List of current constituent African monarchs

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For current sovereign monarchs, see List of current sovereign monarchs.

This is a list of reigning constituent monarchs, including traditional rulers and governing constitutional monarchs. Each monarch listed below reigns over a legally recognised dominion, but in most cases possess little or no sovereign governing power. Their titles, however, are recognised by the state. Entries are listed beside their respective dominions, and are grouped by country.

African monarchs[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Chad Chad Baguirmi Mbang Mahamat Yusuf 14 June 1970 Baguirmi Hereditary [1]
Ouaddai Vacant [af 1] 11 August 2004 Maba Hereditary
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Bubi Vacant [af 2] 15 November 2001 Bahítáari Hereditary [2]
Ethiopia Ethiopia Aussa Sultan Hanfare Alimirah 10 November 2011 [af 3] Mudaito [af 4] Hereditary [4][5]
Malawi Malawi Jere Inkosi ya Makosi M'mbelwa IV June 1996 Ngoni Hereditary and Elective [6]
Lomwe [af 5] Paramount Chief Mkhumba 25 October 2008 Mihavani Elective and Hereditary [7]
Mang'anja Lundu Nkhuku 2002 Lundu [af 6] Hereditary and Elective [8]
Maseko Inkosi ya Makosi Gomani V [af 7] 26 September 2009 Ngoni Hereditary and Elective [9]
Ngonde Ntemi Kyungu September 2007 Kyungu Elective and Hereditary [10]
Tumbuka Themba la Mathemba Chikulamayembe September 2007 Chikulamayembe Elective and Hereditary [10]
Yao [af 5] Paramount Chief Chikowi 15 February 2009 Yao Elective and Hereditary [citation needed]
Mauritania Mauritania Tagant Emir Mohamed Ould Abderrahmane February 2003 Idawi Hereditary [11][12]
Trarza Emir Muhammad Fall wuld `Umayr Ḥassān Hereditary [13]
Niger Niger Aïr Sultan Ibrahim Oumarou 1962 Tuareg Hereditary and Elective [af 8] [14]
Dosso Djermakoy Maidanda 2000 Djerma Hereditary [15]
Maradi Sarkin Ali Zaki 7 February 2005 Durbawa [af 9] Elective and Hereditary (Hausa)
Téra Askya Sa'id Amaru 1952 Askiya [af 10] Hereditary [16][17]
Zinder Sarkin Mamadou Moustapha 26 July 2001 Damagaram [af 9] Elective and Hereditary [16][18]
Senegal Senegal Oussouye King Siculumbaï Diédhiou 17 January 2001 Jola Hereditary [19]
Somalia Somalia Warsangeli Sultan Siciid Abdisalaan 1997 Gerad [af 11] Hereditary and Elective [20]
Sudan Sudan Abyei Emir Kuol Deng Kuol 19 February 1976 Ngok [af 12] Hereditary and Elective [21]
Anuak King Adongo Agada Cham 2 May 2001 Nyiudola Hereditary [af 13] [22][23]
Shilluk Reth Kwongo wad Dak 4 August 1993 [af 14] Kwathker Hereditary and Elective [af 15] [24][25]
Tanzania Tanzania Shambalai Vacant [af 16] 2000 Kilindi Hereditary [26]
Sukuma Ntemi Fumakule-Bunamiko-Ndilanha [af 16] Since 1978 at age of 9 years old to date Ndilanha/Malya/Kina mweri/ Hereditary [27]
Togo Togo Aného Aputaga Nana Ohiniko Quam Dessou XIV 25 March 1978 Adjigo Hereditary and Elective [af 17] [28][29]
Togbé Ahuawoto Savado Lawson VIII 1 August 2002 Lawson Hereditary and Elective [af 17]
Cokossi Soma Na Bema Soma Hereditary
Glidji Gè Fiogan Sèdégbé Foli Bébé XV 1997 Tugban [af 18] Hereditary
Kotokolia Uro Eso Yusuf Ayeva Uro Eso Hereditary
Togoville King Mlapa V Moyennant Mlapa Hereditary
Zambia Zambia [af 19] Barotseland Litunga Lubosi II October 2000 Aluyana [af 20] Hereditary [citation needed]
Bemba Chitimukulu Ackson Mwamba 11 August 2008 Ng'andu Hereditary and Elective [af 21] [30][31]
Chewa Kalonga Gawa Undi XI [af 22] 2 December 2004 Undi [af 23] Hereditary and Elective [32]
Jere Inkosi ya Makosi Mpezeni IV [af 24] 1981 Ngoni Hereditary and Elective [33]
Kazembe Mwata Kazembe XIX [af 25] 1998 Lunda Hereditary [30]
Nkoya Mwene Kabulwebulwe VI Mukutabafu IV [af 26] 1994 Kabulwebulwe [af 27] Hereditary [34]
Mwene Kahare IX Kubama II 1994 Kahare Hereditary [30][35]
Mwene Momba Momba Hereditary [36]
Mwene Mutondo XII 1993 Mutondo [af 28] Hereditary [30][37]

Benin[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Benin Benin Abomey [bj 1] Ahosu Agoli-Agbo Dédjalagni [bj 2] 30 September 1989 Agasuvi [bj 3] Hereditary and Elective [38]
Allada Ahosu Kpodégbé Djigla 2 December 1992 Agasuvi [bj 3] Hereditary [38]
Dassa Oba Egbakotan II Dassa [bj 4] Hereditary [38]
Karimama Ango Amadou 14 April 2000 Dandaoudou Hereditary [39]
Ketu Oba Alaro Alade-Ife 17 December 2005 Alaketu [bj 4] Hereditary [38]
Kouandé Bangana Sourou III 28 September 2004 Bangana [bj 5] Hereditary and Elective [38]
Nikki Sinaboko Sero Kora III 1992 Sinaboko [bj 5] Hereditary and Elective [38][40]
Ouidah King Mito-Daho Kpassenon Kpassè [bj 3] Hereditary [38]
Parakou Vacant [bj 6] 12 October 2004 Kobourou [bj 7] Hereditary and Elective [41][42]
Péhunco Sinagonrigui Kpéï Sourou [bj 8] 13 August 2004 Sinagonrigui Hereditary [43]
Porto-Novo Ahosu Toffa IX Gbêzé Ayontinmè [bj 9] Agasuvi [bj 3] Hereditary [38]
Hakpon III Kpotozounmè [bj 10] [44]
Sabe Oba Adetutu Akinmou Akikenju VI [bj 11] Onisabe [bj 4] Hereditary [38]

