List of current constituent Asian monarchs

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For current sovereign monarchs, see List of current sovereign monarchs.

This is a list of reigning constituent monarchs, including traditional rulers and governing constitutional monarchs. Each monarch listed below reigns over a legally recognised dominion, but in most cases possess little or no sovereign governing power. Their titles, however, are recognised by the state. Entries are listed beside their respective dominions, and are grouped by country.

Asian monarchs[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Bangladesh Bangladesh Bohmong [as 1] Raja Aung Shwe Prue 1959 Chowdhury Hereditary and Elective [1][2]
Chakma [as 2] Raja Debashish 12 November 1971 Roy Hereditary [3][4]
Mong [as 3] Raja Saching Prue 22 October 2008 [as 4] Chowdhury Hereditary and Elective [5][6]
East Timor East Timor Oecusse [as 5] Liurai Antonio I 4 May 2001 [as 6] Da Costa [as 7] Hereditary
India India [as 8] Daher Raja Tapatrao Anandrao Rajput Hereditary [7][8]
Gadhvi Raja Yashwant Rao [as 9] Hereditary
Linga Raja Bhavarsingh Hereditary
Pimpri Raja Trikamrao Sahebrao Hereditary
Vasurna Raja Chandra Singh Hereditary

Malaysia[edit]

State Constituent Monarch Since House Type Succession Refs
Malaysia Malaysia Johor Sultan Ibrahim Ismail 22 January 2010 [my 1] Temenggong Constitutional Hereditary [9]
Kedah Sultan Abdul Halim 14 July 1958 [my 2] Kedah Hereditary [9]
Kelantan Sultan Muhammad V [my 3] 13 September 2010 Kelantan Hereditary [9]
Negeri Sembilan Yamtuan Besar Muhriz 29 December 2008 Seri Menanti [my 4] Hereditary and Elective [my 5] [9]
Pahang Sultan Ahmad Shah 7 May 1974 [my 6] Bendahara Hereditary [9]
Perak Sultan Azlan Shah 3 February 1984 [my 7] Siak Hereditary [9]
Perlis Raja Sirajuddin 17 April 2000 Jamalullail Hereditary [9]
Selangor Sultan Sharafuddin 21 November 2001 [my 8] Selangor [my 9] Hereditary [9]
Terengganu Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin [my 10] 16 May 1998 [my 11] Bendahara Hereditary [9]
State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Malaysia Negeri Sembilan[my 12] Jelebu Dato' Musa Abdul Wahab 4 February 1980 [my 13] Sarin Elective and Hereditary [my 14] [citation needed]
Johol Dato' Mohammad Jan ‘Abdul Ghani 13 March 2007 Gemencheh Elective and Hereditary [my 15] [10]
Naning [my 16] Dato' Abdul Latif 25 November 2006 Elective and Hereditary [11]
Rembau Dato' Muhammad Sharif Othman 21 November 1998 Jakun Elective and Hereditary [my 17] [citation needed]
Sungai Ujong Dato' Shah Bandar 29 December 1993 Hulu Elective and Hereditary [my 18] [citation needed]
Tampin Tunku Besar Razman 26 December 2005[my 19] Al Qadri Hereditary [my 20] [citation needed]

