List of demolished buildings and structures in London

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This list of demolished buildings and structures in London lists buildings, structures and urban scenes of particular architectural, historical, scenic or social interest in central London which are preserved in old photographs, prints and paintings, but which have been demolished or were destroyed by bombing in World War II. Only a small number of the most notable buildings are listed, out of the many thousands which have been demolished.

Buildings[edit]

Name
Date of construction
Date of destruction
Image Location Notes
23 Great Winchester Street 17th century c1882 23GreatWinchesterStreet.jpg City of London Wealthy merchant's mansion with elaborate staircase and panelled rooms.
Adelphi Terrace 1768-72 1930s Adam Brothers Adelphi.jpg Adelphi A neo-classical terrace of 24 houses by the Adam brothers.
Army and Navy Club 1848-50 1950s THE ARMY AND NAVY CLUB HOUSE, PALL MALL.JPG St. James Square Replaced by 1950s building on the same site.
Barnard's Inn 17th century After 1879 Barnard's Inn, Fetter Lane front.jpg Fetter Lane Former Inn of Chancery. Hall still survives, owned by Gresham College.
Bethlem Hospital 1812-4 c1931 BethlemSteelEngraving1828.png Southwark Built to design by James Lewis, largely demolished after hospital moved in 1930, central part of building survives, home to Imperial War Museum since 1936.[1]
Blake's House, Soho 18th century 1965 WilliamBlake'sHouse.jpg Soho Birthplace of William Blake at No. 28 Broad (now Broadwick) Street, demolished to make way for a block of flats.
Brewers' Hall 1670-3 1940 Brewers'Hall.jpg City of London In Aldermanbury Square, rebuilt after Great Fire, destroyed by bombs.
Bridewell Palace 16-17th century 1863-4 Maund The-Courtyard-at-Bridewell-Palace-1880.jpg Blackfriars Residence of Henry VIII 1515–1523, prison and hospital from 1556, largely rebuilt after the Great Fire of London, closed 1855.[2]
Carlton Club 1854-6 1940 Carlton.gif Pall Mall By Sidney Smirke, suffered direct hit by bomb in 1940.
Carlton Hotel 1899 1940-58 Carlton-Hotel-1905.jpg Haymarket Prestigious hotel run by César Ritz, with Auguste Escoffier as chef. Badly damaged by bombs 1940, demolished 1957-8.
Carpenters' Hall 15-18th century 1876 Carpenter'sHallLondon.jpg City of London On London Wall, first hall dating from 1429, demolished 1876 after damaged by fire. Second hall destroyed by bombs in 1941.[3]
Chesterfield House 1747-52 1937 ChesterfieldHouse1760.jpg Mayfair Built for Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (1694-1773) by Isaac Ware.
Christ's Hospital 17-19th century 1902 Christ's Hospital, engraved by Toms c.1770..jpg Newgate Street School founded 1552, buildings mostly rebuilt after the Great Fire, in part by Wren and Hawksmoor, relocated to Horsham in 1902.[4]
Christ Church Greyfriars 1687 1940 Christchnewgatest.jpg Newgate Street Rebuilt by Wren after the Great Fire, largely destroyed by bombing in 1940, tower and ruins remain.
City of London Lying-in Hospital 1770-1773 1940-1 City of London Lying-in Hospital.jpg Old Street Formerly housed in Shaftesbury House, moved to new building by Robert Mylne in 1773, damaged by tube construction and partly rebuilt, destroyed by bombs 1940 and 1941.[5]
Clifford's Inn 18th century 1934 Clifford's Inn.jpg Fleet Street The longest surviving Inn of Chancery, founded in 1344, dissolved in 1903. Only the gatehouse remains.
Cloth Fair 17th century 1917 Cloth Fair.jpg Smithfield An area of old houses and narrow lanes adjoining the church of St Bartholomew-the-Great, including the Old Dick Whittington Inn. One 17th-century house survives.