Botswana[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Botswana Botswana [bw 1] Bakgatla Kgosikgolo Kgafela II [bw 2] 20 September 2008 Masilo Hereditary [45][46]
Bakwêna Kgosikgolo Kgari III [bw 3] 17 August 2002 [bw 4] Hereditary [45][47]
Balete Kgosigadi Mosadi [bw 5] 7 January 2002 [bw 6] Badimo Hereditary [45][48]
Bamangwato Kgosikgolo Ian Khama [bw 7] 5 May 1979 Masilo Hereditary [45][49]
Bangwaketse Kgosikgolo Malope [bw 8] 5 August 2010 [bw 9] Hereditary [45][50][51]
Barolong Kgosikgolo Lotlamoreng II [bw 10] 23 February 2002 [bw 11] Morolong Hereditary [52]
Batawana Kgosigadi Kealitile [bw 12] 28 January 2004 Masilo Hereditary [45][53]
Batlôkwa Kgosikgolo Puso Gaborone 30 May 2006 [bw 13] Gaborone Hereditary [45][54]

Namibia[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Namibia Namibia Afrikaner Kaptein Hendrina Afrikaner 7 March 2004 Oorlam [na 1] Hereditary and Elective [55]
Bakgalagadi Kgosi Hubert Ditshabue 18 April 1992 Kgalagadi Hereditary and Elective [56]
Baster Kaptein John McNab January 1999 N/A Elective [na 2] [57]
Berseba [na 3] Kaptein Stephanus Goliath 24 April 2010 [na 4] Goliath Elective and Hereditary [58]
Johannes Isaak Isaak
Bethanie [na 5] Kaptein Dawid Frederiks 1 June 1984 Frederiks Hereditary and Elective [56]
Bondelswart Kaptein Anna Christiaan [na 6] 20 May 1977 !Gami-nun [na 1] Hereditary and Elective [56][59]
Damara Gaob Justus ǁGaroëb September 1993 [na 7] N/A Elective [56]
Gciriku Hompa Kassian Shiyambi 14 May 1999 Gciriku [na 8] Hereditary and Elective [56]
Hai-om ’Aiha David Khamuxab 17 December 2000 [na 9] Hai-om [na 10] Elective and Hereditary [60]
Hawoben Vacant [na 11] 4 March 2009 Hawoben [na 1] Elective and Hereditary [56][61]
Herero Ombara Kuaima Riruako 3 July 1978 [na 12] Ovaherero Elective and Hereditary [56][62]
Hoachanas [na 13] Kaptein Petrus Simon Moses Kooper 3 December 1988 Kooper Hereditary and Elective [56]
Ju’hoansi ’Aiha Tsamkxao Oma 5 July 1990 Ju’hoa [na 10] Elective and Hereditary
!Kung ’Aiha John Arnold 28 February 1990 !Kung [na 10] Elective and Hereditary
Mafwe Litunga Mamili VII [na 14] 18 April 1999 Mamili [na 15] Hereditary and Elective
Masubiya Munitenge Liswani III [na 16] 19 August 1996 Subiya Hereditary and Elective
Mayeyi Shikati Boniface Lutibezi Shufu [na 17] 1 August 1993 Yeyi Hereditary and Elective
Mbukushu Fumu Erwin Mbambo Munika 3 May 1991 Mbukushu [na 8] Hereditary and Elective
Mbunza Hompa Frans Haingura Muronga 25 May 1996 Mbunza [na 8] Hereditary and Elective
Ombalantu Elenga Oswin Shifiona Mukulu 13 May 1983 Mbalantu [na 18] Hereditary and Elective
Ombandja Elenga Mathias Walaula 29 March 2004 Mbandja [na 18] Hereditary and Elective [63]
Ondonga Omukwaniilwa Immanuel Elifas [na 19] 28 August 1975 Ndonga [na 18] Hereditary and Elective [56]
Ongandjera Omukwaniilwa Japhet Malenga Munkundi 16 November 1971 Ngandjera [na 18] Hereditary and Elective
Shambyu Hompa Angelina Matumbo Ribebe 19 May 1989 Sambyu [na 8] Hereditary and Elective
Topnaar Kaptein Seth Kooitjie 28 June 1980 Aonin [na 1] Elective and Hereditary
Swartbooi Kaptein Daniël Luipert 15 November 1986 Khau-goa [na 1] Elective and Hereditary
Uukolonkadhi Elenga David Shooya 27 June 1985 Kolonkhadi [na 18] Hereditary and Elective
Uukwaluudhi Omukwaniilwa Shikongo Taapopi [na 20] 20 September 1960 Kwaluudhi [na 18] Hereditary and Elective
Uukwambi Elenga Herman Iipumbu 10 April 1991 Kwambi [na 18] Hereditary and Elective
Uukwangali Hompa Daniel Sitendu Mpasi 12 April 1977 Kwangali [na 8] Hereditary and Elective
Uukwanyama Ohamba Martha Nelumbu [na 21] 12 November 2005 Kwanyama [na 18] Hereditary and Elective [64]
Vaalgras Kaptein Joel Stephanus 6 April 1975 Oorlam [na 1] Elective and Hereditary [56]
Witbooi [na 22] Kaptein Christian Rooi [na 23] 13 October 2009 Witbooi Hereditary and Elective [65][66]
Herero chiefs
Ovaherero [na 24] Ombara Tuhavi David Kambazembi 17 July 1989 Kambazembi Hereditary and Elective [56]
Ombara Alfons Maharero 1969 [na 25] Maharero Hereditary and Elective
Ombara Christiaan Eerike Zeraua 4 October 1997 Zeraua Hereditary and Elective
Ovahimba Ombara Paulus Tjavara 3 August 1996 Otjikaoko Hereditary and Elective
Vacant [na 26] 31 October 2009 Vita Hereditary and Elective
Ovambanderu Ombara Keharanjo II 9 August 2008 Nguvauva Hereditary and Elective [67]

