List of current systems for electric rail traction

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This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.

Note that the voltages are nominal and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

Many modern trams and trains use on-board solid-state electronics to convert these supplies to run three-phase AC induction motors.

Key to the tables below[edit]

  • Conductors:
    • overhead line or
    • conductor rail, usually a third rail to one side of the running rails
      • Conductor rail can be:
        • top contact: oldest, least safe, affected by ice, snow and leaves
        • side contact: newer, safer, less affected by ice, snow and leaves
        • bottom contact: newer, safer, least affected by ice, snow and leaves

Systems using standard voltages[edit]

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163 [1] and IEC 60850[2]

Overhead systems[edit]

600 V DC[edit]

This voltage is mostly used by older tram systems worldwide but by a few new ones as well.

Country Name of system Location Notes
Australia Australia Adelaide Metro tramway Adelaide  
Yarra Trams Melbourne  
New South Wales Government Tramways Sydney, Newcastle Defunct - Newcastle network closed in 1950, Sydney closed 1961. The Sydney Tramway Museum operates a former heavy rail line at Loftus which is electrified at 600 volts DC.
City of Brisbane Brisbane Defunct - closed 1969. Originally electrified at 500 volts DC, later increased to 600. Originally operated by Brisbane Tramways Co Ltd.
Belgium Belgium Antwerp Tram Antwerp  
Belgian Coast Tram De Panne to Knokke  
Brussels trams Brussels  
Ghent Tram Ghent  
Canada Canada Calgary Transit C-Train Calgary  
Edmonton Transit LRT Edmonton  
Toronto Transit Commission Toronto streetcars only
Czech Republic Czech Republic most tram lines    
England England Blackpool Tramway Blackpool  
Estonia Estonia Tallinn tram Tallinn  
Finland Finland Helsinki tram Helsinki  
Germany Germany Stadtwerke Augsburg Verkehrsbetriebe Augsburg tram
Hungary Hungary BKV Budapest tram
DKV Debrecen tram
MVK Zrt. Miskolc tram
Public transport in Szeged Szeged tram
Italy Italy Most tram lines    
Japan Japan Most tram lines    
Chōshi Electric Railway Chōshi, Chiba  
Eizan Electric Railway Kyoto, Kyoto  
Enoshima Electric Railway Kanagawa  
Iyotetsu Takahama Line Matsuyama, Ehime  
Shizuoka Railway Shizuoka, Shizuoka  
Tokyu Setagaya Line Tokyo  
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Tram Amsterdam including line 51 south of Station Zuid
Rotterdam tram Rotterdam  
Trams in The Hague The Hague  
Poland Poland city tram networks Bydgoszcz, Częstochowa, Elbląg, Gdańsk, GOP, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Grudziądz, Kraków (Cracow), Poznań, Szczecin, Toruń, Warszawa (Warsaw), Wrocław all standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)), except Bydgoszcz, Elbląg, Grudziądz, Łódź and Toruń (metre gauge). Negative polarity in Gorzów Wielkopolski, Grudziądz and all Łódź network.
Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa (WKD) Warszawa and suburbs planned to be reelectified at 3 kV DC in 2013–14
Suburban trams in Łódź (Lodz) plus Konstantynów Łódzki, Lutomiersk, Ozorków, Pabianice and Zgierz Łódź 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
Romania Romania Arad tramway system, Arad-Ghioroc Narrow Gauge Railway Arad, Arad county being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary, Arad-Ghioroc Narrow Gauge Railway being the first electrified railway line in present-day Romania; metre gauge
Botoşani tramway system Botoşani recently lowered from Romanian standard 750V due to massive import of second hand German trams
Craiova tramway system Craiova recently lowered from Romanian standard 750V due to massive import of second hand German trams
Iaşi tramway system Iaşi lowered from 825V in 2005, metre gauge
Oradea tramway system Oradea being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary
Sibiu-Răşinari Narrow Gauge Railway Sibiu county part of the former Sibiu tram line
Timişoara tramway system Timişoara being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary
Serbia Serbia Belgrade tram system Belgrade 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
Slovakia Slovakia Trenčianska elektrická železnica (TREŽ) Trenčianska TepláTrenčianske Teplice 760 mm (2 ft 5 1516 in) gauge
United States United States Kenosha Streetcar Kenosha, Wisconsin
MBTA Boston for Boston's MBTA, the entire MBTA Green Line streetcar system, and the part of the MBTA Blue line northeast of Airport Station
RTA Rapid Transit Cleveland, Ohio all three lines
San Diego Electric Railway & San Diego Trolley San Diego The San Diego Electric Railway is defunct and is succeeded by the San Diego Trolley.
San Francisco Muni San Francisco  
Twin City Rapid Transit Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Minnesota Defunct. Streetcars removed from service 1954, though some heritage/museum portions run in the summer.

750 V DC[edit]

This voltage is used for most modern tram systems.

