This is a list of reigning constituent monarchs, including traditional rulers and governing constitutional monarchs. Each monarch listed below reigns over a legally recognised dominion, but in most cases possess little or no sovereign governing power. Their titles, however, are recognised by the state. Entries are listed beside their respective dominions, and are grouped by country.
Present information regarding governmental recognition of traditional monarchs in Indonesia is inadequate. In some instances below, pre-colonial polities have been officially restored, and the royal titles of their leaders have been nominally confirmed. In other cases, the government has refused to revive monarchies that were previously abolished during the earliest years of the republic. Despite the historical suppression of these dynasties, a large number have retained their culture, identity, and their status within their own communities. Royal titles are still widely used, bestowed in formal enthronement ceremonies conducted without formal recognition from Jakarta.
In recent years, the number of dynasties receiving recognition as nominal cultural authorities has steadily increased. However, because it remains unclear as to which monarchies have not yet been recognised, the list below will contain all extant Indonesian dynasties on which there is information available. Monarchs that have explicitly been denied recognition are listed under pretenders. The Sultan of Yogyakarta is listed separately due to the constitutional nature of his position.
^Formally installed on the following day. Tengku Ibrahim previously ruled as prince regent between 26 April 1984 and 25 April 1989, whilst the incumbent sultan ruled as King of Malaysia.
^Formally installed on 20 February 1959. Tengku Abdul had been ruling as prince regent since 9 March 1957.
^Prior to his assumption of the throne, Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra had been serving as prince regent since 25 May 2009 on behalf of his father, Sultan Ismail Petra, after the elder suffered a delibitating stroke. In September 2010, the elder sultan was constitutionally deposed by the state's Succession Council in favour of Muhammad Faris.
^Negeri Sembilan is a confederation currently consisting of six states. Seri Menanti is the name of the state from which the ruling line of Negeri Sembilan derives. It is a branch of the Minangkabau dynasty.
^The Yang di-Pertuan Besar is chosen for life by the Undang Laut (four ruling chiefs of the confederated states of Negeri Sembilan) from amongst four royal princes. These princes are selected by the reigning Yang di-Pertuan Besar from amongst the senior members of the ruling line of Seri Menanti.
^Formally installed on the following day. Sharafuddin, then known as Tengku Idris Shah, previously ruled as prince regent between 26 April 1999 and 21 November 2001, whilst the incumbent sultan ruled as King of Malaysia.
^The current ruling family of Selangor is a Bugis dynasty.
^Formally installed 26 May 1998. Coronation took place on 4 March 1999. Tuanku Mizan had previously served as acting sultan between 20 October and 8 November 1990.
^These traditional chiefdoms are part of the confederacy of Negeri Sembilan, a federated state of Malaysia. The ruling chiefs of Jelebu, Johol, Rembau, and Sungai Ujong form the Undang Laut, who will decide the next Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan. Tampin is a separate hereditary principality. Naning is currently situated within the state of Malacca.
^The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the three highest noble families: the Waris Ulu Jelebu, Waris Sarin, and Waris Kemin.
^The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the male descendants of the first ruler, following the matrilineal line.
^Naning was part of Negeri Sembilan from 1641 to 1832. Currently it is part of Malacca.
^The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the direct descendants of two noble families: the Waris Jakun and Waris Jawa. The position is, by informal agreement, alternated between the heads of the two houses.
^The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the direct descendants of two noble families: the Waris Hulu and Waris Hilir.
^The kingdom of Lanao, or Ranao, is traditionally a federation composed of sixteen primary sultanates. Each sultanate, headed by an hereditary royal house, represents a different clan of the Maranaos. In addition to the primary sultanates, there are a further twenty-eight lesser (termed "legislative") sultanates, which are the guardians of the Maranao taritib (tradition). The federation is headed by a supreme sultan, chosen from amongst the royal lineages of the lesser sultanates. The sixteen primary sultans are also listed above; the others are not. This customary system of traditional society is recognised by the government of the Philippines.