Nigeria[edit]

For a list of extant traditional rulers in Nigeria, see List of Nigerian traditional states

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Nigeria Nigeria Abeokuta Oba Adedotun Aremu Gbadebo III 2005 Egba clan dynasty of the Yoruba people Hereditary and Elective [68]
Akure Vacant November 30, 2013 Asodeboyede dynasty of the Yoruba people Hereditary and Elective [69]
Onitsha Obi Igwe Nnayelugo Alfred Nnaemeka Achebe 3 June 2002 Onitsha subgroup of the Igbo people Elective [70]

South Africa[edit]

In 2004, the Mbeki administration established the controversial Commission on Traditional Leadership Disputes and Claims (CTLDC) to determine the historical legitimacy of the nation's traditional kingships. The purpose of the Commission was to reconstruct the institution of indigenous leadership following its distortion under the colonial and apartheid regimes.[71] In July 2010, acting on the findings of the Commission, the Zuma administration announced that the government of South Africa would cease recognising a total of six of the thirteen traditional kingships upon the deaths of their respective incumbent monarchs.[72][73] Their successors would be recognised as "principal traditional leaders", a status yet to be defined. The Commission has been denounced by several senior traditional leaders, who have taken the government to court in an attempt to reverse the ruling.[74][75][76]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
South Africa South Africa Bakwêna [za 1] Kgosi Thokwane Mopeli [za 2] 1993 Mopeli Hereditary and Elective [77]
Bapedi Kgosi Thulare Victor Thulare [za 3] 29 July 2010 Maroteng Hereditary and Elective [78][79]
Batlôkwa [za 4] Kgosi Lekunutu Cavandish Mota 13 August 1988 Mota [za 5] Hereditary and Elective [80]
Mpondo [za 6] Inkosi Enkhulu Zanozuko Tyelovuyo Sigcau 29 July 2010 [za 7] Mqikela [za 8] Hereditary and Elective [83][84]
Inkosi Enkhulu Ndamase Ndamase 8 February 2008 [za 9] Ndamase [za 8] Hereditary and Elective
Ndebele [za 10] Ingwenyama Makhosoke II [za 11] Manala-Mbongo [za 12] Hereditary and Elective [86]
Ingwenyama Mbusi Mahlangu [za 13] 1 July 2005 Ndzundza-Mabhoko [za 14] Hereditary and Elective [83][87][88][89]
Thembu [za 15] Inkosi Enkhulu Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo [za 16] May 1989 [za 17] Dalindyebo [za 18] Hereditary and Elective [83][91]
Inkosi Enkhulu Siyambonga Matanzima [za 17] 31 May 2010 Matanzima [za 18] Hereditary and Elective
Venda [za 19] Thovhele Toni Mphephu Ramabulana 28 November 1998 Ramabulana [za 20] Hereditary and Elective [83][93]
Xhosa [za 21] Inkosi Enkhulu Zwelonke Sigcawu 27 January 2006 [za 22] Gcaleka [za 23] Hereditary and Elective [83][96]
Inkosi Enkhulu Maxhoba Sandile [za 24] 10 October 1991 Rharhabe [za 23] Hereditary and Elective [83][97]
Zulu [za 25] Ingonyama Goodwill Zwelithini 3 December 1971 Senzangakhona [za 26] Hereditary and Elective [83][99]
Venda paramounts
Mphaphuli Thovhele Musiiwa Gole Mphaphuli 18 December 2001 Mphaphuli [za 20] Hereditary and Elective [83][93]
Tshivhase Thovhele Kennedy Midiyavhathu Tshivhase 1993 [za 27] Tshivhase [za 20] Hereditary and Elective
Xhosa paramounts
Dushane Inkosi Enkhulu Ngubesizwe Ludwe Siwane June 2001 Dushane [za 23] Hereditary and Elective [83][100]
Gasela Inkosi Enkhulu Mabikhwe Zwelandile 14 February 1947 Gasela [za 23] Hereditary and Elective [83][101]
Gqunukhwebe Inkosi Enkhulu Nkosana Zwelimjongile Kama 14 September 2002 Kama [za 28] Hereditary and Elective [83][102]
Ntinde Inkosi Enkhulu Zwelitsha a Mgcawezulu 16 September 1946 Ntinde [za 23] Hereditary and Elective [83][103]
Qhayi Inkosi Enkhulu Mabundu Bangelizwe Jali Qhayi [za 23] Hereditary and Elective [83][104]
Other paramounts
Bafokeng Kgosi Leruo Tshekedi Molotlegi April 2000 [za 29] Molotlegi Hereditary and Elective [105][106]
Balobedu Vacant [za 30] 12 June 2005 Modjadji [za 31] Hereditary and Elective [za 32] [83][107]
Bhaca King Madzikane II King Ncapayi Hereditary and Elective [83][108]
Griqua Paramount Chief Alan Andrew le Fleur 8 November 2005 Le Fleur Hereditary and Elective [109]
Hlubi Ingonyama Langalibalele II [za 33] 1974 Hadebe Hereditary and Elective [83]
Mpondomise Vacant [za 34] 11 December 1912 Majola Hereditary and Elective [110][111]

