List of dairy products

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This is a list of dairy products. A dairy product is food produced from the milk of mammals. A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats, sheep and camels, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.


Dairy products[edit]

A[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Aarts [[]] Dried fermented milk often mixed with various measures of sugar, salt or oil. Eaten as a snack or reconstituted as a warm beverage in Mongolia.
Amasi Amasi (3035444146).jpg The common word for fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt. It is very popular in South Africa.
Ayran Fresh ayran.jpg Turkey a Turkish beverage of yogurt mixed with cold water and sometimes salt that may be considered a variant of a drink popular throughout Central Asian, the Middle East, and South-eastern Europe.[1] Ayran is found in the Balkans as well as Turkey and may be present in the North Caucasus, too.[2]

B[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Baked milk Baked milk..jpg A variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.[3][4][5] It is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer.
Basundi India An Indian dessert mostly in Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka. It is a sweetened dense milk made by boiling milk on low heat until the milk is reduced by half.
Bhuna khoya Khan garh, Pakistan A type of khoa specially linked to city of Khan garh in Pakistan.
Blaand Introduced to Scotland by Vikings A fermented milk product made from whey. It is similar in alcohol content to wine.
Black Kashk Central Asia Prepared from yogurt, its production involves several processes.
Booza An elastic, sticky, high level melt resistant ice cream which should delay melting in the hotter climates of the Arabic countries where it is most commonly found.
Buffalo curd [6] Buffalo curd.jpg A traditional and nutritious dairy product prepared from buffalo milk and it is popular throughout south Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal.
Bulgarian yogurt Bulgarian yogurt.JPG Bulgaria A fermented milk product. In common with all dairy yogurt, Bulgarian yogurt is produced through the bacterial fermentation of milk, using a live culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Butter [7] Butter at the Borough Market.jpg Made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water.
Butterfat The fatty portion of milk. Milk and cream are often sold according to the amount of butterfat they contain.
Buttermilk Mattha.jpg Refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. This type of buttermilk is known as traditional buttermilk.
Buttermilk koldskål Koldskål.jpg Denmark A sweet cold beverage or soup, made with buttermilk and other ingredients. Pictured is buttermilk koldskål with biscuits.
Buttermilk powder Used in the production of ice cream as a source of solids, in processed sliced cheese to increase viscosity, as an emulsifier in chocolate products and in dry mixes such as pancake mix, to add dairy flavor and enhance food browning.[8]