Country Name of system Location Notes
Argentina Argentina PreMetro line E2 Buenos Aires  
Tranvía del Este Buenos Aires  
Australia Australia GoldLinQ Gold Coast, Queensland Under construction - Planned opening June 2014
Light rail in Sydney Sydney  
Austria Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl   also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Brazil Brazil MetrôRio Rio de Janeiro Lines 1,2 and 4
Germany Germany Albtalbahn Rhein-Haardtbahn railway of the Upper Rhine
Cologne-Bonn Tram Cologne to Bonn and its suburbs. Both lines between Cologne and Bonn were originally heavy load train lines electrified at 1200 V, Line 18 one was 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge, Line 16 is still occasionally used by freight trains.
Greece Greece Athens Tram Athens
Hong Kong Hong Kong Light Rail (MTR) Hong Kong  
India India Kolkata Metro Line 1 Kolkata  
Namma Metro Bangalore  
Republic of Ireland Ireland LUAS Dublin
Italy Italy Metropolitana di Genova Genova
Japan Japan Enshū Railway Hamamatsu, Shizuoka  
Hakone Tozan Railway Line Hakone, Kanagawa between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra
Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line Ehime  
Kintetsu Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line Yokkaichi, Mie  
Sangi Railway Hokusei Line Mie  
Malaysia Malaysia Kelana Jaya Line (RapidKL Rail) Kuala Lumpur between Kelana Jaya LRT station and Gombak Station
Netherlands Netherlands Randstadrail The Hague, Zoetermeer, Rotterdam and adjacent cities  
Rotterdam Metro Rotterdam North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
Utrecht sneltram Utrecht, Nieuwegein and IJsselstein  
Norway Norway Oslo Tramway Oslo  
Bergen Light Rail Bergen  
Philippines Philippines Manila LRT Line 1 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) Metro Manila between Baclaran to Roosevelt
Manila Metro Rail Transit System Metro Manila between North EDSA to Taft Avenue
Portugal Portugal Metro do Porto Oporto  
Metro Transportes do Sul Almada, Seixal  
Sweden Sweden Trams in Stockholm and Saltsjöbanan Stockholm  
Gothenburg tram Göteborg  
Trams in Norrköping Norrköping  
Turkey Turkey Eskişehir Tramway System Eskişehir  
United Kingdom United Kingdom Edinburgh Trams Edinburgh  
Manchester Metrolink Manchester  
Midland Metro Birmingham to Wolverhampton  
Nottingham Express Transit Nottingham  
Sheffield Supertram Sheffield  
Tramlink South London  
United States United States Baltimore Light Rail Baltimore, MD light rail
Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) Dallas, TX and adjacent suburbs light rail
Denver Regional Transportation District (RTD) Denver, Colorado light rail portion
Houston Metrorail Houston, TX light rail
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Hudson County, New Jersey light rail
Los Angeles Metro Rail Los Angeles County, California rapid transit
Lynx Rapid Transit Charlotte, North Carolina light rail
MAX, TriMet Portland, Oregon light rail
METRO Minneapolis-Saint Paul light rail
Newark Light Rail Newark, New Jersey light rail
Portland Streetcar Portland, Oregon tram/streetcar
Sacramento Regional Transit (RT) Sacramento, California light rail
Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (SCVTA) San Jose, California light rail
South Lake Union Streetcar Seattle, Washington tram/streetcar
St Louis Metrolink St Louis, Missouri light rail
Tacoma Link Tacoma, Washington light rail
Tide Light Rail Norfolk, Virginia light rail
TRAX Salt Lake City, Utah light rail
Valley Metro Phoenix, AZ [3]


1,500 V DC[edit]