^A Maranao dynasty. The current sultan belongs principally to the House of Dayawan. He also descends from the houses of Bayang, Buayan, Guimba, Marawi, and Marantao.
^The throne of Maguindanao has been officially vacant since the assassination of the last sultan, Amir bin Muhammad Baraguir, in early 2006. His eldest son, Ammar Yassir, is presently prince regent and head of the royal household.
^The throne of the Sultan of Sulu is currently disputed between two members of the Kiram family. The present sultan recognised by the government of the Philippines is Jamalul Kiram III. He was proclaimed upon the death of his father in 1984, and was formally crowned in Jolo on 15 June 1986. He had previously served as prince regent during part of his father's reign, between 1974 and 1981. Since his enthronement, he has settled in Manila. Consequently, he has been replaced by his younger brother Esmail Kiram II, who was proclaimed sultan upon the recommendation of the sultanate's traditional council. Esmail was crowned on 12 March 2001. However, he has not been recognised by the Philippine government, which continues to recognise and consult with Jamal. To further complicate the matter, Esmail is seemingly recognised by the provincial government in Jolo. There are a number of other claimants to the throne from other branches of the dynasty; these are listed under pretenders.
^While state law requires that all provincial governors be elected, in the case of Yogyakarta, the sultan is given priority during elections, and therefore is always the default governor. In addition, the reigning Pakualam (see under Java) is normally given preference when selecting the vice-governor. As in other provinces, considerable administrative power is also ceded to the central government.
^ abThe rajas of Denpasar and Pamecutan, two dynastical divisions of the formerly unified kingdom of Badung, both use the hereditary regnal name "Pemecutan". Ngurah Jambe of Denpasar is formally referred to as Pemecutan IX, while Ngurah Manik of Pamecutan is known as Pemecutan XI. The numerical appendages are not interconnected.
^The previous head of the royal family and the last recognised king of Ubud, Tjokorda Gde Agung Sukawati, died in 1978. His eldest son, Gde Putra, is the present head of the family. He has not yet been installed as king, however, and instead presently serves as prince regent.
^The throne of the Sultan of Banjarmasin has been vacant since its revival by the government. Its last ruler was deposed by the Dutch in 1863. There are several candidates for succession amongst the current members of the royal family.
^Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura was officially revived as a traditional polity in 1999. Muhammad Salehuddin II has been officially recognised as sultan by the government since that time, although he has been head of the royal family since 29 August 1991. His formal coronation took place 22 September 2001.
^Also known as the Alkadrie, Kadriah, or Kadariah dynasty.
^Muhammad Tarhan succeeded as head of the royal family following the death of his father in 2008. Like his father, however, he has not been formally installed as sultan, and instead presently acts as prince regent. He is also a minor, born in 1993.
^Muhammad Ikhsani Syafiuddin was officially recognised as Panembahan of Sintang by the government in 2003. He was formally enthroned as Panembahan Sri Kusuma Negara V on 26 September 2005.
^Muhammad Ismetullah was officially recognised as Head of the Royal House of Banten when the sultanate was revived in 1985. He was recognised as crown prince in 2003, but has yet to be formally enthroned as sultan.
^ abcA branch of the Cirebon dynasty. In 1662, the sultanate of Cirebon was divided between three branches of the ruling dynasty: (in order of seniority) Kasepuhan, Kanoman, and Kacirebonan. All three lines were nominally restored in 2002.
^Following the death of the previous sultan, Muhammad Djalaluddin, a dispute of succession arose between two of his sons. Muhammad Emiruddin, the current occupant of the palace, is the rightful heir to his father according to the relevant laws of succession. He was actively opposed by his elder half-brother, Muhammad Saladin, who was "installed" by his supporters on 5 March 2003. Saladin later renounced his claim on 12 September 2003, and the local government has recognised Emiruddin as the sole successor.
