List of denaturalized former citizens of the United States

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Not to be confused with List of former United States citizens who relinquished their nationality, for people who voluntarily gave up U.S. citizenship.

This is a list of denaturalized former citizens of the United States, that is, those who became citizens through naturalization, and had either been stripped of citizenship or were unable to get their passports renewed while outside the United States. In the cases of Solomon Adler and Bhagat Singh Thind, they subsequently obtained United States citizenship.

According to a February 2, 2011 release from the United States Department of Justice, since 1979, the federal government has stripped 107 people of citizenship for alleged involvement in war crimes committed during World War II through the efforts of the Office of Special Investigations (OSI).[1] An unabridged 600-page Justice Department report obtained by The New York Times in 2010 stated, "More than 300 Nazi persecutors have been deported, stripped of citizenship or blocked from entering the United States since the creation of the O.S.I."[2] The Los Angeles Times reported in 2008 that five such denaturalized men could not be deported as no country would accept them, and that four others had died while in the same situation.[3]

Others have been stripped of their citizenship for more mundane crimes; unless otherwise noteworthy, these people are not included on this list.

This list is incomplete.

Key of reasons

     Hiding World War II crimes or association with Nazis
     Serious crimes, suspicion of spying for the communists, or association with terrorists
     All other reasons

Name Reason Denaturalization date Status
Adler, Solomon (1909–1994) Government economist under investigation as a communist spy. Moved to Britain and lost his citizenship when his passport expired. circa 1952 Renewed American citizenship when Sino-American diplomatic relations were reestablished in 1971. See also Lauchlin Currie below.
Almallah, Rasmi Khader Became a permanent resident via a 1981 marriage four days before his student visa expired (later deemed "a green card marriage" by the Immigration and Naturalization Service) and naturalized in 1988.[4] Almallah was stripped of his United States citizenship after coming to the authorities' attention for his connection to the Holy Land Foundation[5] (adjudged to be a Hamas fundraising entity) and also as a former employer of one of the 9/11 bombers.[citation needed] 2007 Appealed unsuccessfully to the United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit.[4] Resident of Jordan, where he is a member of the Jordanian Senate.[6]
Artishenko, Basil (1923–1989) Member of Nazi-controlled police in Khoiniki (present-day Chojniki, Belarus), accused of helping execute about 100 unarmed people.[7] October 11, 1984[8] Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his citizenship and nationality in 1984;[9] died in 1989.
Avdzej, John, aka Ivan Aŭdzej and Jan Awdziej (1905–1998) Mayor of Stolpce in Nazi-occupied Poland.[10] March 2, 1984 [11] Left the country in February 1984 for West Germany, where he renounced his US citizenship as part of a deal to avoid prosecution.[11] Died in 1998.[12]
Bartesch, Martin (1926–1989) Failure to disclose his past when he applied for U.S. citizenship: member of the Prinz Eugen Division of the S.S. from 1943–44; while a guard at Mauthausen concentration camp, he shot Gottfried Ochshorn dead when Ochshorn attempted to escape. May 29, 1987[13] Fled to Austria, where he later died.[14]
Baumann, Anton (1911–1994) SS Death Head's Battalion guard at Stutthof and Buchenwald concentration camps.[15] May 17, 1991[15] Ordered deported to Germany in 1993, but deportation was never carried out due to his health; died in 1994.[16]
Bellei, Aldo Mario Born in Italy to an Italian father and an American mother, Bellei lost his citizenship for not moving to and living in the United States for at least five years prior to his 28th birthday; see Rogers v. Bellei. April 5, 1971[17][18] U.S. Supreme Court vacated lower court ruling, finding against Bellei in 1971. Provision under which Bellei was denaturalized was repealed (Public Law 95-432) by Congress in 1978.
Berezowskyj, Walter, né Wolodymyr Berezowskyj (1924–2010) Guard at Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Gusen concentration camps. September 15, 1998[19] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 2010.[20]
Bernes, Peter John, né Petras Bernotavičius (1922–2004[21]) Deputy to Nazi-appointed mayor and police commander Werner Loew in Kupiškis, Lithuania. May 23, 2002[22] Fled to Lithuania in 2002,[23] where he later died.
Bless, Anton (1924–2004) SS-Death's Head Battalion guard at Auschwitz concentration camp. December 18, 1992[24] Fled to Germany in 1992, where he died in 2004.[25]
Braunsteiner, Hermine (1919–1999) Failure to disclose conviction for war crimes; female concentration camp guard. 1971[26] First Nazi war criminal extradited from the United States to Germany. Sentenced to life imprisonment, but released in 1996 for health reasons.
Bučmys, Ildefonsas (1920–2005[27]) Guard at Majdanek concentration camp. February 17, 2005[28] Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship and nationality in 2005;[29] he died later that same year.
Budreika, Joseph, né Juozas Budreika (1916–1996) Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft. May 28, 1996[30] Fled to Lithuania on May 14, 1996 in an agreement with the OSI.[30] Died less than a month after arriving in Lithuania.[31]
Čiurinskas, Kazys, aka Casimir/Kasimir/Kazimeris/Charlie/Casey Čiurinskas (1918–2001[32]) Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft. June 18, 1997[33] Fled to Lithuania in 1999 after consenting to deportation.[34]