Country Name of system Location Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Metro Buenos Aires lines C,D,E and H
Tren de la Costa Buenos Aires suburban line
Australia Australia Sydney Trains Sydney  
Melbourne Suburban Railways Melbourne  
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro São Paulo lines 4 and 5
China China Shanghai Metro Shanghai  
Guangzhou Metro Guangzhou except Line 4 & Line 5
Shenzhen Metro Shenzhen except Longgang Line
Czech Republic Czech Republic České dráhy (ČD)   Tábor-Bechyně line only
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen S-train Copenhagen  
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Metro Santo Domingo  
France France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new High Speed Lines (TGV) and in the north
Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation Hong Kong East Rail Line, West Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line are 25 kV AC
India India Mumbai Suburban Railway Mumbai being converted to 25 kV AC[4]
Indonesia Indonesia KRL Jabotabek Jakarta  
Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin Area Rapid Transit Dublin  
Italy Italy Metropolitana di Roma Roma Line A, Line B, Line Roma-Ostia Lido
Japan Japan Japan Railways (JR) lines   most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku (except Shinkansen and Hokuriku region)
Most private railway lines    
Most subway lines    
Philippines Philippines Manila MRT Line 2 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) Metro Manila between Santolan to Recto
Netherlands Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen - Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines and new freight line Betuweroute.
New Zealand New Zealand Wellington Suburban Wellington Since 2011, the nominal voltage has been 1600 V but with the same tolerances as 1500 V (i.e. 1300–1800 V), making it backwards-compatible with 1500 V rolling stock.
Portugal Portugal Cascais Line    
Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit   North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
South Korea South Korea Seoul Subway Seoul National Capital Area except Korail Line 1, Line 4, Bundang
and Yongsan-Deokso Line
(see 25 kV 60 Hz below)
Incheon Subway Incheon  
Daegu Subway Daegu  
Busan Subway Busan  
Daejeon Subway Daejeon  
Gwangju Subway Gwangju  
Slovakia Slovakia Tatra Electric Railway    
Spain Spain Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya    
RENFE   Only Cercedilla-Cotos line
Euskotren    
FEVE    
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana    
Switzerland Switzerland Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB) Interlaken  
Schynige Platte Railway (SPB) Interlaken  
Wengernalpbahn (WAB) Interlaken  
Chemin de fer Nyon-St-Cergue-Morez (NStCNM) Vaud converted in 1980s from 2200 V DC
Sweden Sweden Roslagsbanan Stockholm  
Turkey Turkey Bursa LRT Bursa  
United Kingdom United Kingdom Tyne and Wear Metro Newcastle, Sunderland, Gateshead and Tyneside  
Manchester-Sheffield-Wath Manchester to Sheffield Operated 1949–1984. Abandoned east of Hadfield in 1981; suburban services in Manchester converted to 25 kV, 50 Hz AC as far as Hadfield and Glossop in 1984.[5]
Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway Manchester Opened in 1931.
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1971
Converted again to 750 V DC in 1991 (Metrolink).[6][7]
Great Eastern Main Line London (Liverpool Street) to Shenfield (then Chelmsford) Opened in 1949.
Converted to 6.25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1960 and later to 25 kV 50 Hz AC[8][9]
Shildon to Newport County Durham Industrial line. Operated 1915–1935.[10]
United States United States Metra Electric District Service Chicago  
Chicago SouthShore and South Bend Railroad NICTD Line Northern Indiana & Chicago  
Central Link Seattle light rail

3 kV DC[edit]

Country Name of system Location Note
Belgium Belgium Belgium National Railways (SNCB) National standard. 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and some lines in the south area.
Brazil Brazil      
Canada Canada Deux-Montagnes Line Montreal built by CNoR in 1918, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by AMT
Chile Chile    
Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Northern part of network only (approx. the Děčín - Praha - Ostrava route). The system change stations are Prunéřov, Beroun, Benešov u Prahy, Kutná Hora hl.n., Svitavy, Nezamyslice, Nedakonice). The southern part uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Estonia Estonia    
Georgia (country) Georgia Georgian Railway LLC In fact 3,300 V
Italy Italy RFI - Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines
Latvia Latvia Latvian Railways (LDz) to be converted to 25 kV AC
Luxembourg Luxembourg Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) The line between Luxembourg and Arlon 25 kV AC on the rest of the network
Morocco Morocco     national standard
North Korea North Korea national standard
Poland Poland Polish State Railways (PKP) planned new high speed lines and the existing 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) Russian gauge Linia Hutnicza Szerokotorowa[citation needed] (at present not electrified) will use 25 kV AC
Russia Russian Federation Russian Railways (RZD) new electrification use only 25 kV AC
Slovakia Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) Northern main line (connected to Czech Republic and Poland) and eastern lines (around Košice and Prešov), conversion to 25 kV AC planned, and the broad gauge line between Košice and the Ukraine border (it will remain 3 kV until new broad gauge line construction, then convert to 25 kV AC), planned new broad gauge line is supposed to use 25 kV AC. Currently, the part north and east of the station Púchov uses 3 kV DC, the rest uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Slovenia Slovenia Slovenian Railways (SZ) national standard
South Africa South Africa Transnet Freight Rail (TFR); MetroRail National standard. Also 25 kV AC and 50 kV AC used.
Spain Spain Spanish National Railways (RENFE) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines
Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian Railways in east (Donetsk industrial zone), in west (west from L'viv – connecting to Slovakia and Poland), to be converted to 25 kV AC[11]
United States United States Morris & Essex Lines New Jersey, lines towards New York City By Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad in 1930.[12] Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz by NJT in 1984

15 kV AC, 16 23 Hz (16.7 Hz)[edit]

Country Name of system Location Notes
Austria Austria Austrian Federal Railways national standard
Germany Germany German National Railways national standard
Norway Norway Norwegian National Rail Administration national standard
Sweden Sweden Swedish Transport Administration national standard
Switzerland Switzerland Swiss Federal Railways  
Zentralbahn  
BLS  
Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Zurich Sihltal line only[13]

25 kV AC, 50 Hz[edit]

