List of criminal cases in the Marshall Court

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The Marshall Court (1801–1835) heard forty-one criminal cases. The Court heard two writs of error from the United States Circuit Court of the District of Columbia under § 8 of the second Judiciary Act of 1801, six original habeas petitions under § 14 of the Judiciary Act of 1789, thirty-one certificates of division under § 6 of the Judiciary Act of 1802, and two writs of error from the state courts under § 25 of the Judiciary Act of 1789.

The criminal jurisdiction of the Marshall Court was greatly limited by the Court's disclaiming of appellate jurisdiction from the United States circuit courts by means of a writ of error in United States v. More (1805), as well as the Court's disclaiming the authority to issue writs of habeas corpus to prisoners detained pursuant to a post-conviction criminal sentence in Ex parte Kearney (1822) and Ex parte Watkins (1830). Certificates of division could only be issued in criminal cases heard by a two-judge panel consisting of a United States district court judge and a Supreme Court justice riding circuit (the district judge or the circuit rider could also hear cases alone). Further, certificates could not be issued with regard to the legal sufficiency of the evidence—whether on a motion for a new trial, as held in United States v. Daniel (1821), or a motion for a directed verdict, as held in United States v. Bailey (1835).

Case Citation Year Crime(s) Author Dissent(s) Source of jurisdiction Lower court Circuit rider Notes
United States v. Simms 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 252 1803 Faro gambling (Virginia law) Marshall None Writ of error C.C.D.C. N/A
United States v. More 7 U.S. (3 Cranch) 159 1805 Common law exaction of an illegal fee colour of his office (Virginia law) Marshall None Writ of error C.C.D.C.[1] N/A [2]
Ex parte Burford 7 U.S. (3 Cranch) 448 1806 N/A Marshall None Original habeas C.C.D.C. (habeas); Alexandria County justices of the peace (warrant) N/A [3]
Ex parte Bollman 8 U.S. (4 Cranch) 75 1807 Treason[4] and the Neutrality Act of 1794[5] Marshall Johnson Original habeas C.C.D.C.[6] N/A [3]
United States v. Cantril 8 U.S. (4 Cranch) 167 1807 Counterfeiting[7] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.D. Ga. Johnson [8]
United States v. Hudson 11 U.S. (7 Cranch) 32 1812 Common law libel Johnson None Certificate of division C.C.D. Conn. Livingston [9]
United States v. Tyler 11 U.S. (7 Cranch) 285 1812 Embargo[10] Livingston None Certificate of division C.C.D. Vt. Livingston
United States v. Barber 13 U.S. (9 Cranch) 243 1815 Embargo[11] Per curiam None Certificate of division C.C.D. Vt. Livingston [12]
United States v. Coolidge 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 415 1816 Common law piracy Johnson None Certificate of division C.C.D. Mass.[13] Story [9]
United States v. Sheldon 15 U.S. (2 Wheat.) 119 1817 Embargo[11] Washington None Certificate of division C.C.D. Vt. Livingston [12]
United States v. Bevans 16 U.S. (3 Wheat.) 336 1818 Piracy[14] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.D. Mass.[15] Story [16]
United States v. Palmer 16 U.S. (3 Wheat.) 610 1818 Piracy[14] Marshall Johnson Certificate of division C.C.D. Mass. Story [17]
United States v. Klintock 18 U.S. (5 Wheat.) 144 1820 Piracy[14] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.D. Va. Marshall [17]
United States v. Smith 18 U.S. (5 Wheat.) 153 1820 Piracy[18] Story Livingston Certificate of division C.C.D. Va. Marshall [17]
United States v. Furlong 18 U.S. (5 Wheat.) 184 1820 Piracy[14] Johnson None Certificate of division C.C.D. Ga.; C.C.D.S.C. Johnson [19]
