List of demonyms for U.S. states

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This is a list of official and notable unofficial terms that have been used to designate the residents of specific U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

State Official
(recommended by U.S. GPO)[1]
Official, unofficial or informal alternates
Alabama Alabamian Alabaman[2][3]
Alaska Alaskan
Arizona Arizonan Arizonian,[2] Sand Cutter[4]
Arkansas Arkansan Arkansawyer,[5] Arkie [6]
California Californian Californio (archaic)
Colorado Coloradan Coloradoan (archaic)[7][8]
Connecticut Connecticuter Nutmegger, Connecticotian, Connecticutensian,[9] Connecticutian, Connetian[10]
Delaware Delawarean Blue Hen's Chicken, Muskrat[11]
District of Columbia Washingtonian
Florida Floridian Florida cracker[12]
Georgia Georgian Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber,[13] Sand-hiller[14]
Hawaii Hawaiian Malihini (newcomer),[2] Kamaʻāina (native-born nonethnic Hawaiian),[2] Hawaii resident,[15] Islander[15][16]
Idaho Idahoan
Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisian, Illinoian, Sucker, Sand-hiller, Egyptian[17]
Indiana Indianian Hoosier[18] (official state designation), Indianian[2] (archaic)
Iowa Iowan Hawkeye[19]
Kansas Kansan Sunflower, Grasshopper[20]
Kentucky Kentuckian Corncracker[21]
Louisiana Louisianan
Maine Mainer Down Easter or Downeaster,[22] Mainiac,[23] Pine Tree, Fox[citation needed]
Maryland Marylander
Massachusetts Massachusettsan Bay Stater (official term used by state government),[24] Massachusite (traditional),[25][26] Masshole (derogatory) [27][citation needed]
Michigan Michiganian Michigander,[28] Mashugana, Michiganer, Michiganese, Michigine, Wolverine,[29][30] Michiganite,[31] Yooper/Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively),[32] Flatlander (for residents of the mid and southern portions of the Lower Peninsula)
Minnesota Minnesotan
Mississippi Mississippian
Missouri Missourian
Montana Montanan
Nebraska Nebraskan Cornhusker
Nevada Nevadan Nevadian[2]
New Hampshire New Hampshirite New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman[33]
New Jersey New Jerseyan New Jerseyite[2]
New Mexico New Mexican
New York New Yorker Knickerbocker[34][35]
North Carolina North Carolinian Tar Heel, Tar Boiler,[36]
North Dakota North Dakotan
Ohio Ohioan Buckeye[37]
Oklahoma Oklahoman Okie,[38] Sooner[39]
Oregon Oregonian
Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Pennamite[40]
Rhode Island Rhode Islander Rhodean, Swamp Yankee[41]
South Carolina South Carolinian Sandlapper[42]
South Dakota South Dakotan
Tennessee Tennessean Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut[43]
Texas Texan Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical),[44] Tejano (Mexican-Texan), Texican (archaic)
Utah Utahn Utahan
Vermont Vermonter
Virginia Virginian
Washington Washingtonian
West Virginia West Virginian
Wisconsin Wisconsinite Cheesehead[45][46]
Wyoming Wyomingite

See also[edit]


  1. ^ United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (PDF). 2000. §5.23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "SHG Resources". [dead link]
  3. ^ Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times.  Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
  4. ^ "The State of Arizona - An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  5. ^ Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  6. ^ "Ar•kie". Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  7. ^ Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62,. Retrieved January 2, 2009. The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan). 
  8. ^ Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post. 
  9. ^ "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  10. ^ "People of Connecticut, Choose Your Moniker; Martha Stewart’s House and My Company (4 Letters)". Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  11. ^ "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  12. ^ "‘Cracker’ Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of ‘Pride’". Mediaite. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "The Peach State is all about peanuts". American Food Roots. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  14. ^ "The State of Georgia - An Introduction to the Peach State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  15. ^ a b Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465082995. 
  16. ^ "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  17. ^ "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  18. ^ The term Hoosier is the official state designation for a state resident, but not used by the US GPO. The term was once considered derogatory, but is now a point of pride for Hoosiers. See the Indiana Historical Bureau article entitled What is a Hoosier? for the origin of the term.
  19. ^ "The State of Iowa". 
  20. ^ "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  21. ^ Corncracker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  22. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-88687-995-2. 
  23. ^ "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938.  (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
  24. ^ "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2008-02-29. : "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
  25. ^ Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435. 
  26. ^ Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd, ed. History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465. 
  27. ^ "". March 27, 2006. Retrieved December 5, 2014. 
  28. ^ "The State of Michigan". 
  29. ^ Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8. 
  30. ^ Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech 29 (1): 21–7. doi:10.2307/453592. 
  31. ^ "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  32. ^ "MDE - Michigan Glossary". 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  33. ^ "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  34. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  35. ^ New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
  36. ^ Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel (Tar Heel Magazine, Inc.). OCLC 005457348. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  37. ^ "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  38. ^ Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2. Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City. 
  39. ^ "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  40. ^ "History of". Luzerne County. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  41. ^ "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - - Providence Journal". 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-07-22. [dead link]
  42. ^
  43. ^ "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  44. ^ de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn. Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2. 
  45. ^ Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  46. ^ Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Retrieved 2009-04-29. [dead link]

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