Country Name of system Location Notes
Argentina Argentina Ferrocarril General Roca Buenos Aires Partially electrified in the 1980s. Some suburban branches still operate with diesel locomotive-hauled trains.
Australia Australia Queensland Rail, Citytrain Brisbane, North Coast Line, Coalfields Queensland
Transperth Perth Western Australia
Adelaide Metro Adelaide South Australia. To be electrified 2009–2018.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina      
Botswana Botswana     Proposed line to Namibia
Belarus Belarus      
Belgium Belgium Belgium National Railways (NMBS/SNCB) High-speed lines and some other lines The rest of the network is 3 kV DC — see rail transport in Belgium
Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgarian State Railways BDZ    
China China      
Republic of the Congo Congo      
Croatia Croatia Croatian Railways (HŽ) Nationwide National standard
Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC)   Southern lines only (linking Karlovy Vary - Cheb - Plzeň - České Budějovice - Tábor - Jihlava - Brno - Břeclav - Slovakia).
Denmark Denmark Banedanmark See rail transport in Denmark Vast majority of the Banedanmark network not electrified
Finland Finland Finnish Railway network   National standard
France France French National Railways (SNCF)    
Germany Germany Rübelandbahn Harz
Greece Greece Hellenic Railways Organisation (OSE) Nationwide National standard. See Railways of Greece for details of progress.
Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation (East Rail Line) (West Rail Line) and (Ma On Shan Line) Hong Kong  
Hungary Hungary Hungarian State Railways (MÁV) and Raab-Oedenburg-Ebenfurter Eisenbahn AG (GYSEV)  
India India Indian Railways (IR)   National standard. Large parts of Mumbai Division (Central Railways) are 1500 V DC, but are being converted to 25 kV AC.[4]
Delhi Metro Delhi  
Iran Iran     Planned
Israel Israel Israel Railways   Planned[14]
Italy Italy     New High-speed lines only
Japan Japan JR East Tōhoku, Jōetsu, and Nagano Shinkansen   60 Hz in some areas, see 60 Hz overhead below.
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan      
Latvia Latvia Latvian Railways (LDz)   Eastern lines only
Lithuania Lithuania Lithuanian Railways (LG) Naujoji Vilnia-Kaunas and Naujoji Vilnia-Trakai Electrification of Naujoji Vilnia – Kena route by 2013 for Vilnius – Minsk (Belarus) is expected. Further Kaunas – Klaipeda corridor electrification will follow.
Luxembourg Luxembourg Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) National standard the Luxembourg – Arlon line is electrified under 3 kV DC.
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Macedonian Railways    
Malaysia Malaysia KTM Komuter Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Sungai Gadut - Tanjung Malim / Port Klang - Batu Caves Under Construction Ipoh - Padang Besar / Sungai Gadut - Gemas
Montenegro Montenegro Railways of Montenegro Belgrade - Bar railway and Podgorica - Nikšić  
Namibia Namibia Proposed line to Botswana    
Netherlands Netherlands Used on new High Speed Lines and Freight Lines 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network
New Zealand New Zealand North Island Main Trunk Railway   Central North Island section, 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton
Auckland suburban Auckland 77 km between Swanson and Papakura. First service 28 April 2014.
Poland Poland Linia Hutnicza Szerokotorowa   to be electrified,[citation needed] 3 kV DC used on the rest of the network
Portugal Portugal Portuguese Railways (CP)   Except the Cascais Line (1500 V DC)
Romania Romania Romanian Railways (CFR)    
Russia Russian Federation Russian Railways (RZD)   National standard
Serbia Serbia Serbian Railways    
Slovakia Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR)   South-western lines only (around Bratislava, Kuty, Trencin, Trnava, Nove Zamky, Zvolen) and the entire network (except narrow gauge lines) to follow
Spain Spain     New High-speed lines only
South Africa South Africa Transnet Freight Rail (TFR), Gautrain    
Thailand Thailand Suvarnabhumi Airport Link Bangkok  
Tunisia Tunisia      [15]
Turkey Turkey Turkish State Railways (TCDD) Nationwide National standard
United Kingdom UK Network Rail   Except Southern region and Merseyside
Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian Railways   National standard, In most of the west; also 3000 V DC in east
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan      
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) Gweru-Harare De-energised in 2008

25 kV AC, 60 Hz[edit]

While 25 kV 60 Hz is not standardized by BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850, it is the logical equivalent of 25 kV 50 Hz in countries where 60 Hz is the normal grid power frequency.

