List of cultural references to A Clockwork Orange
Popular culture references to Anthony Burgess's novel A Clockwork Orange and Stanley Kubrick's film adaptation have been wide-ranging, from popular music and television to movies and other media. Some references are based on themes central to the story, such as the use of Nadsat words or phrases, whilst others have incorporated visual elements from the film. The film made Kubrick one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, and the film has become a cult classic.
- A Clockwork Orange, like other dystopian science-fiction novels, had an important influence on industrial and cyberpunk music. The film version influenced bands' fashion styles.
- The WEA subsidiary record label Korova, named for the film's Korova Milk Bar, was founded in 1979 for post-punk band Echo & the Bunnymen, and later issued recordings by artists such as The Sound and Strawberry Switchblade.
- Heaven 17, also from Sheffield, England and formed in 1980, named themselves after a fictional pop group in the book and film.
- The 1991 single release of U2's The Fly had a piece of music titled Alex Descends into Hell for a Bottle of Milk/Korova 1 from the score of the Royal Shakespeare Company's production of A Clockwork Orange. The performance was scored by Bono and The Edge.
- Anglo-Irish band Moloko, who debuted in 1995, took their name from the slang term for milk (itself from the Russian word for milk, молоко)
- Polish band Myslovitz's 2002 album Korova Milky Bar refers to the film, comparing it to present situation in Poland.
- The music video to Rob Zombie's "Never Gonna Stop (The Red Red Kroovy)" was inspired by the film.
- There have been references to the film on South Park. In "Coon 2: Hindsight", the scene where the Coon (Cartman) attacks the rest of the Coon's gang is reminiscent of the scene in which one of the members insists the gang be run in a "new way" that entails less power for Alex (Cartman); then while walking along, Alex attacks his "droogs" in order to re-establish his leadership. The scene also has the same music playing: an excerpt from the overture of The Thieving Magpie by Gioacchino Rossini.
- The Simpsons contains frequent references to the film. In several episodes, Bart is portrayed as Alex DeLarge from the film.
The film version of A Clockwork Orange immediately revolutionized the science fiction film genre, opening the way for other films to portray elaborate dystopian narratives and to intelligently analyze social dilemmas. Many film directors have borrowed themes and cinematic techniques from the film. The film is an essential part of modern cinema and films often reference it.
- Heath Ledger said he based his portrayal of The Joker in The Dark Knight on Alex DeLarge.
- Films that use similar cinematic techniques to A Clockwork Orange include A Boy and His Dog, THX 1138, and Westworld.
- The torture scene in Reservoir Dogs being set to "Stuck in the Middle With You" was described by Quentin Tarantino in an interview as a direct reference to the scene in A Clockwork Orange where Alex kicks the writer and rapes his wife to the tune of "Singin' in the Rain". A Clockwork Orange is also referenced at the beginning of the film when all the men are walking in slow motion, as Alex and his droogs did.
- In Gangster No. 1 Malcolm McDowell, who played Alex in the film, plays the gangster as an older version of Alex.
- Professional wrestler Patrick Martin takes the first part of his ring name Alex Shelley from Alex DeLarge.
- While appearing for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Raven created the eponymous Clockwork Orange House of Fun match.
- The Netherlands national football team was nicknamed Clockwork Orange in the 1974 FIFA World Cup, for its playing organization, which became known as Total Football, combined with the orange color of its uniform.
- The opening cutscene to Rare Nintendo 64 video game Conker's Bad Fur Day is a homage to the film.
- Thill, Scott, 2002, St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, Gale Group.
- Melanya Burrows (2005-01-28). "Addicted to Droogs". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- Hills, Matt, 2002, Fan Cultures, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24024-7.
- Collins, Karen, 2005, "Dead Channel Surfing: the commonalities between cyberpunk literature and industrial music," Popular Music, 24, pp. 165-178.
- http://books.google.com/books?id=tQxA864HskwC&pg=RA1-PA1974&lpg=RA1-PA1974&dq=korova+bunnymen+clockwork+orange&source=bl&ots=Ho780YcwaB&sig=XCWAj9sgxapd6jdYOHW8Eang6Bo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=YFZgUrjvEK3G4APeyID4Bg&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=korova%20bunnymen%20clockwork%20orange&f=false Turquoise Days: The Weird World of Echo & the Bunnymen by Chris Adams
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. pp. 248–249. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- James, Martin (16 June 2000). "How to milk Blondie for all they're worth". The Independent. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- "Montreal *Mirror - Rockin’ and rollin’ in sad, dark Poland". Montrealmirror.com. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- "Rob Zombie Storms Hollywood, Revisits 'Clockwork Orange'". MTV. 27 December 2001. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Modell, Josh (October 27, 2010). "The Coon 2: Hindsight". AV Club. Retrieved Nov. 1, 2010.
- Irwin, William, Skoble, Aeon J., and Conard, Mark T., 2001, The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer, Open Court Publishing, ISBN 0-8126-9433-3.
- "D'oh! Bart's unbeatable". Daily Telegraph.
- Russel, Catherine, 1995, Narrative Mortality: Death, Closure, and New Wave Cinemas, University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-2485-2.
- Reagan, Gillian (2012-03-23). "For Joker, Heath Ledger Channels Sid Vicious, A Clockwork Orange | The New York Observer". Observer.com. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- "Batman Movies: The Dark Knight - Batman 3 - Batman Begins - Batman and Robin - Batman Returns - Batman Forever". Comicbookmovie.com. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- Richards, Jeffrey, 1997, Films and British National Identity: From Dickens to Dad's Army, Manchester University, ISBN 0-7190-4743-9.
- Reservoir Dogs, Films in Review[dead link]
- Nelmes, Jill, 2003, An Introduction to Film Studies, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26268-2.
- Clevett, Jason (2004-08-25). "Alex Shelley: Next Generation superstar". Retrieved 2010-10-29. "I got the Alex part from the main character of A Clockwork Orange."
- "TNA Wrestling results – March 3, 2005". Online World of Wrestling. 2005-03-03. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Orejan, Jamie (2011). Football/Soccer History and Tactics, McFarland, p. 117
- Mad June 1973 issue #159 contents and cover image
- Ryan, Jeff (2011). Super Mario: How Nintendo Conquered America. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1591845638.
- McDougal, Stuart Y. Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange. Cambridge University Press, 2003 ISBN 0-521-57488-9
- Marrone, Gianfranco. Ludovico's Cure. On Body and Music in "A Clockwork Orange". Legas publisher, 2009