Philippines[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Philippines Philippines Buayan Sultan Mohammad Amil Kusain 28 June 2008 Camsa Hereditary
Lanao [fi 1] Sultan Firdausi Abbas 25 May 1996 Ranao [fi 2] Elective [12][13]
Maguindanao Vacant [fi 3] 11 January 2006 Kudarat Hereditary [14][15]
Sulu Disputed [fi 4] 12 March 2001 Kiram [fi 5] Hereditary [16][17]
Talik Sultan Nasser Sambuto Pendatun 23 July 2005 Sambuto Hereditary [18][19]
Lanao confederates
Bacolod Sultan Madki Maurak Bacolod [fi 6] Hereditary [20][21]
Baloi Sultan Ysmael Ali Baloi [fi 6] Hereditary
Bansayan Sultan Calicozaman Basman Bansayan [fi 6] Hereditary [22][23]
Bayang Sultan Ali Manding Bayang [fi 6] Hereditary [12][24]
Borocot Sultan Saidali Baniaga Dirampaten [fi 6] Hereditary [22][25]
Butig Sultan Nasroden Ador Butig [fi 6] Hereditary [26][27]
Cabugatan Datu Manaros Simbaan Cabugatan [fi 6] Hereditary [28][29]
Ditsaan Sultan Tamano Pandapata Ditsaan [fi 6] Hereditary [30][31]
Dumalondong Sultan Macaurog Guinar Domalondong [fi 6] Hereditary [22][32]
Maribo Sultan Nasser Magomnang Maribo [fi 6] Hereditary [22][33]
Masiu Sultan Topaan Disomimba 4 February 2002 Masiu [fi 6] Hereditary [22][34]
Minitupad Sultan Pagaranganan Mitmug Minitupad [fi 6] Hereditary [22][35]
Pagayawan Sultan Mohamad Fahad Alonto Santican 14 April 2004 Bacayawan [fi 6] Hereditary [12][36]
Ramain Sultan Patadatu Bayas 11 December 2002 Ramain [fi 6] Hereditary [22][37]
Rogon Sultan Bangcola Adtha Rogon [fi 6] Hereditary [22][38]
Taporog Sultan Farouk Sharif July 1998 Taporog [fi 6] Hereditary [22][39]

Indonesia[edit]

Present information regarding governmental recognition of traditional monarchs in Indonesia is inadequate. In some instances below, pre-colonial polities have been restored, and the royal titles of their leaders have been nominally confirmed. In other cases, the government has refused to revive monarchies that had been abolished during the earliest years of the republic. Despite the historical suppression of these dynasties, a large number have retained their culture, identity, and their status within their own communities. Royal titles are still widely used, bestowed in formal enthronement ceremonies conducted without formal recognition from Jakarta.[40]

In recent years, the number of dynasties receiving recognition as nominal cultural authorities has steadily increased.[41] However, because it remains unclear as to which monarchies have not yet been recognised, the list below will contain all extant Indonesian dynasties on which there is information available. Monarchs that have explicitly been denied recognition are listed under pretenders. The Sultan of Yogyakarta is listed separately due to the constitutional nature of his position.

State Constituent Monarch Since House Type Succession Refs
Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Yogyakarta Sultan Hamengkubuwono X 2 October 1988 [id 1] Hamengkubuwono [id 2] Limited [id 3] Hereditary [citation needed]

Western Asia[edit]

State Constituent Monarch Since House Type Succession Refs
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed 3 November 2004 Al Nahyan [me 1] Limited [me 2] Hereditary [141]
Ajman Sheikh Humaid V bin Rashid 6 September 1981 Al Nuaim [me 3] Hereditary [141]
Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid 4 January 2006 Al Maktoum [me 4] Hereditary [141]
Fujairah Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammed 18 September 1974 Al Sharqi [me 5] Hereditary [141]
Ras al-Khaimah Sheikh Saud bin Saqr 27 October 2010 [me 6] Al Qasimi [me 7] Hereditary [141]
Sharjah Sheikh Sultan III bin Mohamed 23 June 1987 [me 8] Al Qasimi [me 7] Hereditary [141]
Umm al-Qaiwain Sheikh Saud bin Rashid 2 January 2009 Al Mu‘alla Hereditary [141]

Malaysia[edit]