Country Name of system Location Notes
Canada Canada Deux-Montagnes Line Montreal built by CNoR in 1918 as 3000 V DC, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by AMT
Japan Japan Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen
Nagano Shinkansen
Kyushu Shinkansen
Western Japan, Central Japan, Eastern Japan, JR Kyushu 50 Hz in eastern Japan, see 25 kV AC 50 Hz overhead above.
Mexico Mexico Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México Mexico City  [16]
Pakistan Pakistan[citation needed] Pakistan Railways   national standard
South Korea South Korea Korail South Korea all Korail freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3 (see 1500 V DC overhead above)
A'REX Incheon, Seoul  
United States United States Morris & Essex Lines, New Jersey Transit New Jersey Former 3,000 V DC system
North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey Converted in 1978 from Pennsylvania Railroad 11 kV 25 Hz system to the 12.5 kV 25 Hz on the Rahway-Matawan ROW and 12.5 kV 60 Hz electrification extended to Long Branch in 1988. The Matawan-Long Branch voltage converted from 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the 25 kV 60 Hz in 2002.
Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak New Haven to Boston Electrified in 2000. See Amtrak's 60 Hz Traction Power System

Conductor rail systems[edit]

600 V DC conductor[edit]

All third rail unless stated otherwise.
Used by most older US subways.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Name of system Location Notes
Top contact Argentina Argentina Urquiza Line Buenos Aires  
Top contact Canada Canada Toronto Subway and Rapid Transit Toronto only on subway lines
Top contact Greece Greece EIS/ISAP Athens used between 1904 and 1985, now 750 V
  Italy Italy Superga Rack Railway Turin  
Top contact Japan Japan Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line Tokyo  
  Japan Japan Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line Nagoya, Aichi  
Top contact Sweden Sweden Stockholm Metro Stockholm 650 V, green and red line
  United Kingdom United Kingdom Glasgow Subway Glasgow  
  United Kingdom United Kingdom Southern Railway   some areas up to 1939
Top contact United States United States Chicago Transit Authority Chicago elevated and subway lines
Top contact United States United States Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Boston Red and Orange Lines, the subway part of the Blue Line southwest of Airport Station
Top contact United States United States New York City Subway New York City  
Top contact United States United States PATH New York City metro area  
Top contact United States United States Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Philadelphia Broad Street subway
United States United States Walt Disney World Monorail System Bay Lake, Florida

750 V DC conductor[edit]

All third rail unless stated otherwise.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Name of system Location Notes
Side contact Algeria Algeria Algiers Metro Algiers  
  Austria Austria Vienna U-Bahn Vienna  
Bottom contact Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro São Paulo except lines 4 and 5
  Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Metro Sofia  
Side contact Canada Canada Montreal Metro Montreal (guide bars, see DC, four-rail below)
Side contact Chile Chile Santiago Metro Santiago  
  China China Beijing Subway Beijing  
  China China Tianjin Metro Tianjin  
Bottom contact Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Metro Prague  
  Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Metro Copenhagen  
Bottom contact Finland Finland Helsinki Metro Helsinki  
Side contact France France Paris Métro (Conventional metro) Paris
Side contact France France Paris Métro (Rubber tired) Paris positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars, see DC, four-rail below
Side contact France France Lyon Métro Lyon positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars, see DC, four-rail below
Side contact France France Marseille Métro Marseille positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars, see DC, four-rail below
Side contact France France Lille Métro Lille positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars, see DC, four-rail below
Side contact France France Rennes Métro Rennes positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars, see DC, four-rail below
Side contact France France Toulouse Métro Toulouse positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars, see DC, four-rail below
  Germany Germany Berlin U-Bahn Berlin top and bottom contact and positive and negative voltage used on different lines
  Germany Germany Munich U-Bahn Munich  
  Germany Germany Nuremberg U-Bahn Nuremberg  
  Germany Germany Hamburg U-Bahn Hamburg  
  Greece Greece Athens Metro Athens Line 1 was 600 V before 1985
  Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover Hong Kong  
  Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Budapest except line 1, wich has overhead line wires.
  India India Kolkata Metro Kolkata (Calcutta)  
  India India Namma Metro Bangalore  
  Japan Japan Osaka Municipal Subway Osaka, Osaka except the Sakaisuji Line, Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line, and the Imazatosuji Line
  Japan Japan Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway Suita, Osaka
Toyonaka, Osaka
 
  Japan Japan Kintetsu Keihanna Line Osaka, Osaka
Ikoma, Nara
Nara, Nara
 
  Japan Japan Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line Sapporo, Hokkaido  
  Japan Japan Yokohama Municipal Subway Yokohama, Kanagawa  
  Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Metro Amsterdam including line 51 north of Station Zuid
  North Korea North Korea Pyongyang Metro Pyongyang based on fleet of cars from Beijing and Germany
Bottom contact Norway Norway Oslo T-bane Oslo  
Bottom contact Poland Poland Warsaw Metro Warsaw  
  Portugal Portugal Lisbon Metro Lisbon  
  Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Tren Urbano San Juan  
  Romania Romania Bucharest Metro Bucharest  
  Russia Russia     undergrounds and metros
  Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Singapore North South Line, East West Line and Circle Line, operated by SMRT Corporation
Top contact Sweden Sweden Stockholm Metro Stockholm Nominal voltage 650V, subway 3 (blue line) 750V. Subway 1 and 2 will change in the long term to 750V.
  Taiwan Taiwan Rapid Transit Taipei Green, Orange, Red, Blue Lines
Bottom contact Thailand Thailand BTS Skytrain Bangkok  
Bottom contact Thailand Thailand Bangkok Metro Bangkok  
  Ukraine Ukraine Kiev Metro Kiev  
  Ukraine Ukraine Kharkiv Metro Kharkiv  
  Ukraine Ukraine Donetsk Metro Donetsk a metro system under construction, the first stage consisting of 6 stations to be open by 2012
  Ukraine Ukraine Dnipropetrovs'k Metro Dnipropetrovs'k Dnipropetrovsk metro system, opened in 1995, consists of one line and 6 stations
Top contact United Kingdom United Kingdom Merseyrail Liverpool  
Bottom contact United Kingdom United Kingdom Docklands Light Railway London  
Top contact United Kingdom United Kingdom Northern City Line London access to City (Moorgate)
Top contact United Kingdom United Kingdom LNWR Suburban Network London formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Top contact United Kingdom United Kingdom Southern Region of British Railways
and successors
Southern England 660 V system upgraded and expanded
Side contact United States United States Las Vegas Monorail Las Vegas  
Top contact United States United States Long Island Rail Road New York City and Long Island
East River Tunnels shared with Amtrak
 