^Upon the death of Pakubuwono XII in 2004, with no successor named, there arose two rival claims to the throne. Two of his sons, Hangabehi and Tejowulan, each had themselves "crowned" as the next Susuhunan. The dispute likely still exists, although family consensus apparently favours the elder brother, Hangabehi, who is also the sole titleholder recognised by the government. In either case, both claimants would use the regnal name of Pakubuwono XIII.
^The last sultan, Gahral Adyan Syah, died September 2009. His successor has yet to be installed.
^The sultan is selected from amongst a group of royal candidates by a council of the family's four main branches: Iskandar Alam, Tarafannur, Kamarullah, and Tunggulawang, each of which is descended from a past sultan. Since 1797, the sultans have been exclusively of the Kamarullah branch.
^Lodewijk was selected as raja on 24 May 2005. He was officially installed later, in December of the same year.
^A branch of the House of Pesulima, which is descended from the Majapahit kings of Java.
^Since 1380, the rulers of Ternate have also held the title Kolano Maloko, which denotes supremacy among the Moluccan sultanates. Prior to then it had been worn by the ruler of Jailolo.
^Mudaffar Syah was officially installed as sultan in 1986. Prior to that, he had held the title in pretence as head of his household since 4 July 1975.
^The royal family of Fatagar is descended from the neighbouring dynasty of Rumbati.
^The last raja of Patipi, Usman Iba, died in 2003. His brother, Ahmad Iba, currently serves as regent pending the enthronement of the late raja's son, the Raja Muda Atarai Iba.
^A sept of the Koesman Ibia clan, which descends from the Segera tribe.
^Herman Dupe was the last reigning manek of Bokai, effectively ruling from 1961 until the state was abolished by the Indonesian government in 1968. Presumably, recognition of his title was abolished concurrently. The date of the nominal restoration of this monarchy is not known.
^The deposed monarchy of Gowa, also known after its capital Makassar, was nominally restored by the government in 2001. The throne of the Somba has been vacant since then. The current head of the royal family (since 1978), and heir to the throne, is Andi Kumala Karaeng Sila.
^The throne of the mokole of Mori is currently vacant. The present head of the royal family is Kumampu Marunduh. There are reportedly plans to install a young prince as mokole in the near future.
^Became head of the royal family upon the death of his father on 6 April 1980; he was formally enthroned later in May.
^The present sultan, born in 1997, is a minor. His grand uncle, the Raja Muda Tengku Hamdi Osman, currently acts as regent.
^The Pagaruyung kingdom was traditionally headed by a tripartite monarchy, consisting of the Raja Alam, the Raja Adat and the Raja Ibadat, collectively known as the "Kings of the Three Seats". The latter two were religious titles, while the first was considered the paramount ruler (or emperor) of the temporal world.
^ abA Minangkabau dynasty. The seat of the Minangkabau emperor, who is considered the paramount monarch of all Minangkabauw people in Sumatra and Malaya, is Pagaruyung.
^Formally enthroned in January 2003, after having been recognised by the government.
^Kupang, named after its capital, was formed as a confederation of Timorese fiefdoms: Amabi, Foenay, Sonbai Kecil, Taebenu, and the Helong. Leopold Nisnoni, known within his community as "Isu", is presently the chief of Sonbai Kecil, and has also been accepted as ruler of the confederacy. The other current chiefs are: Gideon Broery of Amabi, Esthon Leyloh of Foenay (also spelled Funai), and Daud Tanof of Taebenu. The present chief of the Helong nation is Soleman Bislissin. They are all hereditary positions.
^Leopold succeeded as head of the royal family of Sonbai Kecil upon the death of his father on 14 November 1992. He was proclaimed regent of the Kupang confederacy in 1993. He was formally installed as king in 2004.
^While the elected loros do not belong to any one royal lineage, succession has historically been limited to the Bunak people.
^Lamaknen was formed as a confederation of small Timorese fiefdoms. Its monarch is elected by the hereditary chiefs of each constituent state. The chiefs themselves are not normally considered candidates for election.
^Originally subordinate to the Sonbai kingdom under the name of Amakono.