  1. ^ Formally installed on the following day. Tengku Ibrahim ruled as prince regent between 26 April 1984 and 25 April 1989, whilst the incumbent sultan ruled as King of Malaysia.
  2. ^ Formally installed on 20 February 1959. Tengku Abdul had been ruling as prince regent since 9 March 1957.
  3. ^ Prior to his assumption of the throne, Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra had been serving as prince regent since 25 May 2009 on behalf of his father, Sultan Ismail Petra, after the elder suffered a delibitating stroke. In September 2010, the elder sultan was constitutionally deposed by the state's Succession Council in favour of Muhammad Faris.
  4. ^ Negeri Sembilan is a confederation of six states. Seri Menanti is the name of the state from which the ruling line of Negeri Sembilan derives. It is a branch of the Minangkabau dynasty.
  5. ^ The Yang di-Pertuan Besar is chosen for life by the Undang Laut (four ruling chiefs of the confederated states of Negeri Sembilan) from amongst four royal princes. These princes are selected by the reigning Yang di-Pertuan Besar from amongst the senior members of the ruling line of Seri Menanti.
  6. ^ Coronation took place on 6 May 1975.
  7. ^ Coronation took place on 9 December 1985.
  8. ^ Formally installed on the following day. Sharafuddin, then known as Tengku Idris Shah, ruled as prince regent between 26 April 1999 and 21 November 2001, whilst the incumbent sultan ruled as King of Malaysia.
  9. ^ The current ruling family of Selangor is a Bugis dynasty.
  10. ^ As of 13 December 2006, the sultan's son and heir, Tengku Muhammad Ismail, acts as prince regent whilst his father serves a term as King of Malaysia.
  11. ^ Formally installed 26 May 1998. Coronation took place on 4 March 1999. Tuanku Mizan had served as acting sultan between 20 October and 8 November 1990.
  12. ^ These traditional chiefdoms are part of the confederacy of Negeri Sembilan, a federated state of Malaysia. The ruling chiefs of Jelebu, Johol, Rembau, and Sungai Ujong form the Undang Laut, who will decide the next Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan. Tampin is a separate hereditary principality. Naning is situated in the state of Malacca.
  13. ^ Formally enthroned on 20 November 1981.
  14. ^ The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the three highest noble families: the Waris Ulu Jelebu, Waris Sarin, and Waris Kemin.
  15. ^ The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the male descendants of the first ruler, following the matrilineal line.
  16. ^ Naning was part of Negeri Sembilan from 1641 to 1832. It is now part of Malacca.
  17. ^ The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the direct descendants of two noble families: the Waris Jakun and Waris Jawa. The position is, by informal agreement, alternated between the heads of the two houses.
  18. ^ The undang (ruling chief) is elected for life by the nobles and vassals of the state from amongst the direct descendants of two noble families: the Waris Hulu and Waris Hilir.
  19. ^ Formally enthroned on 12 August 2006.
  20. ^ The Yang di-Pertuan Muda (prince) succeeds according to the laws of male primogeniture, but must also receive confirmation from the reigning Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan.

Philippines[edit]

  1. ^ The kingdom of Lanao, or Ranao, is traditionally a federation composed of sixteen primary sultanates. Each sultanate, headed by an hereditary royal house, represents a different clan of the Maranaos. In addition to the primary sultanates, there are a further twenty-eight lesser (termed "legislative") sultanates, which are the guardians of the Maranao taritib (tradition). The federation is headed by a supreme sultan, chosen from amongst the royal lineages of the lesser sultanates. The sixteen primary sultans are also listed above; the others are not. This customary system of traditional society is recognised by the government of the Philippines.
  2. ^ A Maranao dynasty. The current sultan belongs principally to the House of Dayawan. He also descends from the houses of Bayang, Buayan, Guimba, Marawi, and Marantao.
  3. ^ The throne of Maguindanao has been vacant since the assassination of the last sultan, Amir bin Muhammad Baraguir, in early 2006. His eldest son, Ammar Yassir, is prince regent and head of the royal household.
  4. ^ The throne of the Sultan of Sulu is disputed between two members of the Kiram family. The present sultan recognised by the government of the Philippines is Jamalul Kiram III. He was proclaimed upon the death of his father in 1984, and was formally crowned in Jolo on 15 June 1986. He had served as prince regent during part of his father's reign, between 1974 and 1981. Since his enthronement, he has settled in Manila. Consequently, he has been replaced by his younger brother Esmail Kiram II, who was proclaimed sultan upon the recommendation of the sultanate's traditional council. Esmail was crowned on 12 March 2001. However, he has not been recognised by the Philippine government, which continues to recognise and consult with Jamal. To further complicate the matter, Esmail is seemingly recognised by the provincial government in Jolo. There are a number of other claimants to the throne from other branches of the dynasty; these are listed under pretenders.
  5. ^ A branch of the House of Sulu. The royal family of Sulu is a Tausūg dynasty.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p A clan of the Maranaos.