Coal Exchange 1847-9 1962 Coalexchange.png Lower Thames Street One of the earliest examples of cast-iron construction, demolished for road-widening which did not take place until the 1980s.[6]
Crosby Hall 15-17th century 1909-10 Crosby Hall.jpg Bishopsgate Great hall re-erected in Chelsea and incorporated into a new building by Walter Godfrey. Many other buildings in Bishopsgate which escaped the Great Fire survived into the Victorian period.[7]
Crystal Palace 1851 1936 Crystal Palace General view from Water Temple.jpg Hyde Park Built by Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851, rebuilt in different form in South London 1854, destroyed by fire.
Cumberland House 1763 1908-12 Cumberland House.gif Pall Mall By Matthew Brettingham, occupied by the Board of Ordnance, later the War Office, from 1806.[8]
Devonshire House c 1740 1924 Devonshire House from The Queen's London (1896).JPG Piccadilly Built by William Kent for the Dukes of Devonshire
Doctors' Commons c1670 1867 Doctors'Commons.jpg City of London College of Advocates, or Doctors of Law, where proceedings of the Court of Arches, the Prerogative Court and others were held. In Knightrider Street, buildings arranged round two quadrangles, rebuilt after Great Fire, sold in 1865 and subsequently demolished.
Dorchester House 1853 1929 Dorchester House 1905 Web.jpg Park Lane Palatial house built by Lewis Vulliamy for Robert Stayner Holford, replaced by the Dorchester Hotel.
Drury Lane 17th century 1890 Old houses in Drury Lane.jpg Drury Lane Old houses which survived the Great Fire of London, including the former 'Cock and Magpie' tavern (with sign), which had become Stockley's Bookshop by 1876.[9]
East India House 1729 1861 East India House THS 1817 edited.jpg Leadenhall Street Designed by amateur architect Theodore Jacobsen. Much of British India was governed from here until the British government took control in 1858.
Euston Arch 1837 1961-2 Euston Arch 1896.jpg Euston Original entrance to Euston Station, demolition was approved by Ernest Marples, who considered the cost of moving the arch could not be justified.
Fleet Prison 1781-2 1846 Fleet Prison by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin cropped.jpg Farringdon Street Built 1197, rebuilt after the Great Fire and again after the Gordon Riots in 1780, closed 1842.
Foundling Hospital 1742-52 1926 Foundling Hospital.jpg Bloomsbury Designed by amateur architect Theodore Jacobsen. Founded by Thomas Coram, the hospital relocated to Redhill in the 1920s, and later Berkhamstead.[10]
Furnival's Inn 1818 1897 FurnivalsInn.gif Holborn Former Inn of Chancery, rebuilt after the Inn was dissolved in 1817, home of Charles Dickens 1834-7.
General Post Office 1829 1912 The Post Office in St Martin le Grand by Thomas Shepherd (late 1820s).jpg St Martins-le-Grand By Sir Robert Smirke.
Great Synagogue of London 1788-90 1942 Greatsynagogue.JPG Aldgate By James Spiller, centre of Jewish life in London, destroyed in The Blitz.
Grosvenor House 1732-1843 1927 GrosvenorHouse.jpg Park Lane Originally Gloucester House, purchased in 1805 by Robert Grosvenor and subsequently enlarged.[11]
Haberdashers' Hall 1671 1940 Haberdashers'Hall.jpg City of London In Maiden Lane, original hall destroyed in Great Fire, rebuilt by Edward Jerman, destroyed by bombs.
Holford House 1832 1944-8 Holfordhouse.jpg Regent's Park Home of Regent’s Park College from 1855 to 1927. Suffered bomb damage 1944, demolished 1948.
Holland House 1605 1940 Holland House from The Queen's London (1896).jpg Holland Park Largely destroyed by bombs in September 1940, some remains still stand and house a youth hostel.
Imperial Institute 1893 1957-8 Imperial Institute.jpg South Kensington Designed by T.E. Collcutt, demolished from 1957 to make way for Imperial College, the Queen's Tower survives.