C[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Cacık Cacik-1.jpg Turkey A Turkish dish of seasoned, diluted yogurt, eaten throughout the former Ottoman countries. In Greece a similar, much thicker yogurt dish is called tzatziki and is also similar to tarator in Balkan cuisine.
Camel milk HALIB.jpg Camel's milk has supported Bedouin, nomad and pastoral cultures since the domestication of camels millennia ago. Herders may for periods survive solely on the milk when taking the camels on long distances to graze in desert and arid environments. Camel dairy farming is an alternative to cow milk in dry regions of the world.
Casein [9] The name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ). These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, making up 80% of the proteins in cow milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk.[10]
Caudle A British thickened and sweetened alcoholic hot drink, somewhat like eggnog. It was popular in the Middle Ages for its supposed medicinal properties.
Chaas A buttermilk preparation from India. It is consumed all year round where it is usually taken along with meals. It contains raw milk, cream (malai) or yogurt which is blended manually in a pot with an instrument called madhani (whipper).
Chal Shubat vs Kumis.jpg A Turkic (especially Turkmen and Kazakh) beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.[11] In the image, chal is pictured left, along with kumis on the right.
Chalap A beverage common to Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. It consists of yogurt, salt, and modernly, carbonated water.
Chass The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati.[12] Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India. It is similar to, but cheaper than, Lassi.
Cheese Dairy.jpg A food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep.
Clabber [13] Produced by allowing unpasteurized milk to turn sour at a specific humidity and temperature. Over time, the milk thickens or curdles into a yogurt-like substance with a strong, sour flavor.
Clotted cream Clotted cream (cropped).JPG A thick cream made by indirectly heating full-cream cow's milk using steam or a water bath and then leaving it in shallow pans to cool slowly. During this time, the cream content rises to the surface and forms 'clots' or 'clouts'.[14] It forms an essential part of a cream tea.
Condensed milk Tin of condensed milk.jpg Milk from which water has been removed. It is most often found in the form of sweetened condensed milk, with sugar added.
Cottage cheese Cottagecheese200px.jpg A cheese curd product with a mild flavor. It is drained, but not pressed, so some whey remains and the individual curds remain loose.
Cream Lyzka smietany.JPG Composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, the fat, which is less dense, will eventually rise to the top.
Cream cheese NCI cream cheese bagel.jpg A soft, mild-tasting cheese with a high fat content. Traditionally, it is made from unskimmed milk enriched with additional cream.[15][16] Stabilizers such as carob bean gum and carrageenan are added.[17]
Crème anglaise Creme anglaise p1050164.jpg A light pouring custard used as a dessert cream or sauce. It is a mix of sugar, egg yolks and hot milk, often flavored with vanilla.
Crème fraîche Strawberries and crème fraîche.jpg A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5.[18] It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
Cuajada Cuajada.jpg Spain A milk curd) cheese product. Traditionally it is made from ewe's milk, but now it is more often made industrially from cow's milk. It is popular in the north-eastern regions of Spain (Basque Country, Navarre, Castilla y León, La Rioja).
Curd Twarog.jpg Curd is obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then draining off the liquid portion. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses, or curds.
Curd snack Curdsnackcloseup.JPG A type of sweet snack made from curd, popular in the Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – as well as in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Custard Custard.jpg A variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk. Depending on how much egg or thickener is used, custard may vary in consistency from a thin pouring sauce to a thick pastry cream used to fill éclairs.

D[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Dadiah Dadiah2.jpg West Sumatra, Indonesia A traditional fermented milk of West Sumatra, made by pouring fresh raw unheated buffalo milk into a bamboo tube capped with a banana leaf, and allowing it to ferment spontaneously at room temperature for two days.
Daigo Japan A type of dairy product made in Japan during the 10th century.[19]
Dondurma Dondurma (5065600007).jpg Turkey The name given to ice cream in Turkey. Dondurma typically includes the ingredients milk, sugar, salep, and mastic.
Donkey milk The milk given by the domesticated ass or donkey. It has been used since Egyptian antiquity for both alimentary and cosmetic reasons.
Doogh Tan-raffi kojian-IMG 3584.JPG A yogurt-based beverage. Popular in Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iraq, Syria and Turkey, it is sometimes carbonated.[20] Outside of Iran and Afghanistan it is known by different names.

E[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Evaporated milk Dosenmilch.jpg Also known as dehydrated milk, evaporated milk is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar.

F[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Filled milk Any milk, cream, or skim milk that has been reconstituted with fats, usually vegetable oils, from sources other than dairy cows.[21]
Filmjölk Filmjolk.jpg Scandinavia A Nordic dairy product, similar to yogurt, but using different bacteria which give a different taste and texture.
Fromage frais north of France and the south of Belgium The name means "fresh cheese" in French (fromage blanc translates as "white cheese").
Fermented milk products Skyr.is með vanillu.jpg Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. Pictured is skyr.
Frozen custard FrozenCustard.jpg A cold dessert similar to ice cream, but made with eggs in addition to cream and sugar.
Frozen yogurt Cake Batter and Cotton Candy Frozen Yogurt.JPG United States A frozen dessert made with yogurt and sometimes other dairy products. It varies from slightly to much more tart than ice cream, as well as being lower in fat (due to the use of milk instead of cream).