Uganda[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Uganda Uganda Acholi Rwot Acana II 15 January 2005 [ug 1] Payira Hereditary [112]
Alur [ug 2] Ubimu Olarker Rauni III oAugust 2000 [ug 3] Hereditary [112][113]
Ankole Omugabe Ntare VI [ug 4] 20 November 1993 Bahinda Hereditary [114][115]
Buganda Kabaka Muwenda Mutebi II 24 July 1993 [ug 5] Abalasangeye Hereditary [citation needed]
Bunyoro Omukama Iguru I 24 July 1993 [ug 6] Babito Hereditary [116][117]
Busoga [ug 7] Disputed [ug 8] 5 October 2009 Basoga Elective and Hereditary [ug 9] [118][119][120][121][122][123]
Iteso Emorimor Augustine Osuban 4 May 2000 [ug 10] Elective [112]
Jonam[ug 11] Rwoth Marcellino Olar Ker (although now ousted in March 2013 for self imposition over the Ragem people) 1 March 2008 Hereditary [112]
Kebu Yuu [ug 12] Azzu Ephraim Kebbi 14 June 2008 Yuu [ug 13] origin is not very clear.Elective [112]
Kooki Kamuswaga Kabumbuli II 15 May 2004 Babito [ug 14] Hereditary [112]
Lango Won Nyaci Yosam Odur-Ebii 10 December 2005 [ug 15] [ug 10] Elective [112][124]
Padhola Adhola Moses Stephen Owor 7 August 1999 [ug 16] [ug 10] Elective [112]
Rwenzururu Omusinga Irema-Ngoma I 19 October 2009 [ug 17] Abahira [ug 18] Hereditary [125][126]
Toro Omukama Rukidi IV 26 August 1995 [ug 19] Babito Hereditary [116]
Busoga confederates
Bugabula Gabula William Nadiope IV 11 February 1995 Kitimbo Hereditary [112][127][128]
Bugweri Menya Frederick Kakaire II 11 February 1995 Menyha Hereditary
Bukooli Wakooli David Muluuya Kawunye 11 February 1995 Wakoli Hereditary
Bukono Nkono Mutyaba Nkono II 11 February 1995 Nkono Hereditary
Bulamogi Zibondo Edward Columbus Wambuzi 3 September 2008 Zibondo Hereditary
Bunya Luba Juma Munulo II 11 February 1995 Hereditary
Bunyole Nanyumba John Ntale Nahnumba 11 February 1995 Hereditary
Busiki Kisiki Yekosofato Kawanguzi 11 February 1995 Igaga Hereditary
Butembe Ntembe Badru Waguma 11 February 1995 Hereditary
Kigulu Ngobi Izimba Golologolo 11 February 1995 Ngobi Hereditary
Luuka Tabingwa Willington Nabwana 11 February 1995 Tabingwa Hereditary

Notes[edit]

Africa[edit]

  1. ^ The previous kolak (or "sultan") was Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Urada, who died on 11 August 2004. It is not clear whether a successor has been named.
  2. ^ The last recognised king was Malabo II, who died in 2001. The throne has remained vacant since then.
  3. ^ Date of coronation as sultan (locally: amóyta). Father and predecessor died 24 April 2011.[3]
  4. ^ An Afar dynasty.
  5. ^ a b This paramount chieftaincy, reigning over all tribes of that particular nationality, was created by the government, a presidential prerogative guaranteed in the country's Constitution. Prior to its creation, the various tribal authorities remained independent of one another. Many chiefs have dismissed the notion that they are now subordinate to a centralised authority.
  6. ^ A Chewa dynasty.
  7. ^ The current chief, Willard Mswati Gomani, was appointed at his father's burial in 2009. He has not yet been formally enthroned. He is also a minor, and reigns under the regency of his aunt, Rosemary Malinki.
  8. ^ Succession is hereditary within the royal family, but is subject to approval by five electing tribes: the Kel Owi, Kel Ferwan, Kel Fade, Imakkitan, and Ikaskazan.
  9. ^ a b A Hausa dynasty.
  10. ^ A Songhai dynasty.
  11. ^ A sept of the Warsangeli branch of the Darod clan.
  12. ^ A clan of the Dinka people. The Ngok are traditionally divided into nine chiefdoms.
  13. ^ The reigning king, considered by the Anuak to be a demigod, selects his heir from amongst his eligible sons.
  14. ^ Date of formal enthronement. He was elected to the throne in 1992.
  15. ^ The reth is chosen from the sons of previous kings, each belonging to one of three royal lineages: Kwathker, Gwang, and Nyidhok. The elected individual is traditionally said to be a reincarnation of the first reth, Nyikango wad Okwa.
  16. ^ a b The last simbamwene (or sultan), Mputa II, died in 2000, and the throne has remained vacant since then. Another member of the family, Daniel Magogo, acts as prince regent.
  17. ^ a b At the end of March 1821, the chiefdom of Aného became divided under two distinct royal lineages: the Adjigo at Nlessi, and the Lawson dynasty at Lolan. In each lineage, the next king is selected by a council of wisemen from amongst the male members of the royal family. The kings of Aného are traditionally subordinate to ruler of Glidji (see separate entry).
  18. ^ A clan of the Ga.
  19. ^ Under the 1996 Constitution, the government of Zambia recognises 286 chiefs, 54 senior chiefs and five paramount chiefs. The paramount chiefs are those of the Lozi, Bemba, Chewa, Ngoni, and Lunda peoples, all of which are listed in the table above. The remainder listed here are considered senior chiefs.
  20. ^ A Lozi dynasty.
  21. ^ Succession to the throne of the chitimikulu is limited to male matrilineal members of the Bena Ng'andu. Tradition dictates that the throne passes to a son of the sisters of the previous chitimikulu. Selection is made by the royal Lamfya council.
  22. ^ Born as Frederic Daka. His birth name, however, is no longer used.
  23. ^ A sept of the Phiri clan.
  24. ^ Born as David Njengembaso Jere.
  25. ^ Born as Paul Mpemba Kanyembo Kapale Mpalume.
  26. ^ The current mwene is a queen.
  27. ^ A sept of the Wushanga clan.
  28. ^ A sept of the Nawiko clan.