United States v. Holmes 18 U.S. (5 Wheat.) 412 1820 Piracy[14] Washington None Certificate of division C.C.D. Mass. Story [20]
United States v. Wiltberger 18 U.S. (5 Wheat.) 76 1820 Piracy[21] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.E.D. Pa.[22] Washington [23]
Cohens v. Virginia 19 U.S. (6 Wheat.) 264 1821 Lottery (Virginia law) Marshall None Writ of error Quarterly Session Court for the Borough of Norfolk, Virginia N/A [24]
United States v. Daniel 19 U.S. (6 Wheat.) 542 1821 Piracy[25] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.D.S.C. Johnson [26]
Ex parte Kearney 20 U.S. (7 Wheat.) 38 1822 Contempt of court Story None Original habeas C.C.D.C. N/A
United States v. Perez 22 U.S. (9 Wheat.) 579 1824 Piracy[18] Story None Certificate of division C.C.S.D.N.Y.[27] Thompson [28]
United States v. Amedy 24 U.S. (11 Wheat.) 392 1826 Maritime insurance fraud[29] Story None Certificate of division C.C.D. Va. Marshall [30]
United States v. Kelly 24 U.S. (11 Wheat.) 417 1826 Piracy[21] Washington None Certificate of division C.C.E.D. Pa.[31] Washington [23]
United States v. Ortega 24 U.S. (11 Wheat.) 467 1826 Assault on ambassador[32] Washington None Certificate of division C.C.E.D. Pa.[33] Washington [34]
United States v. Gooding 25 U.S. (12 Wheat.) 460 1827 Slave trading[35] Story None Certificate of division C.C.D. Md. Duvall [36]
United States v. Marchant 25 U.S. (12 Wheat.) 480 1827 Piracy[14] Story None Certificate of division C.C.D. Mass.[37] Story
Ex parte Watkins 28 U.S. (3 Pet.) 193 1830 Common law fraud (Maryland law) Marshall None Original habeas C.C.D.C.[38] N/A
United States v. Paul 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 141 1832 Assimilative burglary (New York law)[39] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.S.D.N.Y. Thompson
United States v. Reyburn 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 352 1832 Neutrality Act of 1818[40] Thompson None Certificate of division C.C.D. Md. Duvall
United States v. Quincy 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 445 1832 Neutrality Act of 1818[40] Thompson None Certificate of division C.C.D. Md. Duvall
Worcester v. Georgia 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 515 1832 Unlicensed presence in Cherokee country (Georgia law) Marshall Baldwin Writ of error Superior Court for the County of Gwinnett, Georgia N/A [41]
United States v. Phillips 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 776 1832 Interference with diplomatic immunity[42] Per curiam None Certificate of division C.C.E.D. Pa. Baldwin [43]
United States v. Turner 32 U.S. (7 Pet.) 132 1833 Counterfeiting[44] Story None Certificate of division C.C.D.N.C. Marshall
United States v. Wilson 32 U.S. (7 Pet.) 150 1833 Mail robbery[45] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.E.D. Pa.[46] Baldwin
United States v. Brewster 32 U.S. (7 Pet.) 164 1833 Counterfeiting[44] Per curiam None Certificate of division C.C.E.D. Pa. Baldwin
United States v. Mills 32 U.S. (7 Pet.) 138 1833 Mail robbery[47] Thompson None Certificate of division C.C.D.N.C. Marshall
Ex parte Watkins 32 U.S. (7 Pet.) 568 1833 Common law fraud (Maryland law) Story Johnson; McLean Original habeas C.C.D.C.[38] N/A
United States v. Randenbush 33 U.S. (8 Pet.) 288 1834 Counterfeiting[48] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.D. Pa. Baldwin
United States v. Bailey 34 U.S. (9 Pet.) 238 1835 False statements[49] Story McLean Certificate of division C.C.D. Ky. McLean
United States v. Bailey 34 U.S. (9 Pet.) 267 1835 False statements[49] Marshall None Certificate of division C.C.D. Ky. McLean
Ex parte Milburn 34 U.S. (9 Pet.) 704 1835 Faro gambling (Maryland law) Story None Original habeas C.C.D.C.[50] N/A