Indonesia[edit]

  1. ^ Formally installed on 7 March 1989.
  2. ^ a b c d A branch of the Kartasura dynasty.
  3. ^ While state law requires that all provincial governors be elected, in the case of Yogyakarta, the sultan is given priority during elections, and therefore is always the default governor. In addition, the reigning Pakualam (see under Java) is normally given preference when selecting the vice-governor. As in other provinces, considerable administrative power is also ceded to the central government.
  4. ^ a b A branch of the Gelgel dynasty.
  5. ^ a b The rajas of Denpasar and Pamecutan, two dynastical divisions of the formerly unified kingdom of Badung, both use the hereditary regnal name "Pemecutan". Ngurah Jambe of Denpasar is formally referred to as Pemecutan IX, while Ngurah Manik of Pamecutan is known as Pemecutan XI. The numerical appendages are not interconnected.
  6. ^ a b c A branch of the Badung dynasty.
  7. ^ The previous head of the royal family and the last recognised king of Ubud, Tjokorda Gde Agung Sukawati, died in 1978. His eldest son, Gde Putra, is the present head of the family. He has not yet been installed as king, however, and instead serves as prince regent.
  8. ^ The throne of the Sultan of Banjarmasin has been vacant since its revival by the government. Its last ruler was deposed by the Dutch in 1863. There are several candidates for succession amongst the current members of the royal family.
  9. ^ a b c A Banjar dynasty.
  10. ^ Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura was revived as a traditional polity in 1999. Muhammad Salehuddin II has been recognised as sultan by the government since that time, although he has been head of the royal family since 29 August 1991. His formal coronation took place 22 September 2001.
  11. ^ a b A Dayak dynasty.
  12. ^ a b A Bugis dynasty.
  13. ^ Also known as the Alkadrie, Kadriah, or Kadariah dynasty.
  14. ^ Muhammad Tarhan succeeded as head of the royal family following the death of his father in 2008. Like his father, however, he has not been installed as sultan, and instead acts as prince regent. He is also a minor, born in 1993.
  15. ^ Also commonly written as Sampang.
  16. ^ Muhammad Ikhsani Syafiuddin was recognised as Panembahan of Sintang by the government in 2003. He was formally enthroned as Panembahan Sri Kusuma Negara V on 26 September 2005.
  17. ^ Muhammad Ismetullah was recognised as Head of the Royal House of Banten when the sultanate was revived in 1985. He was recognised as crown prince in 2003, but has yet to be formally enthroned as sultan.
  18. ^ a b c A branch of the Cirebon dynasty. In 1662, the sultanate of Cirebon was divided between three branches of the ruling dynasty: (in order of seniority) Kasepuhan, Kanoman, and Kacirebonan. All three lines were nominally restored in 2002.
  19. ^ Following the death of the previous sultan, Muhammad Djalaluddin, a dispute of succession arose between two of his sons. Muhammad Emiruddin, the current occupant of the palace, is the rightful heir to his father according to the relevant laws of succession. He was actively opposed by his elder half-brother, Muhammad Saladin, who was "installed" by his supporters on 5 March 2003. Saladin later renounced his claim on 12 September 2003, and the local government has recognised Emiruddin as the sole successor.
  20. ^ Also commonly known as Solo.
  21. ^ Upon the death of Pakubuwono XII in 2004, with no successor named, there arose two rival claims to the throne. Two of his sons, Hangabehi and Tejowulan, each had themselves "crowned" as the next Susuhunan. The dispute likely still exists, although family consensus apparently favours the elder brother, Hangabehi, who is also the sole titleholder recognised by the government. In either case, both claimants would use the regnal name of Pakubuwono XIII.
  22. ^ The last sultan, Gahral Adyan Syah, died September 2009. His successor has yet to be installed.