Benin[edit]

  1. ^ Historically known as Dahomey, or Danhome.
  2. ^ Since the succession of Agoli Agbo in 1989, there has been widespread controversy, resulting in a divide in the dynasty. On 22 January 2000, Dado Houédogni Béhanzin, a descendant of Chadakogundo Béhanzin (or Gbêhanzin, 1889–1894), and a longtime rival of the incumbent, was "enthroned" by his family and supporters as the rightful king, sparking a divide in the community. On 8 March 2010, the kingdom's traditional council determined Agoli Agbo as the sole legitimate ruler of Abomey. Béhanzin disputed the outcome, and the conflict continues. Since the beginning of the dispute, both men have been commonly styled "sa majesté" in the media, and both are considered major influential figures in tribal politics. Name is written variously as Agoli or Agboli, and Dedjani, Dedjlani, Dédjanlangni, or Dédjinnagni.
  3. ^ a b c d A Fon dynasty.
  4. ^ a b c A Yoruba dynasty.
  5. ^ a b A sept of the Borgou dynasty of the Bariba. The kings of Nikki are historically also of Boussa origin.
  6. ^ The previous king of Parakou, the Akpaki Dagbara II, died in 2004, and the throne has remained vacant since then. Two candidates, one designated by the Baparapé chief, the other by chief of Gbégourou, both customarily empowered to appoint the successor of a deceased king, have been battling for the throne. In October 2008, the traditional council was divided in its deciding election. The candidates, both of the Bourou dynasty, are N'Gobi Barthélémy and Yossounon Gobi.
  7. ^ A sept of the Borgou dynasty. Succession is traditionally alternated between the Akpaki dynasty of the Bariba, and the Bourou dynasty of the Yoruba.
  8. ^ Formerly known as Kora Zaki Lafia.
  9. ^ Name is also written as Agnontinmè, or Ayintinmè.
  10. ^ Name is also written as Kpoto-Zounme.
  11. ^ Also styled as Onisabe within the community.

Botswana[edit]

  1. ^ The rulers of the eight paramount chiefdoms of the Tswana in Botswana hold the eight permanent seats in the country's Ntlo ya Dikgosi. The remainder of seats are held by chiefs from minority Tswana tribes, such as the Birwa, Kalaka, Kgalagadi, Sarwa, and Tswapong. These representatives are either elected or appointed for five-year terms.
  2. ^ Also known as Kgafela Kgafela.
  3. ^ Also known as Kgari a Bonewamang Sechele.
  4. ^ Sworn in the House of Chiefs in March 2002.
  5. ^ Also known as Mosadi Muriel Seboko a Mokgôsi.
  6. ^ Elected as paramount chief in December 2001. She officially took up duties on 7 January, and was sworn in the House of Chiefs on 28 February 2002. She was formally enthroned on 30 August 2003.
  7. ^ Also known as Seretse Khama Ian Khama, or Ian a Sêrêtsê. He is also (since 1 April 2008) the current head of state of Botswana.
  8. ^ Also known as Malope Gaseitsiwe.
  9. ^ Has not yet been formally installed.
  10. ^ Also known as Lotlamoreng Montshiwa, or Lotlaamoreng Montshioa.
  11. ^ Elected as paramount chief in June 2001. Sworn in the House of Chiefs on 28 February 2002.
  12. ^ Kealitile Moremi took over as paramount chief from her brother Tawana II, who resigned in August 2003 in order to follow a career in politics. At present, she is only considered regent, and has not been formally enthroned.
  13. ^ Elected as paramount chief on 18 March 2006. Coronation took place on 18 August 2007.

Namibia[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f A tribe of the Nama.
  2. ^ The captaincy of the Basters, recognised as a traditional authority by the government of Namibia, is purely elective within the community. The kaptein is elected for life.
  3. ^ The land of the Hai-khaua, a tribe of the Nama descended from the Oorlam. The community is also known as the "Berseba Oorlam" or "Berseba Nama".
  4. ^ In 2010, the formerly divided Hai-khauan chiefdom of Berseba was reconciled under the cooperative leadership of the royal Goliath and Isaak clans. The two rival lineages had resulted from a succession dispute for the chieftaincy in the 1960s. Prior to the recent union, Stephanus had been the chief of the Goliath faction since 1976. Johannes Isaak had been the chief of his faction prior to the union also, but the date of his installation is unclear.
  5. ^ The land of the Aman, a tribe of the Nama descended from the Oorlam. The community is also known as "Bethany", or subsequently the "Bethanien Nama".
  6. ^ The incumbent kaptein, Anna Christiaan, no longer actively manages the tribe's affairs due to her poor health. Officially serving as acting chief is Josef Christiaan, whose position, however, is disputed by several senior members of the royal family, including Anna's son Jan Christiaan.
  7. ^ Prior to formal enthronement as "king" (a title not recognised by the Namibian government), Justus previously reigned as acting paramount chief from 1982. He took over the leadership of the Chiefs' Council on 27 July 1977, following the death of Chief David Goreseb.
  8. ^ a b c d e A Kavango dynasty.
  9. ^ Recognised by the government of Namibia on 28 July 2004.
  10. ^ a b c A San dynasty.
  11. ^ The previous kaptein was Hans Titus, who reigned from 3 May 1980 until his death in 2009. His successor is yet to be chosen.
  12. ^ Riruako succeeded as paramount chief following the death of Clemens Kapuuo in 1978. The position at that time, though established in effect, was not recognised by the government of Namibia. Recognition was extended by the government on 8 December 2008 and Riruako was officially inaugurated on 4 February 2009. His supremacy remains actively disputed by some of the now subordinated chiefs.
  13. ^ The land of the Kai-khau, a tribe of the Nama. The community is also known as the "Red Nation".
  14. ^ Also known as George Simasiku Mamili.
  15. ^ A Fwe dynasty.
  16. ^ Also known as Maiba Kisco Liswani.
  17. ^ Most commonly known as Boniface Sifu, or Boniface Shufu.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h An Ovambo dynasty.
  19. ^ Also known as "Kauluma".
  20. ^ Full name is Josia Shikongo Taapopi Shitaatala.
  21. ^ A queen. Also known as Martha Kristian Nelumbu, or Martha Mwadinomho ya Nelumbu.
  22. ^ The land of the Khowese, a tribe of the Nama descended from the Oorlam. The community is also known as the "Khowese Nama", or as "Gibeon" after the township.
  23. ^ Acting chief only. Rooi took over administration of the traditional authority following the death of Hendrik Witbooi, a Christian minister and Namibia's first deputy prime minister. Rooi has not been formally mandated as chief.
  24. ^ Within the Herero community, the Namibian government officially recognises six traditional authorities, each headed by its own royal house. The six are listed here, grouped by tribe. Officially, these are subordinate to a paramount chief in Okahandja, who is listed in the previous section. In addition, there are over 40 other Herero chiefs who remain unrecognised by the government, and are not constitutional traditional authorities.
  25. ^ In 1999, Alfons was also proclaimed chief of the Tjamuaha clan by court order, deposing Frederik II. The Tjamuaha are among those clans not recognised as constitutional traditional authorities.
  26. ^ The previous ombara of the Vita lineage was Kapuka Thom, who died in 2009. His successor has yet to be chosen.