Bottom contact United States United States Metro-North Railroad New York City  
Top contact United States United States PATCO Speedline Philadelphia, PA  
Top contact United States United States Washington Metro Washington, DC  
Top contact United States United States Amtrak within the Hudson and East River Tunnels as well as under Manhattan
Northeast Corridor
 
Top contact United States United States New Jersey Transit within the Hudson Tunnel into Manhattan  

Systems using non-standard voltages[edit]

Overhead systems (DC Voltage)[edit]

Voltage Name of system Location Country Notes
120 Seaton Tramway Seaton, Devon United Kingdom UK Half scale trams. Operated 1969-now. Substations have battery banks for back up.
250 Chicago Tunnel Company Chicago United States United States operated 1906–1959
500 Many tram systems      
500 Hong Kong Tramways Hong Kong China China  
525 Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren Lauterbrunnen Switzerland Switzerland  
550 Manx Electric Railway Isle of Man United Kingdom UK including Snaefell Mountain Railway
Kolkata Trams Kolkata India India  
650 Pittsburgh Light Rail Pittsburgh United States United States
800 Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) Tricity Poland Poland Operated 1951-1976. Converted to 3,000V DC in 1976.
900 Gruyere – Fribourg – Morat Fribourg Switzerland Switzerland  
Montreux-Oberland Bernois Montreux  
1,000 Rhätische Bahn (RhB) St Moritz – Tirano Switzerland Switzerland  
Budapest (HÉV) Budapest Hungary Hungary  
1,100 Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina only Line A (will be converted to 1,500 V DC if La Brugeoise trains were to be replaced by new rolling stock)
1,200 Barcelona Metro Barcelona Spain Spain uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system
Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Zurich Switzerland Switzerland Uetliberg line only – uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow running on track shared with the AC-electrified Sihltal line[13]
Sóller Railway Palma - Sóller, Majorca Spain Spain [17]
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba HavanaMatanzas and branches Cuba Cuba originally (and still known as) the Hershey Electric Railway
  Lusatian Germany Germany 900 mm (2 ft 11 716 in) gauge mining railways in the brown coal district
    Estonia Estonia (Elektriraudtee) 1924–1941 and 1946–1958
1,350 FART Domodossola-Locarno Italy ItalySwitzerland Switzerland  
2,400   Lausitzer Germany Germany work line of the Lausitzer Brown Coal AG company
Chemin de fer de La Mure Grenoble France France −1,200 V, +1,200 V two wire system from 1903 to 1950. 2,400 V since 1950.[18]
3,500 Bury – Holcombe Brook Manchester United Kingdom UK operated 1913–1918
6,000     Russia Russia experiments in the late 1970s (3,000 V DC lines)

Overhead systems (AC Voltage)[edit]