Inner Temple, Library & Hall 1827-68 1940 Herbert Railton - The Inner Temple Library (modified).jpg Fleet Street Gothic library of 1827-8 by Sir Robert Smirke and adjoining hall of 1868 by Sidney Smirke, destroyed by bombs.
Jacob's Island 17-18th century Late 19th century Jacob's Island - Folly Ditch at Mill Lane, circa. 1840.gif Bermondsey Notorious slum, featured in Oliver Twist, partly destroyed by fire in 1861, replaced by warehouses in the late 19th century.
Junior Carlton Club 1869 1963 Junior Carlton Club Pall Mall Illustrated London News 1868.jpg Pall Mall Replacement by a 1960s building led to loss of members and merger of the club with the Carlton Club.
King's Mews 1732 1830 Royal Stables in the Mews, Charing Cross. Etching by Cook, 1793.jpg Trafalgar Square Rebuilt by William Kent, succeeded by present Royal Mews in 1825.
London Colosseum 1827 1874 Colloseum, London.png Regent's Park Designed by Decimus Burton, built by Thomas Hornor at huge expense to house a 360-degree panorama of London painted by Edmund Thomas Parris.
London Institution 1815 1936 London Institution at the Finsbury Circus.jpg Finsbury Circus Built by Thomas Cubitt. Founded in 1806 "to promote... Science, Literature and the Arts", the Institution closed in 1912, the building then used by London University.
Londonderry House 18th century 1965 LondonderryHouse.jpg Park Lane London house of the Marquess of Londonderry, transformed during the 1820s by Benjamin Dean Wyatt and Philip Wyatt.
Mappin & Webb Building 1870 1994 The Mappin and Webb building, London (as was) - geograph.org.uk - 1229496.jpg Bank Designed by John Belcher, listed building,[12] demolished by developer Peter Palumbo to be replaced by Sir James Stirling's No 1 Poultry.
Merchant Taylors' School c1675 After 1875 MerchantsTaylorSuffolkLane.jpg City of London School founded 1561, located in the Manor of the Rose, Suffolk Lane until 1875, building rebuilt after the Great Fire.
Middlesex Hospital 1755-7 1927 MiddlesexHospital.jpg Fitzrovia First opened 1745, moved 1757, rebuilt after building declared structurally unsound in 1924, closed 2005.
Millbank Penitentiary 1812-21 1892-1903 Millbank Thomas Hosmer Shepherd pub 1829.jpg Pimlico Constructed as National Penitentiary after Bentham's Panopticon abandoned, design proved unsatisfactory, became holding depot for convicts awaiting transportation.
Montagu House, Portman Square 1777-81 1941 MontaguHousePortmanSq.jpg Portman Square Built for Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, patroness of the arts, to the design of the neoclassicist architect James Stuart. Damaged by an incendiary bomb.
Montagu House, Whitehall 1859-62 c1925 Montagu House from the Illustrated London News, 1864.jpg Whitehall Palatial house in French Renaissance style, designed by William Burn for the 5th Duke of Buccleuch, used as government offices from 1917.[13]
Newgate Prison 1770-82 1904 West View of Newgate by George Shepherd (1784-1862).jpg Old Bailey First built in 1188, closed 1902, the Central Criminal Court now stands on the site.
Newton's House c1695 1913 IsaacNewton'sHouse.jpg Leicester Square No. 35 St. Martin's Street, residence of Sir Isaac Newton from 1710 to 1725.[14]
Norfolk House c 1748-52 1938 J Bowles's view of St James's Square-cropped.jpg St. James's Square By Matthew Brettingham. The restored Music Room is displayed in the Victoria and Albert Museum.[15]
Northumberland House c 1605 1874 Northumberland House by Canaletto (1752).JPG Trafalgar Square London residence of the Dukes of Northumberland.