South Africa[edit]

  1. ^ In April 2008, the CTLDC determined that the baKwêna (also spelled baKoena) ba Mopeli paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship, and hence in July 2010, the government announced that it would cease recognising it as such upon the death of the incumbent monarch.[72]
  2. ^ The present kgosi is a minor. His mother, Mathokwana Mopeli serves as regent on his behalf.
  3. ^ Was declared the legitimate monarch by President Zuma in July 2010, following the rulings of the CTLDC. He officially replaced the acting chief Kenneth Kgagudi Sekhukhune, who had been ruling in dispute since 1976. Thulare has yet to be formally crowned.
  4. ^ In April 2008, the CTLDC determined that the baTlôkwa (also spelled baTlokoa) ba Mota paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship, and hence in July 2010, the government announced that it would cease recognising it as such upon the death of the incumbent monarch.[72]
  5. ^ Also known as the ba ga Mokotleng, one of four main branches of the baTlôkwa. The others are: ba ga Bogatsu under Kgosi Mokalake Motsatsi, ba ga Sedumedi under Kgosi Sedumedi Kenneth Sedumedi (who died 25 September 2007), and the ba ga Gaborone in Botswana. The ba Mota are the only recognised paramountcy of the baTlôkwa in South Africa, although this will soon change (see note above).
  6. ^ Since the death of Faku in 1867, the amaMpondo (also amaPondo, or amaPonda) have effectively been divided under two royal lineages: the Mqikela line (aseQaukeni), and the Ndamase line (aseNyandeni). In April 2008, however, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the Mqikela lineage were the kings of all amaMpondo, and that the Nyandeni paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship.[81] In July 2010, it was announced that the aseNyandeni's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined.[74]
  7. ^ Following the rulings of the CTLDC in July 2010, the Zuma administration officially removed the then-king Mpondombini Thandizulu Sigcau, and replaced him with Zanozuko Sigcau, identified as the rightful king by the Commission. Mpondombini, who had been ruling since 1 December 1978, was among several traditional leaders to denounce the Commission's findings, and has since taken the government to court in an attempt to reverse the ruling and regain his throne. The hearings began in August 2010. Zanozuko, the king recognised by the government, has yet to be crowned.[82]
  8. ^ a b A sept of the Nyawuza clan of the amaMpondo. The amaMpondo are descended from Mpondo, the twin brother of Mpondomise.
  9. ^ Coronation took place 12 April 2008. Ndamase was nominated successor to his grandfather, the previous king, upon the elder's death on 21 February 1997. As he was still a minor, however, his mother Queen Bongolethu Dlamini, a descendant of the Swazi royal family, served as the kingdom's regent until his formal assumption of the throne in 2008.
  10. ^ Since the death of Musi in 1630, the amaNdebele kingdom has effectively been divided under two royal lineages: the kaManala, and the kaNdzundza. In April 2008, however, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the elder Manala lineage were the kings of all amaNdebele, and that the Ndzundza paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship.[85] In July 2010, it was announced that the Ndzundza's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined.[72]
  11. ^ Full name is Makhosoke Enoch Mabhena; also occasionally spelled "Makhosoke".
  12. ^ A sept of the Manala clan of the amaNdebele. The current royal family has the surname Mabhena, also occasionally misspelled "Mabena".
  13. ^ In the Ndebele tradition, following the death of a king the family nominates a successor and gives him a regnal name, which he will use from the day he is crowned. Mbusi has been elected, but has not yet been formally enthroned. His regnal name will be "Mabhoko III". However, as of 2 February 2007, Mbusi has been suspended as king by the royal council. A regent, Sililo Mahlangu, was appointed on 4 February 2007 to act on the king's behalf while the council deliberates on his alleged misconduct.
  14. ^ A sept of the Ndzundza clan of the amaNdebele. The current royal family has the surname Mahlangu.
  15. ^ Since 1865, the abaThembu have effectively been divided under two royal lineages: the bakaDalindyebo (baseBumbane), and the bakaMatanzima (baseRhoda). In April 2008, however, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the Dalindyebo lineage were the kings of all abaThembu, and that the Rhoda paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship.[90] In July 2010, it was announced that the baseRhoda's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined. According to some reports, the late king Lwandile Zwelenkosi, who died in May 2010, was officially considered the last king.[74]
  16. ^ Full name is Buyelekhaya Zwelinbanzi Dalindyebo a Sabata.
  17. ^ a b During a leave of study between 2000 and August 2002, the king's wife Noluntu and brother Jongisizwe Dalindyebo acted as regents on his behalf. In May 2005, Buyelekhaya was indicted on charges of fraud, culpable homicide, assault, kidnapping, and arson. He is appealing against a 15-year jail term. Queen Noluntu and senior chief Jonginyaniso Mtirara are serving as regents while the monarch is in and out of prison.
