0.292700 0.000000 0.197500
168  Sao Tome and Principe 0.000000 0.232200 0.186600
169  Saudi Arabia 0.180000 0.094900 0.127000
170  Senegal 0.693900 0.708100 0.149700
171  Serbia 0.573600 0.000000 0.000000
172  Seychelles 0.202500 0.160600 0.232300
173  Sierra Leone 0.819100 0.763400 0.539500
174  Singapore 0.385700 0.383500 0.656100
175  Slovak Republic 0.253900 0.255100 0.565500
176  Slovenia 0.221600 0.220100 0.286800
177  Solomon Islands 0.111000 0.525400 0.670800
178  Somalia 0.811700 0.032600 0.002800
179  South Africa 0.751700 0.865200 0.860300
180  Spain 0.416500 0.413200 0.451400
181  Sri Lanka 0.415000 0.464500 0.485300
182  Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.184200 0.000000 0.661400
183  Sudan 0.714700 0.719000 0.430700
184  Suriname 0.733200 0.331000 0.791000
185  Swaziland 0.058200 0.172200 0.444400
186  Sweden 0.060000 0.196800 0.234200
187   Switzerland 0.531400 0.544100 0.608300
188  Syria 0.539900 0.181700 0.431000
189  Taiwan 0.274400 0.502800 0.684500
190  Tajikistan 0.510700 0.547300 0.338600
191  Tanzania 0.735300 0.898300 0.633400
192  Thailand 0.633800 0.634400 0.099400
193  Togo 0.709900 0.898000 0.659600
194  Tonga 0.086900 0.378200 0.621400
195  Trinidad and Tobago 0.647500 0.125100 0.793600
196  Tunisia 0.039400 0.012400 0.010400
197  Turkey 0.320000 0.221600 0.004900
198  Turkmenistan 0.391800 0.398400 0.232700
199  Tuvalu 0.162900 0.137200 0.252400
200  Uganda 0.930200 0.922700 0.633200
201  Ukraine 0.473700 0.474100 0.615700
202  United Arab Emirates 0.625200 0.487400 0.331000
203  United Kingdom 0.121100 0.053200 0.694400
204  United States 0.490100 0.564700 0.824100
205  Uruguay 0.250400 0.081700 0.354800
206  Uzbekistan 0.412500 0.412000 0.213300
207  Vanuatu 0.041300 0.579400 0.704400
208  Venezuela 0.496600 0.068600 0.135000
209  Vietnam 0.238300 0.237700 0.508000
210  United States Virgin Islands 0.000000 0.314000 0.635900
211  West Bank 0.000000 0.143800 0.309500
212  Yemen 0.000000 0.008000 0.002300
213  Yugoslavia 0.809200 0.606400 0.553000
214  Zambia 0.780800 0.873400 0.735900
215  Zimbabwe 0.387400 0.447200 0.736300

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b A. Alesina, E. La Ferrara (2005). "Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance". Journal of Economic Literature: 762–800. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Natalka Patsiurko, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall (2012). "Measuring cultural diversity: ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in the OECD". Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (2): 195–217. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.579136. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d James Fearon (2003). "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country". Journal of Economic Growth 8: 195–222. doi:10.1023/A:1024419522867. 
  4. ^ a b c d Alberto Alesina et al. (2003). "Fractionalization". Journal of Economic Growth 8: 155–194. Retrieved September 13, 2012.