List of critics of the New Deal
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The following is a List of critics of the New Deal.
From the Left (Liberals)
- William Lemke, North Dakota congressman, who ran a third-party Presidential campaign against Roosevelt in 1936 on the ad hoc Union Party ticket. Lemke argued that the New Deal did not go far enough in redistributing wealth in the United States.
- John L. Lewis, leader of the powerful coal miners labor union and Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO); supported 1940 Republican Presidential candidate Wendell Willkie over Roosevelt in a power struggle with FDR for control of the Democratic Party.
- Huey Long, populist Democratic Governor and Senator from Louisiana. Long criticized the New Deal for not going far enough to redistribute wealth; Long proposed a more radical economic plan called Share Our Wealth, in which all American citizens would not earn more than a million dollars a year or less than $4,000 a year. His slogan was "Every Man a King". Assassinated in 1935 by a political opponent.
- Max Shachtman, James Cannon and their respective Workers Party and Socialist Workers Party, were or had been followers of Leon Trotsky who argued that Roosevelt instituted these reforms in order to salvage capitalism (see entry for Howard Zinn, below), saw World War II as an imperialist war and the Communist Party's Popular Front as a class-collaborative betrayal.
- Francis Townsend, a retired California doctor who proposed a guaranteed income plan for senior citizens; his plan proved to be so popular that FDR adopted the Social Security Act to halt the growth of Townsend's movement.
- Burton Wheeler, Democratic Senator from Montana; broke with Roosevelt in 1937 over his court packing plan; later opposed Roosevelt as an isolationist wanting to avoid involvement in World War II.
- Howard Zinn, historian at Columbia University whose book A People's History of the United States criticizes Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal for not going far enough to redistribute wealth in the U.S. during the Great Depression. Zinn argues that the New Deal was primarily concerned with saving American capitalism, and that it should have been more radical in nationalizing American industry and promoting economic socialism. Other historians such as Eric Foner, Alan Brinkley have made similar criticisms of the New Deal.
From the Right (Conservatives)
- Charles Coughlin, Irish-American Catholic priest with huge radio audience; anti-communist and anti-semitic,   originally a Roosevelt supporter in 1932 but by 1935 Coughlin "excoriated Roosevelt as "anti-God"".
- John Nance Garner, supported Roosevelt in 1932; elected vice president 1932 and 1936; broke with Roosevelt in 1937 over his court packing plan.
- Carter Glass, Senator from Virginia, came from his death bed to the 1940 Democratic Convention to nominate Franklin Roosevelt's campaign manager James Farley as the Democratic Party's candidate for the Presidency. Glass was against Roosevelt's third term candidacy.
- William Randolph Hearst, former leader of left-wing of Democratic party; owned nation's largest newspaper chain; major supporter of Roosevelt in 1932, broke with Roosevelt in 1935 over Roosevelt's proposal to greatly increase taxes on the inheritances of the wealthy, and to close several tax loopholes used by the wealthy to avoid paying taxes. Orson Welles, a prominent New Dealer, responded with the film Citizen Kane (1941), a scathing critique of Hearst’s legacy and empire.
- Hugh S. Johnson, first head of the National Recovery Administration see . Johnson fell out with Roosevelt after FDR fired him in 1935.
- Charles Lindbergh, pilot who became a national hero in 1927 when he was the first to fly across the Atlantic Ocean from America to France. Lindbergh became the national leader of the isolationist America First Committee in 1940-41. He was attacked by New Dealers for his perceived anti-Semitism and support for some Nazi policies.
- George N. Peek, farm leader; supported FDR in 1932
- Al Smith, Democratic nominee for U.S. president in 1928; founded American Liberty League in 1934 to attack New Deal programs as fostering unnecessary "class conflict".
- Rush D. Holt, Sr., Democratic West Virginian Senator; opposed FDR's domestic and foreign policies.
- Robert Taft, powerful Republican Senator from Ohio from 1939 to 1953. Taft was the leader of the Republican Party's conservative wing; he consistently denounced the New Deal as "socialism" and argued that it harmed America's business interests and gave ever-greater control to the central government in Washington. Before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Taft, a non-interventionist, vigorously opposed FDR's attempts to aid Britain in World War II.
- Barry Goldwater, Republican 1964 presidential candidate; succeeded Taft as the leader of Republican conservatives in the 1950s. Goldwater consistently opposed the expansion of government welfare programs modeled after the New Deal; he criticized President Eisenhower for offering a "dime-store New Deal".
- Ronald Reagan, Hollywood film actor; strong New Dealer in 1940s; started opposing New Deal programs in the 1950s as a corporate spokesman for the General Electric company.
Prewar critics who supported Roosevelt during World War II
- Dean Acheson, Treasury official in 1933; Assistant Secretary of State 1944
- Lewis Douglas, Budget Director, 1933
- Harry F. Byrd, Democratic Senator from Virginia
- Carter Glass, Democratic Senator from Virginia
- Frank Knox Republican Vice Presidential candidate in 1936; joined FDR cabinet as Secretary of the Navy, 1940–44
- Henry Stimson, Hoover's Secretary of State; joined FDR cabinet as Secretary of War, 1940–45
- Wendell Willkie, Republican presidential candidate in 1940; supported FDR 1941-43
Writers and speakers
- Maxwell Anderson, Playwright, Jeffersonian anarchist, wrote Knickerbocker Holiday (with Kurt Weill) as a satire on the New Deal which compared Roosevelt to Hitler and Mussolini.