  23. ^ The sultan is selected from amongst a group of royal candidates by a council of the family's four main branches: Iskandar Alam, Tarafannur, Kamarullah, and Tunggulawang, each of which is descended from a past sultan. Since 1797, the sultans have been exclusively of the Kamarullah branch.
  24. ^ Lodewijk was selected as raja on 24 May 2005. He was installed later, in December of the same year.
  25. ^ A branch of the House of Pesulima, which is descended from the Majapahit kings of Java.
  26. ^ Since 1380, the rulers of Ternate have also held the title Kolano Maloko, which denotes supremacy among the Moluccan sultanates. Prior to then it had been worn by the ruler of Jailolo.
  27. ^ Mudaffar Syah was installed as sultan in 1986. Prior to that, he had held the title in pretence as head of his household since 4 July 1975.
  28. ^ The royal family of Fatagar is descended from the neighbouring dynasty of Rumbati.
  29. ^ A Kowiai dynasty.
  30. ^ The last raja of Patipi, Usman Iba, died in 2003. His brother, Ahmad Iba, serves as regent pending the enthronement of the late raja's son, the Raja Muda Atarai Iba.
  31. ^ A sept of the Koesman Ibia clan, which descends from the Segera tribe.
  32. ^ Herman Dupe was the last reigning manek of Bokai, effectively ruling from 1961 until the state was abolished by the Indonesian government in 1968. Presumably, recognition of his title was abolished concurrently. The date of the nominal restoration of this monarchy is not known.
  33. ^ Formal enthronement took place in 2000.
  34. ^ The last manek of Dengka died in 1970. His heir apparent, who has not yet acceded to the throne, is Prince Jeremias Tungga. At present, Prince Godlief Eliazar Tungga serves as prince regent.
  35. ^ The last manek of Korbafo, Leoanan Nathaniel Manubulu, died in 2000. The throne has remained vacant since then.
  36. ^ The last manek of Landu, Marthen Matheos Johannes, died in 2008. His son Willem Marthen Johannes is the heir apparent, but has not been enthroned. He serves as prince regent.
  37. ^ Formal enthronement took place in 2004.
  38. ^ The last manek of Ringgou, Hendrik Daoed, died in 2002. His son Christian Daoed is the heir apparent, but has not yet been enthroned. He serves as prince regent.
  39. ^ Known within his community as "Bea". According to sources, the throne was scheduled to pass to Soleman's brother, Joël Amalo, in 2009. This has not been confirmed.
  40. ^ The last manek of Thie, Benjamin Messakh, died in 2010. His successor has yet to be confirmed.
  41. ^ The last raja, Adam Ardjad Lamarauna, died in 2006. His son and heir, Wajar Lamarauna, has yet to be formally installed as his successor.
  42. ^ The present tomundo, born in 1993, is a minor, and reigns alongside a regent.
  43. ^ The throne of the arung of Barru has been vacant for over fifty years. Since then, the head of the royal family is Hasanuddin Petta Tawang, who acts as regent.
  44. ^ Also written as Butung, or in Dutch as Boeton.
  45. ^ The deposed monarchy of Gowa, also known after its capital Makassar, was nominally restored by the government in 2001. The throne of the Somba has been vacant since then. The current head of the royal family (since 1978), and heir to the throne, is Andi Kumala Karaeng Sila.
  46. ^ The throne of the mokole of Mori is vacant. The present head of the royal family is Kumampu Marunduh. There are reportedly plans to install a young prince as mokole in the near future.
  47. ^ Became head of the royal family upon the death of his father on 6 April 1980; he was formally enthroned later in May.
  48. ^ Also commonly written as Bakkara.
  49. ^ Also known by his birth name, Tonggo Tua Sinambela. It is unclear whether or not he has been recognised, or enthroned.
  50. ^ A Batak dynasty.
  51. ^ The present sultan, born in 1997, is a minor. His grand uncle, the Raja Muda Tengku Hamdi Osman, acts as regent.
  52. ^ The Pagaruyung kingdom was traditionally headed by a tripartite monarchy, consisting of the Raja Alam, the Raja Adat and the Raja Ibadat, collectively known as the "Kings of the Three Seats". The latter two were religious titles, while the first was considered the paramount ruler (or emperor) of the temporal world.