  18. ^ a b A sept of the amaDlomo clan of the abaThembu. It is also known as the amaHala, or Madiba clan; each name styled after one of the earliest kings, descendants of the kingdom's founder, Nxeko.
  19. ^ For centuries, the vhaVenda have effectively been divided under several royal lineages. Among these, the haRamabulana, the haTshivhase, and the haMphaphuli were eventually recognised as separate traditional authorities by the government. The kingship, however, disputed between an even larger number of clans, was considered to be effectively defunct until July 2010, when the CTLDC determined to restore the vhaVenda kingship under the haRamabulana.[72][92] The Commission determined that the kings of the Ramabulana were the kings of all vhaVenda, thereby rejecting the appeals of two other claimants: the Ravhura clan under Azwianewi David Mutshinyalo Ravhura, and the vhaNgona tribe under Tshidziwelele Azwidowi Nephawe, both of which were officially under the jurisdiction of the haTshivhase. The Commission also rejected the respective appeals of the haTshivhase and haMphaphuli to establish new kingships separate to that of the vhaVenda.[71]
  20. ^ a b c A clan of the Masingo (also known as the maKhwinde, or maKwinda) tribe of the vhaVenda. Although the title thovele (or thovela) is most common, kings are also formally styled khosikhulu vho, or simply khosi.
  21. ^ Since the death of Phalo in 1775, the amaXhosa have effectively been divided under two kingdoms (see note below). However, in April 2008, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the Gcaleka lineage were the kings of all amaXhosa, and that the Rharhabe paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship.[94] In July 2010, it was announced that the Rharhabe's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined.[74]
  22. ^ Coronation took place 18 June 2010.
  23. ^ a b c d e f A Xhosa dynasty. All current Xhosa monarchs are genealogical members of the amaTshawe clan, the royal line of the amaXhosa which is styled after Tshawe, descended from Xhosa, a son of Mnguni. The royal line is divided into two primary lineages descended from the sons of Phalo: the amaGcaleka, descended from Gcaleka, and the amaRharhabe, descended from Rharhabe. The amaGcaleka are the senior line, and its king is to some extent deferred to by all the others. The amaRharhabe represents the junior line, from which also descend the paramount chiefs of the imiDushane, amaGasela, amaNdlambe, and imiQhayi, listed separately. The ruling line of the amaRharhabe is that of the amaNgqika, descended from Mlawu.[95]
  24. ^ Full name is Maxhob'ayakhawuleza Sandile a Mxolisi, but is most commonly known as "Maxhoba".
  25. ^ The Zulu kingdom is traditionally a paramount authority, with a number of subordinate chiefdoms. Most prominent among these chiefdoms is that of the Buthelezi, whose current chief (or inkosi) is Mangosuthu Gatsha.[98]
  26. ^ A clan of the Zulu.
  27. ^ Midiyavhathu was installed as heir to the throne of the Tshivhase lineage in 1970. He was, however, considered too young to rule, and his uncle John Shavhani Tshivhase was appointed as regent until it was deemed appropriate for the new king to assume effective office, which he did in 1993. His name is also often spelled "Midiavhathu".
  28. ^ The amaGqunukhwebe are a Xhosa tribe of Khoisan origin.
  29. ^ Coronation took place 16 August 2003.
  30. ^ The previous queen, Modjadji VI, died in 2005. Her daughter and heiress, Princess Masalanabo, is still a child, and will be eligible to be enthroned as Modjadji VII when she comes of age and once she has produced an heiress of her own by her royal suitor. Her succession rights, however, have not been universally accepted by the royal council since her father is a commoner. Her uncle Prince Mpapatla serves as regent. He has had a daughter by his cousin of the royal bloodline. Consequently, a faction of the royal council would prefer to enthrone Mpapatla's daughter when she comes of age. He, however, maintains that the true heir is Masalanabo, who has been accepted as heiress for now, though this may change before she comes of age.
  31. ^ The "Rain Queens" of the baLobedu ba ga Modjadji are descended from the Monomatapa dynasty in modern Zimbabwe.
  32. ^ Succession is matrilineal. The queen is constitutionally unwed, although she may produce children.
  33. ^ Otherwise known as Muziwenkosi Johannes Hadebe ka Tatazela. The royal clan name, Hadebe, is also often spelled "Radebe".
  34. ^ Supremacy among the Mpondomise is disputed between two primary factions: the Jola and the Dosini, both branches of the Majola dynasty. Contenders from the Dosini clan are Zanexhoba Tonjeni and Masibulele Maseti. The most recent claimant from the Jola clan was Loyiso Matiwane, who died 12 June 2007. He was a direct descendant of Mhlontlo, the last reigning king, who was stripped of his kingship by the colonial government around 1904 (died in 1912). Since then, the throne of the Mpondomise has been disputed, and has failed to regain recognition from the government as a traditional kingship.

Uganda[edit]