G[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Galalith White casein Australian Royal Airforce pre-1953 buttons.jpg A synthetic plastic material manufactured by the interaction of casein and formaldehyde
Gelato Gelato in Florence, Italy.jpg Italy The Italian word for ice cream, derived from the Latin word "gelātus." (meaning frozen). Gelato is made with milk, cream, various sugars, and flavoring such as fresh fruit and nut purees.[22]
Goat milk Goat milking on an organic farm in Israel.jpg Goats produce about 2% of the world's total annual milk supply.[23] Some goats are bred specifically for milk.
Gombe Sogn og Fjordane, Norway A traditional dish from Sogn og Fjordane in Norway, it's prepared from curdled unpasteurized milk which is boiled down with sugar for several hours.
Gomme Gomme.jpg Norway A traditional Norwegian dish used for dinner or dessert, gomme is a sort of sweet cheese made of long-boiled milk, having a yellow or brown color. A white, porridge-like variant made of milk and oat grains or rice also exists.

H[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Horse milk Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols, who let it ferment to produce kumis.[24]

I[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Ice cream White mocha ice cream.jpg A frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors.
Ice milk A frozen dessert with less than 10 percent milkfat and the same sweetener content as ice cream.
Indian dairy products Panir Paneer Indian cheese fresh.jpg A variety of dairy projects are indigenous to India and an important part of Indian cuisine. The majority of these products can be broadly classified into curdled products, like chhena, or non-curdled products, like khoa. Pictured is Paneer.
Infant formula Infant Formula at Kroger.JPG A manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).

J[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Junket Junket (dessert).jpg A milk-based dessert, made with sweetened milk and rennet, the digestive enzyme which curdles milk.

K[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Kashk Kesk-meledi1.jpg A large family of foods found in Armenian, Iranian, Lebanese, Palestinian, and Syrian cuisines. There are three main kinds of food with this name: foods based on curdled milk products like yogurt or cheese are within the realm of dairy products. Pictured are Kurdish women preparing Kashk.
Kaymak Poljorad domaci kajmak.jpg A creamy dairy product, similar to clotted cream. It is made from the milk of water buffalos or of cows.
Kefir Kefir in a glass.JPG A fermented milk drink prepared by inoculating cow, goat, or sheep milk with kefir grains.
Khoa Khoya.JPG A milk food widely used in Indian and Pakistani cuisine, made of either dried whole milk or milk thickened by heating in an open iron pan.
Kulfi Matkakulfi.jpg A popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian Subcontinent. It is often described as "traditional Indian Subcontinent ice cream".[25][26]
Kumis Kumys-bottle.jpg A fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk. The drink remains important to the peoples of the Central Asian steppes, of Huno-Bulgar, Turkic and Mongol origin: Bashkirs, Kalmyks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Mongols, Uyghurs, and Yakuts.[27]

L[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Lassi Lassi in Varanasi.jpg India's Punjab region A popular, traditional, yogurt-based drink consisting of a blend of yogurt, water, spices, and sometimes, fruit.
Leben A fermented milk product commonly available in the Arab world

M[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Malai An Indian term for clotted cream or Devonshire cream. It is made by heating non-homogenized whole milk to about 80°C (180°F) for about one hour and then allowing to cool.
Matzoon Traditional jar of Matsoni.jpg Armenia A fermented milk product of Armenian origin made from cow's milk (mostly), goat's milk, sheep's milk, or a mix of them and a culture from previous productions.
Milk Glass of milk on tablecloth.jpg A white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food.
Milk skin A sticky film of protein that forms on top of milk and milk-containing liquids (such as hot chocolate and some soups). It is caused by the denaturation of proteins such as casein. In Japan, a dairy product called So was made from layers of milk skin during the 7th-10th centuries.
Mitha Dahi Mishti Doi.jpg A fermented sweet dahi or sweet yogurt.[28] This type of yogurt is common in the states of West Bengal and Odisha in India, and in Bangladesh.[29]
Moose milk Moose-Machine-Milking-ss87-810.jpg Pictured is a milkmaid collecting moose milk at Kostroma Moose Farm in Kostroma Oblast, Russia.
Mursik Kenya A basic element of the cuisine of the Kalenjin people of Kenya. Made from curdled dairy products cooked in a specially made gourd container, it is commonly served at dinner.