Old London Bridge 12-17th century 1758-1831 Old London Bridge, River Thames, 1745.jpg River Thames Houses on the bridge were demolished in 1758-62, the rest after the completion of a new bridge by John Rennie in 1831.
Old Mansion House 1668 1929 73 Cheapside.jpg Cheapside Built by Sir Christopher Wren for Sir William Turner, Lord Mayor of London 1668-9.
Old Queen's Head Tavern, Islington 16th century c1826 OldQueen'sHead.jpg Islington Once renowned ancient tavern in Essex Road, formerly Lower Street, rebuilt c1826, still trading.
Old St Paul's Cathedral 1087–1314 1666 St Paul's old. From Francis Bond, Early Christian Architecture. Last book 1913..jpg Ludgate Hill Severely in decline by the 17th century, destroyed in the Great Fire of London.
Oxford Arms, Warwick Lane 17th century 1876 Oxford Arms.jpg City of London One of the last surviving galleried inns in London.
Pembroke House 1723-59 1938 PembrokeHouse.jpg Whitehall Largely rebuilt 1756-9, demolished with other buildings in Whitehall Gardens to make way for new MOD building.[16]
Pope's House 17th century 1872 Pope'sHouse.jpg Lombard Street Birthplace in 1688 of Alexander Pope at Plough Court, Lombard Street.
Queen Square 1716-25 19th century Queen Square.jpg Bloomsbury Many of the original houses were converted for use as hospitals. The square today is largely occupied by hospital buildings.
Regent Street 1814-25 1895-1927 Quadrant, Regent Street engraved by J.Woods after J.Salmon publ 1837 edited.jpg Regent Street Originally built by John Nash as a new thoroughfare, entailing much demolition, completely redeveloped 1895-1927.
River Fleet 17-18th century 18-19th century Samuel Scott 001.jpg Blackfriars River converted into New Canal by 1680; covered, partly by New Bridge Street, prior to opening of Blackfriars Bridge in 1769.
Rolls Chapel and Rolls House 1617-1718 1895-6 RollsChapel.jpg Chancery Lane Rolls Chapel rebuilt 1617, attributed, but without evidence, to Inigo Jones. Rolls House built 1718 by Colen Campbell. Demolished to make way for the former PRO, now the Maughan Library, King's College London.
Royal College of Physicians, Warwick Lane 1679 1887 Physicians.jpg City of London By Robert Hooke, used as foundry after 1825, damaged by fire 1879, demolished 1887.
Royal Panopticon 1854 1882 Royal panopticon 1853.jpg Leicester Square Showcase venue for the best achievements in Science and Arts of the time, converted to theatre after only 2 years. Destroyed by fire.
St. Antholin, Watling Street 1678-1684 1874 St Antholin Cruse.jpg City of London Rebuilt by Wren after the Great Fire, the roof in the form of an elliptic cupola supported by composite columns.
St. Luke's Hospital for Lunatics 1786 1963 St Lukes Hospital for Lunatics, London.jpg Old Street By George Dance the Younger, closed 1916, the buildings used as a printing works by the Bank of England until the 1950s.
St. Mary Aldermanbury 1668 1940 StMaryAldermanbury.jpg Gresham Street Rebuilt by Wren after the Great Fire, destroyed by bombing in 1940, church reconstructed in Fulton, Missouri using original stones.
St. Paul's School 1823 1884 StPaul'sSchool.jpg Cheapside School founded 1509, buildings rebuilt 1823 by George Smith, demolished when the school moved to Hammersmith in 1884.
St. Thomas' Hospital 1699-1742 1862 StThomasHospitalSouthwark.jpg Southwark Begun in 1699 by Thomas Cartwright, demolished to make way for railway, hospital relocated to Lambeth 1871.
Savoy Hospital 1505 1816-20 Savoy Hospital Vetusta Monumenta.jpg Strand Founded by Henry VII on the site of the Savoy Palace, closed 1702, demolished to make way for approach to Waterloo Bridge, Savoy Chapel survives.[17]
Schomberg House 1694 1956 Schomberg House c1850.jpg Pall Mall Divided into 3 (Nos. 80-2) in 1769. No. 80, home of Thomas Gainsborough 1774-88, was demolished in 1850, the rest replaced by offices in 1956. Facade survives.