  1. ^ Date of coronation. The Ker Kwaro Acholi chieftaincy was recognised by the government on 17 January 2005. He has been the chief of the Payira clan since 1999.
  2. ^ The tribal confederation of the Alur historically comprises 64 chiefdoms and Clanship (56 in Uganda i.e. from Junam, Padyere and Okoro; and 8 in Democratic Republic of Congo)under the Ubimu (King). Its population is about 10,000,000 people across two countries. Alur Kingdom was recognised by the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda in 2008. It is the Kingdom that was never abolished by Ugandan government during the 1966 when King Jalusiga Rauni II was sitting at the throne. All the different Chiefdoms, Chieflets and clanships pay allegiance to Ubimu as the main holder of the Royal Spear Head(Leb tong). The different sub tribes that were assimilated under the Alur tribe are the Lendu, Kebu, Jonam and Madi during the pre colonial Uganda (Aidan 1953). The tradition of holding royal spearhead has been since there since time immemorial. All son of the Ubimu have since been allowed to start their own chiedoms in order not to cause power wrangles from the main Kingdom palace at Kaal Atyak winam Zombo district. Alur Kingdom first started as a Nuer Kingdom under King Ngur I in around 870 A.D at Aswan, Southern Egypt and later transformed to Lwo Atyak Kingdom under King Ulwo Atyak in Wau, Barelghazal southern Sudan. Reaching northern Uganda and especially around Karuma river, the Lwo Atyak under King Kyabambe Ulum had a major separation and disintegration. Then Queen Nyilak took over and later abdicated the throne to her son Nyipir. It was king Nyipir who started the Alur Kingdom in around 15th Century in Pakwach near River Nile.His Kingdom holds all the Lwo Royal Spear Head as per the Tradition. Today the Ubimu is the most powerful ruler in northern Uganda West of the Nile river. Administratively, Ubimu is assisted by Jadipu (Prime Minister - Rt. Hon. Wathum Edwin Djalkwiyu) who has the same hereditary significance as ruler.
  3. ^ Formally enthroned on 19 May 2006 and coronated on 31st October 2010.
  4. ^ Ankole, historically referred to as Nkore, was nominally revived as a traditional kingdom with the coronation of Rutashijuka Ntare IV in November 1993. It has remained unrecognised by the Ugandan government, however, and the coronation was declared illegitimate and void by the country's president. The current king has reigned in pretendence since the death of his predecessor in April 1979.
  5. ^ Muwenda Mutebi succeeded as head of the royal household upon the death of his father on 21 November 1969. He was formally invested as Ssabataka (head of the royal clans and chief landowner) on 4 April 1971. He was officially proclaimed as kabaka upon the restoration of the kingdom, 24 July 1993. His coronation took place 31 July 1993. He has also assumed the additional name of "Kimera".
  6. ^ Muwenda Mutebi succeeded as head of the royal household upon the death of his father in 1971. He was officially proclaimed as omukama upon the restoration of the kingdom, 24 July 1993. His coronation took place 11 June 1994.
  7. ^ Busoga is a traditional confederation of eleven clan domains. There are five royal clans (Bugabula, Bukono, Bulamogi, Kigulu, and Luuka) and six traditional chiefdoms (Bugweri, Bukooli, Bunya, Bunyole, Busiki, and Butembe). The royal clans form the five royal families of the Basoga. Each of the hereditary chiefs and princes of the confederation are listed in a separate section in the table.
  8. ^ The previous kyabazinga, Henry Wako Muloki of Bulamogi, died on 1 September 2008. His son, Edward Columbus Wambuzi, was announced as his successor following contentious elections on 31 October 2008. However, five of the eleven royal chiefs denounced the new king, instead endorsing William Nadiope IV, of Bugabula. The Ugandan government advised the parties to hold another election, and an interim order was served to Wambuzi in May 2009 restraining him from holding office. On 7 June 2009, however, Wambuzi was installed on the throne amidst protests from other chiefs. He also secured a court order blocking the planned re-elections. These took place in secret on 5 October 2009, when Nadiope IV was elected unopposed. The High Court is to start hearing the cases in November 2010, but the clan heads have vowed to install Nadiope IV on the throne before September, despite the standing judicial injunctions blocking the enthronement of either contender.
  9. ^ The kyabazinga is elected for life by the Royal Council, composed of the eleven hereditary chiefs of the kingdom. Selection is limited to members of the five royal clans of the Basoga.
  10. ^ a b c The throne is traditionally supposed to rotate among the numerous clans. It is not clear as to which of the clans the current leader belongs.
  11. ^ They belong to the Lwo rulership but not of the Atyak genealogy. The Jonam means people of the lake or stays near the river thus river Nile by location. Today after the declarance of Alur as a kingdom, they began to pay allegiance to Ubimu of Alur as per the constitution of Uganda; although maintain their own administrative sovereignty. Not all the chiefdoms and clanships in Junam belong to the same origin. Some like Ragem, Paroketo and Panyimur came from Bunyoro and the ones that want separation yet few in number while some like Amor, Pangyeth, Boro, Panyigoro, Alwi, among the 14 chiefdoms came from Nyipir lineage of the Lwo Atyak rulership, now with Ubimu Rauni III of Alur. That is why today, Junam is entirely claimed by Ragem - which is the only strongest chiefdom in Junam county of Nebbi District as designated by Mr. White Weatherhead during the British colonisation of Uganda and West Nile in particular.
  12. ^ historically, the kebu had no chieftainship but stayed with the Alur Kings/ Chiefs as pages who produced farming implements (Aidan, 1953). Today they are trying to fight for constitution recognition and proper formation of a Chiefship. Asked about their first chief no one can tell, a testimony that their desire for chiefship is a modern construct.
  13. ^ A clan of the Kebu people. The current chief belongs to the Waringu family and still is being contested.
  14. ^ The kamuswaga belongs to the Ndawula Lwabulanga lineage of the Babito clan.
  15. ^ Elected to the throne by clan leaders on 17 August 2001.
  16. ^ Elected to the throne by clan leaders on 19 September 1998.
  17. ^ The current king, Charles Mumbere, was first proclaimed as "Kibanzanga II" on 19 October 1966. He reigned as a minor, in pretendence, under a regency council until 1972, when he took the regnal name "Irema-Ngoma I". His kingdom was officially abolished by the Ugandan government on 8 September 1967, but effectively continued in armed opposition until 15 August 1982, when the king's forces surrendered and Mumbere was officially appointed as "chief elder" of the district. Rwenzururu was officially restored by the government as a traditional kingdom on 17 March 2008, and recognition was confirmed by the President at the king's coronation anniversary on 19 October 2009.
  18. ^ A clan of the Bakonzo.
  19. ^ Iguru Rukidi succeeded as omukama upon the death of his father in August 1995. He was crowned on 12 September 1996. Until 17 April 2010, he had officially reigned as a minor under a regency council.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]