P[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Paneer Panir Paneer Indian cheese fresh.jpg fresh cheese common in South Asian cuisine. In northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent, it is generally called Chhena. It is an unaged, acid-set, non-melting farmer cheese or curd cheese made by curdling heated milk with lemon juice, vinegar, or any other food acids.
Pomazánkové máslo Pomazánkové máslo 583.JPG A traditional Czech and Slovak dairy product, it is a spread made from base ingredients of sour cream, milk powder and buttermilk powder.
Powdered milk PowderedMilk.jpg a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.
Processed cheese Wrapped American cheese slices.jpg A food product made from normal cheese and sometimes other unfermented dairy ingredients, plus emulsifiers, extra salt, food colorings, or whey. Many flavors, colors, and textures of processed cheese exist.
Pytia Curdled milk obtained from an animal's stomach, containing (and used as) rennet.

Q[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Qimiq Consists of 99% light cream and 1% gelatine; it was invented in 1995 and is patented by Hama Foodservice GmbH.
Quark Twarog.jpg A fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired degree of denaturation of milk proteins is met, and then strained. It is soft, white and unaged, similar to some types of fromage frais.
Qatiq Qatiq from Azerbaijan.jpg a fermented milk drink from the Turkic countries and Bulgaria.

R[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Reindeer milk Reindeer have been herded for centuries by several Arctic and Subarctic people including the Sami and the Nenets. They are raised for their meat, hides, and antlers and, to a lesser extent, for milk and transportation.
Ryazhenka Ryazhenka7c.JPG Ukraine Fermented baked milk

S[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Semifreddo Semifreddo dessert.jpg A class of semi-frozen desserts, typically ice-cream cakes, semi-frozen custards, and certain fruit tarts. It has the texture of frozen mousse because it is usually produced by uniting two equal parts of ice cream and whipped cream.
Sergem Tibet A Tibetan food made from milk once the butter from the milk is extracted. It is then put in a vessel and heated and when it is about to boil, sour liquid call "chakeu" is add and this leads to the separation of sergem from that milk.
Sheep milk Sheepparlour.jpg Also known as ewe's milk, it's the milk of domestic sheep. Though not widely drunk in any modern culture, sheep's milk is commonly used to make cultured dairy products.
Shrikhand Shrikhand london kastoori.jpg India An Indian sweet dish made of strained yogurt.[30] It is one of the main desserts in Maharashtrian cuisine and Gujarati cuisine.
Skorup Kajmak that is matured in dried animal skin sacks is called skorup.
Skyr Skyr.is með vanillu.jpg Iceland An Icelandic cultured dairy product, similar to strained yogurt. It has been a part of Icelandic cuisine for over a thousand years.[31]
Smântână Napolact Gospodar Cream.JPG Romania A Romanian dairy product that is produced by souring heavy cream.
Smetana Smietana.JPG A range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe. It is a dairy product produced by souring heavy cream. Pictured is a bowl of borscht soup topped with smetana.
So Kodai no So.JPG Japan A type of dairy product that was made in Japan between 7th and 10th centuries.[32]
Soft serve Soft Ice cream.jpg United States A type of ice cream that is softer than regular ice cream, as a result of air being introduced during freezing. Soft serve ice cream has been sold commercially since the late 1930s.[33]
Sour cream Slice of toast with sour cream and pepper.jpg Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.[34] The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream.
Soured milk Latte 025.jpg Produced from the acidification of milk. It is not the same as spoiled milk that has soured naturally and which may contain toxins. Acidification, which gives the milk a tart taste, is achieved either through the addition of an acid, such as lemon juice or vinegar, or through bacterial fermentation.
Spaghettieis Spaghetti eis.jpg Mannheim, Germany A German ice cream made to look like a plate of spaghetti. It was created by Dario Fontanella in the late 1960s in Mannheim, Germany.
Stewler Варенец.jpg A fermented milk product that is popular in Russia and Ukraine. Símilar to Ryazhenka, it is made by adding sour cream to baked milk.[35]
Strained yogurt Labneh01.jpg Yogurt which has been strained in a cloth or paper bag or filter to remove the whey, giving a consistency between that of yogurt and cheese, while preserving yogurt's distinctive sour taste. Pictured is strained yogurt with olive oil.
Súrmjólk Iceland A cultured milk product, or a type of yogurt. It is made from either whole or semi-skimmed milk and various flavorings are sometimes added.[36]