  53. ^ a b A Minangkabau dynasty. The seat of the Minangkabau emperor, who is considered the paramount monarch of all Minangkabauw people in Sumatra and Malaya, is Pagaruyung.
  54. ^ Formally enthroned in January 2003, after having been recognised by the government.
  55. ^ Known within his community as "Gia".
  56. ^ a b c An Atoni dynasty.
  57. ^ An Atoni dynasty. Maternally, members of the royal family also belong to the Nitbani and Asbanu clans.
  58. ^ The royal family of Amarasi was originally an Atoni dynasty. However, the current lineage is descended from the Dj'awa dynasty of Savu.
  59. ^ Formally enthroned in March 2007.
  60. ^ a b A Topass dynasty.
  61. ^ Known within his community as "Olis", or "Ulis".
  62. ^ Kupang, named after its capital, was formed as a confederation of Timorese fiefdoms: Amabi, Foenay, Sonbai Kecil, Taebenu, and the Helong. Leopold Nisnoni, known within his community as "Isu", is the chief of Sonbai Kecil, and has also been accepted as ruler of the confederacy. The other chiefs are: Gideon Broery of Amabi,[117] Esthon Leyloh of Foenay (also spelled Funai),[118] and Daud Tanof of Taebenu.[119] The present chief of the Helong nation is Soleman Bislissin.[120] They are all hereditary positions.
  63. ^ Leopold succeeded as head of the royal family of Sonbai Kecil upon the death of his father on 14 November 1992. He was proclaimed regent of the Kupang confederacy in 1993. He was formally installed as king in 2004.
  64. ^ While the elected loros do not belong to any one royal lineage, succession has historically been limited to the Bunak people.
  65. ^ Lamaknen was formed as a confederation of small Timorese fiefdoms. Its monarch is elected by the hereditary chiefs of each constituent state. The chiefs themselves are not normally considered candidates for election.
  66. ^ Originally subordinate to the Sonbai kingdom under the name of Amakono.
  67. ^ The recognised liurai died in 2003. His longtime rival, Dominikus Tei Serang, from another branch of the royal family, was "enthroned" by his supporters on 9 August 2003. It is unclear whether his title has been recognised. At present, there are other claimants to the throne.
  68. ^ A Tetun dynasty.
  69. ^ Sovereignty in Barnusa was historically divided between two ruling clans: the Baso and the Blegur, the leaders of which both wore the title Raja of Barnusa. The Blegur raja was later given the lesser title Kapitan by the Dutch colonial government. The title remains hereditary and prestige is traditionally divided equally. The current Kapitan is Bastian C. Blegur (since 1973).
  70. ^ Pending his formal coronation as Sultan Bima XV, Iskandar Zulkarnain wears the title of crown prince. Acting as princess regent (since May 2001) is his aunt, Siti Maryam Salahuddin.
  71. ^ Became head of the royal family upon the death of his father on 3 May 2001. He was invested with the title of heir apparent later in June, but has not yet been formally enthroned as sultan.
  72. ^ Dompu's last sultan was Muhammad Tajularifin Sirajuddin II, who died in 1964. Since then, the throne has remained vacant, and succession is disputed between two of the late sultan's sons: Prince Abdul Azis, and his younger half-brother Prince Kaharul Zaman. Neither have been enthroned, although the latter is apparently considered the head of the family.
  73. ^ A sept of the Taruwamang clan.
  74. ^ The current dynasty is descended from the royal family of Terengganu, and are of mixed Malay and Bugis descent. Historically, the sultan's family, who were Malay, was based in Lingga, whilst a viceroy, who was always of Bugis descent, governed the Riau Islands. The two ruling lines merged in 1899.
  75. ^ The last sultan, Muhammad Kaharuddin III, died in 1975. His son Muhammad Abdurahman was formally installed as head of the royal family in 2001, but has not yet been designated as his successor.