Voltage Current Name of system Location Country Notes
5,500 16 23 Hz Ammergau Railway (German: Ammergaubahn) Murnau Germany Germany 1905–1955, after 1955 15 kV, 16.7 Hz
6,000 50 Hz     Germany Germany factory railway of Rheinbraun AG
6,250 Great Eastern suburban lines London United Kingdom UK Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s–c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
Glasgow suburban lines Glasgow United Kingdom UK Sections of the North Clyde Line and Cathcart Circle Line from 1960-1970s
6,300 25 Hz Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Germany Operated with AC 1907–1955. Used both AC and DC (1,200 V 3rd rail) 1940–1955.
6,500 Mariazellerbahn Sankt Pölten Austria Austria  
6,600 Thamshavnbanen Orkdal Norway Norway  
6,600 50 Hz Hambachbahn and Nord-Süd-Bahn Cologne Lowland Germany Germany transports lignite from open-pit mines to powerplants
8 kV 25 Hz Alb Valley Railway (German: Albtalbahn) Karlsruhe Germany Germany 1911–1966, today using 750 V DC
10 kV Hofpleinlijn The Hague - Rotterdam Netherlands Netherlands from 1908, in 1926 converted to 1,500 DC, In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
10 kV 50 Hz Russian Railways industrial railways at quarries Russia Russia operated from 1950-s at coal and ore quarries
Ukrainian Railways Ukraine Ukraine
some private industrial railways in Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
11 kV 16 23 Hz Rhaetian Railway (RhB)   Switzerland Switzerland  
Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB)   formerly Furka-Oberalp-Bahn (FOB) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
25 Hz Pennsylvania Railroad
Etc.,
  United States United States All lines now 12.5 kV 25 Hz or 12.5 kV 60 Hz
See Railroad electrification in the United States
50 Hz Mont Blanc Tramway   France France  
12 kV 16 23 Hz Chemin de fer du Midi lines in Pyrenees France France most converted to 1,500 V 1922–23; Villefranche-Perpignan diesel 1971, then 1,500 V 1984
12.5 kV 25 Hz Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak Washington, DC - New York City United States United States 11 kV until 1978
Keystone Corridor, Amtrak Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA 11 kV until 1978
SEPTA Philadelphia Regional Rail system only; 11 kV until 1978
North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Rahway to Aberdeen-Matawan, New Jersey 11 kV until 1978
60 Hz North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey 1988-2002, today using 25 kV 60 Hz
New Haven Line, Metro-North Railroad Pelham, NY-New Haven, CT  
20 kV 50 Hz Höllentalbahn Freiburg Germany Germany Operated 1933–1960. Converted to 15kV 16 23 Hz.
Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) Aix-les-BainsLa Roche-sur-Foron France France Operated 1950–1953. Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz.
most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others Japan Japan  
60 Hz most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū and Hokuriku region JR Kyūshū and others  
50 kV 50 Hz Sishen–Saldanha railway line Northern Cape, Western Cape South Africa South Africa opened in 1976 and hauls iron ore
60 Hz Tumbler Ridge Subdivision of BC Rail (Now Canadian National Railway) British Columbia Canada Canada Opened in 1983 to serve a coal mine in the northern Rocky Mountains. No longer in use.
Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad Arizona United States United States First line to use 50 kV electrification when it opened in 1973. This is an isolated coal-hauling short line.
Deseret Power Railroad (formerly Deseret Western Railway) Utah  
Texas Utilities, Monticello & Martin Lake Texas Internet Reference[19]
Navajo Mine Railroad New Mexico  

Conductor rail systems (All DC Voltage)[edit]

Voltage Current Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
50 see notes Volk's Electric Railway Brighton UK Volk's Railway prior to 1884
(current fed through running rails)
110 third rail top contact the world's oldest operational electric railway[citation needed]
160 top contact Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
100 fourth rail top contact monorail at National Motor Museum Beaulieu UK current fed by 2 contact wires
180 see notes Siemens streetcar Berlin-Lichterfelde Germany current fed through the running rails
Operated 1881–1891
200 third rail top contact Southend Pier Railway Southend UK Until 1902[20]
250 Hythe Pier Railway Hythe, Hampshire
Morgan Rack Chicago Tunnel Company Chicago, Illinois USA 1904, revenue service 1906–1908.
400 Berchtesgaden Salt Mine Railway Berchtesgaden Germany
440 top contact Post Office Railway London UK disused since 2003[21]

150 V is used in station areas to limit train speed

550 top contact Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina only Line B
630 fourth rail top contact London Underground (LUL) London UK Supplied at +420 V and -210 V (630 V total)
660 third rail top contact Southern Railway & LSWR   original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V (except for sections that operate with LUL stock).
660 third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail Euston to Watford DC Line London To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and South West Trains Putney Bridge to Wimbledon.
700 third rail bottom contact Metro-North Railroad New York USA Hudson & Harlem lines, southern part of New Haven line. Original New York Central Grand Central Terminal electrification scheme.
Market-Frankford Line Philadelphia USA Originally 600V, raised to 700.
800 bottom contact Berlin S-Bahn Berlin Germany  
825   Moscow Metro Moscow Russia  
bottom contact Sofia Metro Sofia Bulgaria  
  Pyongyang Metro Pyongyang North Korea uses old 750 V Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
850 bottom contact Yellow Train Villefranche France  
bottom contact Ligne de Saint Gervais - Vallorcine Martigny the infobox mentions lateral (side) contact
    Vienna Austria  
1000 top contact Bay Area Rapid Transit San Francisco USA [22]
1200 side contact Manchester-Bury Manchester UK Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)
side contact Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6300 V 25 Hz) until 1955.
1500  ? Culoz–Modane railway Chambéry - Modane France used between 1925 and 1976, today overhead wire
bottom contact Guangzhou Metro (Line 4) and Guangzhou Metro (Line 5) Guangzhou China
bottom contact Shenzhen Metro Longgang Line Shenzhen China

Three-phase systems[edit]