T[edit]

Tuttis, yogurt popular in South Africa, served very cold cold

U[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Uunijuusto Finland A dish made from cow's colostrum, the first milk of a calved cow, which has salt added and is then baked in an oven.

V[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Vaccenic acid Vaccenic-acid-3D-balls.png An omega-7 fatty acid. It is a naturally occurring trans-fatty acid found in the fat of ruminants and in dairy products such as milk, butter, and yogurt.[37]
Viili Viili.jpg A yogurt-like mesophilic fermented milk that originated in the Nordic countries. It has a ropey, gelatinous consistency and a pleasantly mild taste resulting from lactic acid.
Vla Chocoladevla.jpg Netherlands A type of custard (known in the United States as cornstarch pudding).

W[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Whey Whey.jpg The liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses.
Whey protein Whey powder.jpg A mixture of globular proteins isolated from whey, the liquid material created as a by-product of cheese production.
Whipped cream Crème Chantilly.jpg Cream that has been beaten by a mixer, whisk, or fork until it is light and fluffy. Whipped cream is often sweetened and sometimes flavored with vanilla, and is often called Chantilly cream or crème Chantilly (pronounced: [kʁɛm ʃɑ̃tiji]).

Y[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Yak butter Yak butter 1000.jpg A staple food item and trade item for herding communities in south Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau. Many different political entities have communities of herders who produce and consume yak's dairy products including cheese and butter – for example, China, India, Mongolia, Nepal, and Tibet.[38]
Yak milk Domesticated yaks have been kept for thousands of years, primarily for their milk, fibre and meat, and as beasts of burden.
Yakult SG Yakult 4 flavours.JPG Created by Japanese scientist Minoru Shirota A probiotic dairy product made by fermenting a mixture of skimmed milk with a special strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus casei Shirota.
Ymer Denmark a Danish soured milk product which has been known since 1930. It is made by fermenting whole milk with the bacterial culture Lactococcus lactis.
Yogurt Bulgarian yogurt.JPG A fermented milk product (soy milk, nut milks such as almond milk, and coconut milk can also be used) produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures".

Z[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Žinčica A drink made of sheep milk whey similar to kefir.[39] It is a by-product in the process of making bryndza cheese.[39]

See also[edit]