^The previously recognised liurai died in 2003. His longtime rival, Dominikus Tei Serang, from another branch of the royal family, was "enthroned" by his supporters on 9 August 2003. It is unclear whether his title has been recognised. At present, there are other claimants to the throne.
^Sovereignty in Barnusa was historically divided between two ruling clans: the Baso and the Blegur, the leaders of which both wore the title Raja of Barnusa. The Blegur raja was later given the lesser title Kapitan by the Dutch colonial government. The title remains hereditary and prestige is traditionally divided equally. The current Kapitan is Bastian C. Blegur (since 1973).
^Pending his formal coronation as Sultan Bima XV, Iskandar Zulkarnain wears the title of crown prince. Currently acting as princess regent (since May 2001) is his aunt, Siti Maryam Salahuddin.
^Became head of the royal family upon the death of his father on 3 May 2001. He was invested with the title of heir apparent later in June, but has not yet been formally enthroned as sultan.
^Dompu's last sultan was Muhammad Tajularifin Sirajuddin II, who died in 1964. Since then, the throne has remained officially vacant, and succession is currently disputed between two of the late sultan's sons: Prince Abdul Azis, and his younger half-brother Prince Kaharul Zaman. Neither have been enthroned, although the latter is apparently considered the head of the family.
^The current dynasty is descended from the royal family of Terengganu, and are of mixed Malay and Bugis descent. Historically, the sultan's family, who were Malay, was based in Lingga, whilst a viceroy, who was always of Bugis descent, governed the Riau Islands. The two ruling lines merged in 1899.
^The last sultan, Muhammad Kaharuddin III, died in 1975. His son Muhammad Abdurahman was formally installed as head of the royal family in 2001, but has not yet been designated as his successor.
^Sultan was initially enthroned as emir on 25 January 1972. On 17 June 1987, he was briefly deposed by his brother, Sheikh Abdul'aziz bin Muhammad, for a period of six days. Sultan regained the throne on 23 June.
^The Bohmong Raja is recognised by the government of Bangladesh as the leader of the Marma population, and the traditional king of the Bohmong Circle (Bohmong Htaung), one of three tribal circles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
^The Chakma Raja is recognised by the government of Bangladesh as the leader of the Chakma population, and the traditional king of the Chakma Circle, one of three tribal circles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
^The Mong Raja is recognised by the government of Bangladesh as the leader of the Arakanese population, and the traditional king of the Mong Circle (Phalang Htaung), one of three tribal circles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
^The kings of the five traditional states known collectively as the Dangs are the only royals in India whose titles are recognised by the government. Each raja receives an annual pension from the state, owing to an agreement made with the British colonial government in 1842.
^The current Raja of Gadhvi has been missing since 1992. His son and heir, Karan Singh, is presently acting as prince regent.
^"Indonesia". Almanach de Bruxelles. January 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
^Van Klinken, Gerry (2007). "Return of the Sultans: The Communitarian Turn in Local Politics". The revival of tradition in Indonesian politics: The deployment of adat from colonialism to indigenism (London: Routledge): 149–169. SSRN1309406.
Chief Ndilanha of Kinamweri, kwimba was an emblem chief from chief Masanja of Ngwagara Maswa. Chief Ndilanha originated from either one of the Datoga or Hadzabe tribes. His first wife was from the Nyiramba people. Because of the inter marriage he fled to Maswa neighborhood where because of his smooth skin, he was nicknamed "ndilanha" by sukuma to mean a some one with a very smooth skin like a baby cow-a calf. Because of his bravity and courage was given a chiefly emblem by the then chief of Ngwagara to rule over Kina mweri although he was highly opposed by the chief heredity descendants until in 19th century when the Germany entered Tanganyika.
Van Klinken, Gerry (2007). "Return of the Sultans: The Communitarian Turn in Local Politics". The revival of tradition in Indonesian politics: The deployment of adat from colonialism to indigenism (London: Routledge): 149–169. SSRN1309406.