- Elizabeth Dilling, anti-communist activist, author of The Roosevelt Red Record and Its Background (1936)
- John Dos Passos, novelist; formerly on the left
- John T. Flynn, journalist, author of The Roosevelt Myth
- Milton Friedman, economist. A spokesman for the Treasury during World War II; he began criticizing the NRA and Hoover's Federal Reserve in 1950s
- Robert Frost poet
- Garet Garrett, editorial writer for Saturday Evening Post
- Henry Hazlitt, writer
- Robinson Jeffers, poet and playwright 
- Rose Wilder Lane, novelist and journalist
- David Lawrence, magazine columnist
- Walter Lippmann newspaper columnist and political philosopher
- H.L. Mencken, American journalist, essayist, magazine editor, and satirist.
- Raymond Moley, former top Brain Truster
- Albert Jay Nock, libertarian author and social critic
- Isabel Paterson, libertarian author
- Westbrook Pegler newspaper columnist
- Ezra Pound, American poet and expatriate; radio broadcaster for Italian leader Benito Mussolini in World War II
- Ayn Rand novelist, founder of Objectivism and one inspiration for libertarianism.
- John R. Rice, Protestant fundamentalist
- Gerald L.K. Smith, Huey Long second-in-command; took over SOWM after Long's death, went in pro-Nazi direction
- Mark Sullivan, newspaper columnist
- DeWitt Wallace, journalist and publisher of Reader's Digest 
Books with an anti-New Deal point of view
- Elizabeth Dilling, The Roosevelt Red Record and Its Background (1936)
- Herbert Hoover, Addresses Upon the American Road, 1933-1938 (1938)
- Raymond Moley, After Seven Years (1939)
- Herbert Hoover, Addresses Upon the American Road, 1940-1941 (1941)
- John T. Flynn, The Roosevelt Myth (1948, revised 1952)
- Garet Garrett, The People's Pottage (1951, later republished as Burden of Empire and Ex America)
- Murray Rothbard, America's Great Depression. (1963)
- James J. Martin, American Liberalism and World Politics, 1931-1941 (1964)
- Garet Garrett, Salvos Against the New Deal: Selections from the Saturday Evening Post, 1933-1940 (2002), edited by Bruce Ramsey
- Thomas Fleming, The New Dealers' War: FDR and the War Within World War II (2002)
- Garet Garrett, Defend America First: The Antiwar Editorials of the Saturday Evening Post, 1939-1942 (2003), edited by Bruce Ramsey
- Jim Powell, FDR's Folly: How Roosevelt and His New Deal Prolonged the Great Depression (2003)
- Gene Smiley, Rethinking the Great Depression (2003)
- Thomas Woods, The Politically Incorrect Guide to American History (2004)
- Robert P. Murphy, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Capitalism (2007)
- Amity Shlaes, The Forgotten Man: A New History of the Great Depression (2007)
- Jonah Goldberg, Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, from Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning (2008)
- Burton W. Folsom, Jr., New Deal or Raw Deal?: How FDR's Economic Legacy Has Damaged America (2008)
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- ""Share the Wealth": Huey Long Talks to the Nation". Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- "...one of the first regular political talk show hosts was Father Charles Coughlin, a right-wing Catholic priest who used his regular radio broadcasts to attack the New Deal". Richard Davis and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics Oxford University Press, 1998, ISBN 0195120612 (p.9).
- "Coughlin, Charles Edward" in Martin J. Manning and Herbert Romerstein (eds) Historical Dictionary Of American Propaganda Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004 ISBN 0313296057 .(p.71-72)
- Robert J. Brophy, Robinson Jeffers, dimensions of a poet, Fordham Univ Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8232-1566-0 (p.25)
- Andrew Himes, The Sword of the Lord: The Roots of Fundamentalism in an American Family Chiara Press, 2011 ISBN 1453843752, (p.271).
- Heidenry, John. Theirs was the Kingdom : Lila and DeWitt Wallace and the story of the Reader’s Digest. New York, W.W. Norton,1993. ISBN 0-393-03466-6 (p.130-35).
- Gary Dean Best; The Critical Press and the New Deal: The Press Versus Presidential Power, 1933-1938 Praeger Publishers 1993. online edition
- Brinkley, Alan. Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, & the Great Depression (1983)
- Graham, Otis L. and Meghan Robinson Wander, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times. (1985), an encyclopedia
- Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. (1999) the best recent scholarly narrative.
- McCoy, Donald * R. Landon of Kansas (1966) standard scholarly biography
- Paterson, James. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert Taft (1972), standard biography
- Ronald Radosh. Prophets on the Right: Profiles of conservative critics of American globalism (1978)
- Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., The Age of Roosevelt, 3 vols, (1957–1960), the classic pro-New Deal history, with details on critics. Online at vol 2 vol 3
- Rudolf, Frederick. "The American Liberty League, 1934-1940," American Historical Review, LVI (October 1950), 19-33 online at JSTOR
- Smith, Richard Norton. An Uncommon Man: The Triumph of Herbert Hoover (1987) biography
- White, Graham J. FDR and the Press. 1979.
- Winfield, Betty Houchin. FDR and the News Media 1990
- Williams, T. Harry. Huey Long (1969), Pulitzer Prize biography
- Wolfskill, George. The Revolt of the Conservatives: A History of the American Liberty League, 1934-1940 (1962)
- Anna Peterpants. Thesis Statement on the Depression-Era Programs (1951)
- Brandon Streaker. The Man and the Deal (1964)
- Carl McCarthy. The Great Wisconsin Brainwash (1954)