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The decision of the D.C. circuit court is reported at United States v. More, 7 U.S. (3 Cranch) 159, 160 n.* (1805).
  2. ^ James M. O'Fallon, The Case of Benjamin More: A Lost Episode in the Struggle over Repeal of the 1801 Judiciary Act, 11 Law & Hist. Rev. 43 (1993).
  3. ^ a b Eric M. Freedman, Milestones in Habeas Corpus: Part I: Just Because John Marshall Said It, Doesn't Make It So: Ex Parte Bollman and the Illusory Prohibition on the Federal Writ of Habeas Corpus for State Prisoners in the Judiciary Act of 1789, 51 Ala. L. Rev. 531 (2000).
  4. ^ Crimes Act of 1790, § 1, 1 Stat. 112, 112.
  5. ^ Neutrality Act of 1794, § 5, 1 Stat. 381, 384.
  6. ^ United States v. Bollman, 24 F. Cas. 1189 (C.C.D.C. 1807) (No. 14,622).
  7. ^ Act of June 27, 1798, 1 Stat. 573.
  8. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 32–33; Keith E. Whittington, Judicial Review of Congress Before the Civil War, 97 Geo. L.J. 1257, 1289–91 (2009).
  9. ^ a b Gary D. Rowe, The Sound of Silence: United States v. Hudson & Goodwin, the Jeffersonian Ascendancy, and the Abolition of Federal Common Law Crimes, 101 Yale L.J. 919 (1992).
  10. ^ Act of Jan. 9, 1809, 2 Stat. 506.
  11. ^ a b Act of July 6, 1812, § 2, 2 Stat. 778, 779–80.
  12. ^ a b Henderson, 1985, at 116.
  13. ^ United States v. Coolidge, 25 F. Cas. 619 (C.C.D. Mass. 1813) (No. 14,857).
  14. ^ a b c d e f Crimes Act of 1790, § 8, 1 Stat. 112, 113–14.
  15. ^ United States v. Bevans, 24 F. Cas. 1138 (C.C.D. Mass. 1816) (No. 14,589).
  16. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 40–41.
  17. ^ a b c G. Edward White, The Marshall Court and International Law: The Piracy Cases, 83 Am. J. Int'l L. 727 (1989).
  18. ^ a b Act of Mar. 3, 1819, §5, 3 Stat. 510, 513–14.
  19. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 141–42.
  20. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 134.
  21. ^ a b Crimes Act of 1790, § 12, 1 Stat. 112, 115.
  22. ^ United States v. Wiltberger, 28 F. Cas. 727 (C.C.E.D. Pa. 1819) (No. 16,738).
  23. ^ a b Henderson, 1985, at 41.
  24. ^ Mark A. Graber, The Passive-Aggressive Virtues: Cohens v. Virginia and the Problematic Establishment of Judicial Power, 12 Const. Comment. 67 (1995).
  25. ^ Crimes Act of 1790, § 5, 1 Stat. 112, 113.
  26. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 143.
  27. ^ United States v. Perez, 27 F. Cas. 504 (C.C.S.D.N.Y. 1823) (No. 16,033).
  28. ^ A Correct Report of the Trial of Josef Perez for Piracy (New York: J.W. Bell ed., 1823).
  29. ^ Act of Mar. 26, 1804, § 2, 2 Stat. 290, 290.
  30. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 42–43.
  31. ^ United States v. Kelly, 26 F. Cas. 700 (C.C.E.D. Pa. 1825) (No. 15,516).
  32. ^ Crimes Act of 1790, § 28, 1 Stat. 112, 118.
  33. ^ United States v. Ortega, 27 F. Cas. 359 (C.C.E.D. Pa. 1825) (No. 15,971).
  34. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 46.
  35. ^ Slave Trade Act of 1818, §§ 2–3, 3 Stat. 450, 451.
  36. ^ Henderson, 1985, at 198.
  37. ^ United States v. White, 28 F. Cas. 580 (C.C.D. Mass. 1826) (No. 16,682).
  38. ^ a b United States v. Watkins, 28 F. Cas. 419 (C.C.D.C. 1829) (No. 16,649); United States v. Watkins, 28 F. Cas. 490 (C.C.D.C. 1833) (No. 16,650).
  39. ^ Crimes Act of 1825, § 3, 4 Stat. 115, 115.
  40. ^ a b Neutrality Act of 1818, § 3, 3 Stat. 447, 448.
  41. ^ Edwin A. Miles, After John Marshall's Decision: Worcester v. Georgia and the Nullification Crisis, 39 J. S. Hist. 519 (1973).
  42. ^ Crimes Act of 1790, § 26, 1 Stat. 112, 118.
  43. ^ Privileges of Foreign Agents, National Gazette (Philadelphia), May 18, 1830, reprinted in, Niles' Weekly Register, May 29, 1830.
  44. ^ a b Act of Apr. 10, 1816, § 18, 3 Stat. 266, 275.
  45. ^ Act of Mar. 3, 1825, § 22, 4 Stat. 108, 121.
  46. ^ United States v. Wilson, 28 F. Cas. 699 (C.C.E.D. Pa. 1830) (No. 16,730).
  47. ^ Act of Mar. 3, 1824, § 24, 4 Stat. 102, 109.
  48. ^ Crimes Act of 1825, § 18, 4 Stat. 115, 120.
  49. ^ a b Act of Mar. 1, 1823, 3 Stat. 770.
  50. ^ United States v. Milburn, 26 F. Cas. 1242 (C.C.D.C. 1824) (No. 15,764); United States v. Milburn, 26 F. Cas. 1242 (C.C.D.C. 1834) (No. 15,765); United States v. Milburn, 26 F. Cas. 1243 (C.C.D.C. 1835) (No. 15,766); United States v. Milburn, 26 F. Cas. 1252 (C.C.D.C. 1836) (No. 15,768); United States v. Milburn, 26 F. Cas. 1253 (C.C.D.C. 1838) (No. 15,767).

References[edit]

  • Dwight Henderson, Congress, Courts, and Criminals: The Development of Federal Criminal Law, 1801–1829 (1985).