Serjeant's Inn, Fleet Street 18th century 1941 Amicable Society for a Perpetual Assurance Office, Serjeants' Inn, Fleet Street, London, 1801.jpg Fleet Street Rebuilt by Robert Adam and taken over by the Amicable Society after the serjeants moved to Chancery Lane in 1730. Destroyed by bombing.[18]
Serle's Place 17th century 1866 Serle'sPlace.jpg Strand Part of a cluster of alleys and courts demolished to make way for the Law Courts.
Shaftesbury House 1644 1882 ShaftesburyHouse.jpg Aldersgate Street Nos. 35-38, once known as Thanet House, built by Inigo Jones, later became a tavern, then a lying-in hospital, then a dispensary.[19]
Shakespeare's House 16-17th century 1879 Shakespeare'sHouse.jpg Aldersgate Street No. 134, formerly Half Moon Tavern, wrongly linked to the playwright, site now occupied by Barbican Tube Station. The nearby Shakespeare Tower preserves the association.[19]
Sir Paul Pindar's House 17th century 1890 Sir Paul Pindar's House.jpg Bishopsgate Became a tavern in the 18th century, frontage preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
South Sea House Before 1773 c1903 SouthSeaHouse.jpg Threadneedle Street Home of the Baltic Exchange from 1866 to 1903.
Talbot Inn, Southwark 17th century 1874 TalbotInnSouthwark.jpg Southwark Formerly Tabard Inn, medieval coaching inn burnt down 1676 and rebuilt, meeting place of Chaucer's pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales.
Tavistock House c 1805 1901 Tavistock-house.jpg Tavistock Square Built by James Burton, home of Charles Dickens 1851-60, site now occupied by the headquarters of the British Medical Association.
White Hart Tavern, Bishopsgate 15-16th century 1829 WhiteHartBishopsgate.jpg Bishopsgate Once renowned ancient tavern, building dated 1480, rebuilt 1829, still trading.
Whitehall Palace 15-17th century 1698 The Old Palace of Whitehall by Hendrik Danckerts.jpg Whitehall Largest palace in Europe, residence of the English monarchs 1530-1698, all except Banqueting House and Holbein Gate destroyed by fire.
Winchester House 16th century 1839 WinchesterHouse.jpg City of London Great Winchester Street, built by William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester.
Wych Street 16-17th century 1901 Wych Street.jpg Aldwych Part of the area around Drury Lane which survived the Great Fire of London, the street contained decrepit Elizabethan houses, with projecting wooden jetties.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bethlem Hospital (Imperial War Museum)" British History Online. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
  2. ^ "Bridewell Palace" Pastscape. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  3. ^ "Carpenters' Hall" The Carpenters' Company. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  4. ^ "Christ's Hospital" Pastscape. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  5. ^ "City of London Maternity Hospital" Lost Hospitals of London. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
  6. ^ "Coal Exchange" BuildingConservation.com. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  7. ^ "Bishopsgate" British History Online. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
  8. ^ "Cumberland House" British History Online. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  9. ^ "Drury Lane and Clare Market" British History Online. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  10. ^ "The Foundling Hospital" British History Online. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  11. ^ "Grosvenor House" British History Online. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
  12. ^ "Mappin & Webb Building" British Listed Buildings Online. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  13. ^ "Montagu House" British History Online. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
  14. ^ "Newton's House" IsaacNewton.org. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
  15. ^ "Norfolk House" British History Online. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  16. ^ "Ministry of Defence, history" MOD. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  17. ^ "Savoy Hospital" Pastscape. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  18. ^ "Fleet Street: Southern tributaries" British History Online. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  19. ^ a b "Aldersgate" British History Online. Retrieved April 10, 2012.