Western Asia[edit]

  1. ^ The Al Nahyan are a branch of the Al Falahi, a clan of the Yas tribe.
  2. ^ The emirates, whilst absolute at the regional level, also forfeit a portion of their sovereignty and administrative power to the federal government.
  3. ^ A branch of the Al Shamsi tribe.
  4. ^ The Al Maktoum are a branch of the Al Falasi, a clan of the Yas tribe.
  5. ^ A branch of the Sharqiyyin tribe.
  6. ^ Saud had served as deputy ruler since 14 June 2003, effectively ruling in place of his father, Saqr bin Mohammad, who suffered from poor health.
  7. ^ a b A branch of the Al Qawasim tribe.
  8. ^ Sultan was initially enthroned as emir on 25 January 1972. On 17 June 1987, he was briefly deposed by his brother, Sheikh Abdul'aziz bin Muhammad, for a period of six days. Sultan regained the throne on 23 June.

Others[edit]

  1. ^ The Bohmong Raja is recognised by the government of Bangladesh as the leader of the Marma population, and the traditional king of the Bohmong Circle (Bohmong Htaung), one of three tribal circles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
  2. ^ The Chakma Raja is recognised by the government of Bangladesh as the leader of the Chakma population, and the traditional king of the Chakma Circle, one of three tribal circles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
  3. ^ The Mong Raja is recognised by the government of Bangladesh as the leader of the Arakanese population, and the traditional king of the Mong Circle (Phalang Htaung), one of three tribal circles in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
  4. ^ Coronation took place 17 January 2009.
  5. ^ After the neighbouring kingdom of Ambeno was annexed in 1912, the state changed its name to Oecusse-Ambeno.
  6. ^ Antonio was recognised as liurai in 2001, but has not been installed.
  7. ^ A Topass dynasty.
  8. ^ The kings of the five traditional states known collectively as the Dangs are the only royals in India whose titles are recognised by the government. Each raja receives an annual pension from the state, owing to an agreement made with the British colonial government in 1842.
  9. ^ The current Raja of Gadhvi has been missing since 1992. His son and heir, Karan Singh, is acting as prince regent.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mostafij, Shohag (8 November 2009). "Bandarban". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  2. ^ Soszynski, Henry. "Bohmong". Genealogical Gleanings. Ancestry.com. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Ahmed, Aftab; University of Chittagong (1993). "Ethnicity and insurgency in the Chittagong Hill tracts region". Commonwealth & Comparative Politics (Routledge) 31 (3): 32–66. doi:10.1080/14662049308447665. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  4. ^ Soszynski, Henry. "Chakma". Genealogical Gleanings. Ancestry.com. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Majumder, Jasim (15 August 2009). "King Saching". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  6. ^ Soszynski, Henry. "Mong Mahal". Genealogical Gleanings. Ancestry.com. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  7. ^ "Kings hold durbar at Dangs, but at Govt expense". Indian Express Newspapers. 28 February 1999. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  8. ^ Andrabi, Jalees (13 March 2009). "Once a year, peasant rulers are given the royal treatment". The National. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Soszynski, Henry. "Malaysia". Genealogical Gleanings. University of Queensland. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  10. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Malaysian States". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 12 April 2010. 
  11. ^ "Naning, Malaysia". Almanach de Bruxelles. October 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c Madale, Abdullah T. (1997). The Maranaws, dwellers of the lake. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 123, 133. ISBN 978-971-23-2174-0. 
  13. ^ Manila Bulletin (7 June 1996). "Sultan of Lanao crowned". Sultan Of Lanao. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  14. ^ Tesiorna, Ben (15 January 2006). "Military suspects rebels behind sultan's slay". Sun.Star Network (Davao: Sun.Star Publishing, Inc.). Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  15. ^ "Maguindanao, Philippines". Almanach de Bruxelles. December 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  16. ^ "Sulu, Philippines". Almanach de Bruxelles. December 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  17. ^ "Royal Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo". Sultanate of Sulu. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
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Chief Ndilanha of Kinamweri, kwimba was an emblem chief from chief Masanja of Ngwagara Maswa. Chief Ndilanha originated from either one of the Datoga or Hadzabe tribes. His first wife was from the Nyiramba people. Because of the inter marriage he fled to Maswa neighborhood where because of his smooth skin, he was nicknamed "ndilanha" by sukuma to mean a some one with a very smooth skin like a baby cow-a calf. Because of his bravity and courage was given a chiefly emblem by the then chief of Ngwagara to rule over Kina mweri although he was highly opposed by the chief heredity descendants until in 19th century when the Germany entered Tanganyika.

Further reading[edit]