List of countries where Chinese is an official language
The following is a list of the countries where Chinese is an official language. As Chinese is a group of related language varieties, of which several are not mutually intelligible, only specific dialects of Chinese are designated official, namely Cantonese Chinese and Mandarin Chinese (Putonghua).
Cantonese as an official language
As special administrative regions of China, Hong Kong and Macau retain the regionally traditional Cantonese dialect as the official variant of Chinese rather than the mainland's official variant of Mandarin.
|Country||Population 2013||More information|
|Hong Kong||7,182,724||Languages of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Cantonese|
|Macau||583,003||Languages of Macau|
Cantonese is also highly influential in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong, where the dialect originated. Despite Mandarin's status as the official language of China, the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT) has allowed local television and other media in Guangdong Province to be broadcast in Cantonese since 1988 in order to countermeasure against Hong Kong influence. Meanwhile, usage of the country’s other dialects in media is rigorously restricted by the SARFT, with permission from national or local authorities being required for a dialect to be the primary programming language at radio and television stations. Despite its unique standing relative to other Chinese dialects, Cantonese has also recently been targeted by the SARFT in attempts to curb its usage on local television in Guangdong. This created mass demonstrations in 2010 that resulted in the eventual rejection of the plans.
Mandarin as an official language
While Mandarin actually consists of closely related varieties of Chinese spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China, a standard form based on the variant of the Beijing area has been established as its standard and is official in China, Taiwan and Singapore. However, in the latter two countries, local languages have influenced the spoken vernacular form of Mandarin.
|Country||Population 2013||More information|
|China||1,349,585,838||Languages of China, Standard Chinese|
|Taiwan||23,299,716||Languages of Taiwan, Taiwanese Mandarin|
|Singapore||5,460,302||Languages of Singapore, Singaporean Mandarin|
Status of other Chinese variants
In China, the public usage of dialects other Standard Mandarin (Putonghua) is officially discouraged by the government and nearly all education and media is conducted in the standard variant, with a notable exception being Cantonese in Guangdong media and public transportation. As a result, younger populations are increasingly losing knowledge of their local dialects. However, in recent years, there has been limited activity in reintroducing local dialects at schools through cultural programs and broadcasting restrictions on dialects have been somewhat slightly uplifted.
Although Standard Mandarin is the official dialect of Chinese in Taiwan, the Taiwanese and Hakka dialects are widely spoken and used in media. Additionally, the two dialects are also taught at the primary school level and are used in public transportation announcements.
Countries where Chinese has a significant minor presence
Due to historically large Chinese minority populations, the Chinese language has a significant presence in Malaysia and Indonesia despite having no official status. In Malaysia, Cantonese is widely used in commerce among the Chinese Malaysian community, especially in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh. Cantonese television shows from Hong Kong are popular. Meanwhile, the Hokkien dialect that originates from the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian is the most spoken Chinese variant. However, Chinese schools in Malaysia use Mandarin as medium of instruction. Hokkien is also the most spoken dialect among Chinese Indonesians, with Cantonese, Mandarin and Hakka also present.
Southern Vietnam also hosts a smaller but still significant and historic Chinese population that was heavily involved in the country's trade and industry from the 16th century, through French colonization and the Vietnam War, up to the present despite a mass exodus following the Fall of Saigon. Cantonese is the lingua franca among members of the community, although there is also a significant presence of speakers of Teochew and Hakka.
Taishanese, a closely related variant of Chinese to Cantonese, was originally the main Chinese dialect spoken throughout Chinatowns in the United States and Canada as early Chinese immigrants to the West originated from the Siyi area of Guangdong Province. Since the mid-20th century, standard Cantonese has since replaced it as the main Chinese variant among the Chinese American and Chinese Canadian communities due to a larger influx of immigrants from the Guangzhou area and Hong Kong. More recently, immigration from other parts of China and Taiwan has resulted in a larger presence of Mandarin speakers in the United States as well.
- Mair, Victor H. (1991). "What Is a Chinese "Dialect/Topolect"? Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic Terms" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers.
- "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
- "Code of Professional Ethics of Radio and Television Hosts of China" (in Chinese). State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT). 2005-02-07. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- Yin Yeping (2011-07-31). "60 years of Putonghua and English drown out local tongues". Global Times.
- Ni Dandan ([00:26 May 16, 2011]). "Dialect faces death threat". Global Times. Retrieved June 5, 2011. "we arranged Shanghai Day on Fridays to promote the language and local culture"
- 大眾運輸工具播音語言平等保障法 (statutory languages for public transport announcements in Taiwan) (in Chinese)
- Chua, Amy. "Minority rule, majority hate". Asia Times. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- UN Report, Languages in Malaysia
- Lewis 2005, p. 391.
- West (2010), pp. 289-90
- Lai, H. Mark (2004). Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0458-1.