Categories[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Heyhoe, Kate. The ABC's of Larousse Gastronomique : ayran
  2. ^
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ Линейка "Рузского Молока" расширяется - Топленое Молоко
  5. ^ Молоко топленое 4% | Избёнка
  6. ^ "Curd and Treacle". Lanka Newspapers. October 18, 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  7. ^ Dairy production, processing and marketing systems of Shashemene-Dilla area, south Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). 2008. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  8. ^ Spence, Amy J. (2008). An Evaluation Into the Optimization and Product Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and the Processing Impact on the Components in Filtrated Buttermilk Powder. ProQuest. ISBN 0549725563
  9. ^ Hart, Edwin Bret (1907). A simple test for casein in milk and its relation to the dairy industry. University of Wisconsin, Agricultural Experiment Station. Volume 156 of bulletin.
  10. ^ Kunz, C; Lonnerdal, B (1990). "Human-milk proteins: analysis of casein and casein subunits...". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (The American Society for Clinical Nutrition) 51 (1): 37–46. PMID 1688683. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  11. ^ Anatoly Michailovich Khazanov (15 May 1994). Nomads and the outside world (2nd ed.). Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-299-14284-1. 
  12. ^ Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7. 
  13. ^ "Definition of clabber". Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  14. ^ BBC Devon: article on clotted, or clouted, cream
  15. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  16. ^ "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 14 Aug 2011. 
  17. ^ Cream Cheese - Bon Appétit
  18. ^ Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0.  edit, p. 181f
  19. ^ "チーズの歴史 日本乳業協会  (History of Cheese, by Japan Dairy Industry Association)". 日本乳業協会. Japan Dairy Industry Association. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  20. ^ Islamic Republic of Iran (26–29 January 2009). "Project Document for a Regional Standard for Doogh (CX/NEA 09/5/8)". Tunis, Tunisia: United Nations. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme of the FAO/WHO coordinating committee for the Near East. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  21. ^ 21 U.S.C. § 61(c)
  22. ^ "What Is Gelato?". wiseGeek. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  23. ^ FAO. 1997. 1996 Production Yearbook. Food Agr. Organ., UN. Rome, Italy.
  24. ^ Frazier, Ian. "Invaders: Destroying Baghdad". The New Yorker (CondeNet). Retrieved 2008-04-03. 
  25. ^ Caroline Liddell, Robin Weir, Frozen Desserts: The Definitive Guide to Making Ice Creams, Ices, Sorbets, Gelati, and Other Frozen Delights, Macmillan, 1996, ISBN 978-0-312-14343-5, "... Kulfi is the traditional Indian ice cream and has a strongly characteristic cooked-milk flavour and dense icy texture. ... The basis of making kulfi is to reduce a large volume of milk down to a very small concentrated amount ..." 
  26. ^ Lulu Grimes, Cook's Book of Everything, Murdoch Books, 2009, ISBN 978-1-74196-033-4, "... This simple, elegant ice cream is made by boiling milk until it reduces and condenses, then flavouring it with ingredients such as cardamom and pistachio nuts or almonds. Kulfi is traditionally set in cone-shaped ..." 
  27. ^ Zeder, Melinda A. ed. (2006). Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms. University of California Press. p. .264. ISBN 0-520-24638-1. 
  28. ^ Hui, ed. Ramesh C. Chandan, associate editors, Charles H. White, Arun Kilara, Y. H. (2006). Manufacturing yogurt and fermented milks (1. ed. ed.). Ames (Iowa): Blackwell. p. 364. ISBN 9780813823041. 
  29. ^ Whyte, Mariam; Lin, Yong Jui (2010). Bangladesh. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 144. ISBN 9780761444756. 
  30. ^ "Shrikhand". Amchirecipes.com. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  31. ^ Guðmundsson, Guðmundur. "Hnigfræði og smásæ bygging skyrs: Abstract" (in Icelandic and English). Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  32. ^ "チーズの歴史 日本乳業協会  (History of Cheese, by Japan Dairy Industry Association)" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  33. ^ The term soft serve dates from before 1959 (New York Times. June 22, 1958. p. F11. )
  34. ^ "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". Homecooking.about.com. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  35. ^ (Russian) "Varenets help strengthen bones and build digestion". 1tv.ru. November 18, 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  36. ^ "Mjólk og mjólkurvörur: Drykkjarvörur, skyr, ostar, rjómi og smjör". Ms.is. Retrieved 2013-08-27. 
  37. ^ Natural trans fats may be good for you. May 19, 2008
  38. ^ "10 Products from Yak and Their Utilization". FAO. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  39. ^ a b Kurmann, Joseph A.; Jeremija Lj Rašić; Kroger, Manfred (1992). "Žinčica". Encyclopedia of Fermented Fresh Milk Products: An International Inventory of Fermented Milk, Cream, Buttermilk, Whey, and Related Products. New York City: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 322–323. ISBN 0-442-00869-4. OCLC 24469241. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 

External links[edit]