Voltage Current Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
    three wire Tagebau Gruhlwerk     rack railway (0.7 km)
operated 1927–1949
725 50 Hz, two wire Gornergratbahn Zermatt Switzerland
750 40 Hz, 3Ø two wire Burgdorf-Thun Bahn BurgdorfThun Operated 1899–1933
converted to 15 kV 16 23 Hz in 1933
800 60 Hz, 3Ø   Corcovado Rack Railway Rio de Janeiro Brazil  
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø two wire Jungfraubahn Interlaken Switzerland
3000 15 Hz, 3Ø   Valtellina Electrification   Northern Italy 1902–1917
50 Hz, 3Ø two wire Chemin de Fer de la Rhune   France  
3000 16 Hz, 3Ø two wire   Simplon Tunnel Switzerland, Italy; Simplon Bahn, 1906–1930
3600 16 23 Hz, 3Ø two wire     Italy operated 1912–1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
  FS Porrettana railway 1927–1935
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø     AlmeriaGergal Spain 1911–1966?
6600 25 Hz, 3Ø two wire Great Northern Railway (U.S.) Cascade Tunnel USA 1909 - 1929
10 kV 45 Hz, 3Ø two wire FS Roma - Sulmona Italy 1929–1944
50 Hz, 3Ø three wire   Berlin - Lichtenhain Germany test track (1.8 km).
variable voltage and frequency.
Ttrial runs 1898–1901
14 kV
(See notes)
38 Hz - 48 Hz
(See notes)
three wire   Zossen - Marienfelde test track (23.4 km).
trial runs 1901–1904

variable voltage between 10 kV and 14 kV and frequency between 38 Hz and 48 Hz.


Special or unusual types[edit]

DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below track[edit]

DC, one ground-level conductor[edit]

  • Wolverhampton Corporation Tramways, England. (stud contact) (1902–1921)

DC, two ground-level conductors[edit]

DC, two-wire[edit]

  • Greenwich, England. Previously used by trams when in the vicinity of Greenwich Observatory; separate from trolleybus supply.
  • Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Tram (streetcar) system used this arrangement throughout, probably due to legal constraints on ground return currents.
  • Havana and Guanabacoa, Cuba. Tram (streetcar) systems in both cities used this arrangement.

DC, power from running rails[edit]

DC, four-rail[edit]

Voltage Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
750 guide bars lateral to both guide bars (one guide connected to running rail) Paris Metro Paris France rubber-tyred lines only
Lateral (positive) and top of running rails (negative) contact Montreal Metro Montreal Canada rubber-tyred lines
Mexico City Metro Mexico City Mexico rubber-tyred lines
Third and fourth rail lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy metro (only line 1)
630 Top contact London Underground London UK Transport for London[23]
Clive's Underground Line Guides[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ EN 50163: Railway applications. Supply voltages of traction systems (2007)
  2. ^ IEC 60850: Railway applications - Supply voltages of traction systems, 3rd edition (2007)
  3. ^ page 5
  4. ^ a b "Indian Railways FAQ:Electric Traction - I". Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved 2011-01-17. 
  5. ^ Boddy, M.G.; Fry, E.V.; Hennigan, W.; Hoole, Ken; Mallaband, Peter; Neve, E.; Price, J.H.; Proud, P.; Yeadon, W.B. (April 1990). Fry, E.V., ed. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., part 10B: Railcars and Electric Stock. Lincoln: RCTS. pp. 101, 142. ISBN 0-901115-66-5. 
  6. ^ Boddy et al. 1990, p. 135
  7. ^ Dixon, Frank (1994) [1973]. The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham Railway. The Oakwood Library of Railway History (2nd ed.). Headington: Oakwood Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-85361-454-7. OL34. 
  8. ^ Boddy et al. 1990, p. 139
  9. ^ Swain, Alec (1990). British Rail Fleet Survey 11: Overhead Line Electric Multiple-Units. Shepperton: Ian Allan. p. 19. ISBN 0-7110-1902-9. 
  10. ^ Boddy et al. 1990, pp. 92–93
  11. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
  12. ^ Electrified D. L. & W. Time magazine archives Retrieved 2007-08-12
  13. ^ a b "Bahn S4/S10" [Railway S4/S10] (in German). SZU. Retrieved 2011-09-01. 
  14. ^ Israel Railways Electrification – TEDEM Civil Engineering
  15. ^ http://www.railwaysafrica.com/blog/2011/06/new-25kv-electrification-in-tunisia/
  16. ^ "Espacio del Viajero: Conoce los Trenes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Ferrocarriles Suburbanos. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Alimentación (Vcc. catenaria): 25000, 60Hz 
  17. ^ Sóller Website
  18. ^ Chemin de fer de La Mure
  19. ^ "TXU - Monticello Line". Trainweb.org. 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  20. ^ "Southend Pier Railway". 
  21. ^ Disused since 2003
  22. ^ "BART System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Retrieved 2014-02-05. 
  23. ^ "Tube | Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  24. ^ Clive's Underground Line Guides

External links[edit]