Currie, Lauchlin (1902–1993) Economist suspected of being a spy for the Soviet Union. Unable to get his passport renewed while working in Colombia. 1954 Became a Colombian citizen.
Dailidė, Algimantas (born 1921) For having "illegally procured" citizenship.[35] Member of the Lithuanian Security Police during World War II. January 29, 1997[35] Fled to Germany in 2004 after being ordered deported.[36] Convicted by a Lithuanian court in 2006, but not imprisoned due to his age. Still lives in Germany.[37]
Damrah, Fawaz Mohammed Imam who was convicted on June 18, 2004 of lying on his naturalization application about his association with three groups classified as terrorist organizations by the U.S. government.[38] September 23, 2004[38] Deported to the Palestinian West Bank in January 2007.[39]
Demjanjuk, John (1920–2012) Allegedly concealed being a concentration camp guard at Sobibor, Majdanek, Flossenbürg, and Trawniki, thus committing naturalization fraud. June 25, 1981. Citizenship restored February 20, 1998. Denaturalized again on February 21, 2002. Deported to Germany. On July 13, 2009, Demjanjuk was formally charged with 28,060 counts of accessory to murder, one for each person who died at Sobibor during the time he is accused of serving as a guard at the Nazi death camp.[40] On November 30, 2009, Demjanjuk's trial began in Munich.[41] Convicted by Germany in 2011, but released from custody pending his appeal.[40] Died in 2012 before appeal could be heard. [2] As a consequence, the German Munich District court declared him "presumed innocent." The court also confirmed that, in accordance with German law, Demjanjuk's previous interim conviction had been invalidated and that Demjanjuk was without a criminal record.[42]
Denzinger, Jakob Frank (aka Jacob Frank Denzinger; born 1924) Guard at Mauthausen, St. Georgen, Kraków, and Auschwitz concentration camps.[43] November 27, 1989[44] Fled to West Germany in August 1989; currently believed to be in Croatia.[45][46]
Derkacz, Michael (aka Michael Dercacz, 1909–1983) Member of the Ukrainian police who "assisted the Nazis in persecuting civilian Jews."[47][48] February 4, 1982[48] Derkacz failed to file a notice of appeal against this summary judgment before the time for such an appeal expired, and the revocation of his citizenship thus became final. He died in August 1983 before his deportation hearings were scheduled to begin.[47]
Didrichsons, Valdis (1913–1995)[49] Member of Arajs Kommando military unit in Nazi-occupied Latvia. March 5, 1990[50] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1995.[51]
Fedorenko, Feodor (1907–1987) Guard at Treblinka extermination camp. March 11, 1981[52] Extradited to the Soviet Union, where he was executed.[53]
Firishchak, Osyp (1919–2012) Member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. August 30, 2005[54] Ordered deported by an immigration judge; appeal denied by Supreme Court on February 21, 2012. [3] Died later that same year.[55]
Friedrich, Adam (1921–2006) Guard at Gross-Rosen, Dyhernfurth, and Flossenbürg concentration camps.[56] February 24, 2004[57] Died in July 2006 before deportation proceedings could begin.[58]
Galan, Orest (born 1921) Member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police November 2006 [59] Ordered to leave United States by November 15, 2006 in settlement agreement with the OSI.[59] Returned to Ukraine.
Geiser, Anton (1924–2012) SS Death's Head Battalion guard at Sachsenhausen and Buchenwald. September 29, 2006[60] Died in 2012 while appealing his deportation. [4]
Gimžauskas, Kazys (1908–2001) Deputy to Aleksandras Lileikis in the Lithuanian Security Police. June 1996[61] Fled to Lithuania in 1993 or 1994.[61] Convicted by a Lithuanian court in 2001, but not imprisoned "after experts concluded he was not mentally fit to take responsibility for his past actions."[62] Died shortly afterward.[62]
Goldman, Emma (1869–1940) Anarchist. 1919 Deported on December 21, 1919; landed in Finland on January 17, 1920, and sent from there to the Russian border.[63]
Gorshkow, Mikhail (1923–2013) Former interrogator for the Gestapo accused of participating in the murders of about 3,000 people.[64] July 29, 2002[65] Fled to Estonia before being denaturalized.[64] Died in 2013. [5]
Gostić, Jadranko (born 1963) Served in the Zvornik Infantry Brigade of the Bosnian Serb Army from April 1992 until December 1995; concealed involvement in war crimes in Bosnia, including Srebrenica (1995). June 1, 2010 Deported to Serbia in 2010 after agreeing to admit to the allegations against him, be denaturalized and surrender any claim to lawful permanent resident status.[66]
Grabauskas, Joseph J., né Juozas Grabauskas (1918–2002[67]) Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft.[68] November 1993[69] Repatriated to Lithuania as per settlement with the OSI in November 1993; died in 2002.
Gudauskas, Vytautas (1918–1997[70]) Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft. 1994[71] Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship;[72] died in 1997.[73]
Habich, Jakob, aka Jacob Habich (1913–1995[74]) SS-Death's Head Battalion guard at Lublin and Auschwitz concentration camps. March 14, 1990[75] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1995.[76]
Hajda, Bronisław, aka Bronislaw Hajda, Bruno Hajda (1924–2005[77]) Guard at Trawniki concentration camp and Treblinka labor camp; member of SS Battalion Streibel.[78] April 9, 1997[78] Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2005.[79]
Hammer, Ferdinand (1921–2004) SS guard at Auschwitz and Sachsenhausen concentration camps.[80] May 22, 1996[80] Deported to Austria in 2000, where he died in 2004.[81]
Hansl, John, né Johann Hansl[82] (1925–2007) SS Death's Head Battalion guard at the Sachsenhausen and Natzweiler concentration camps.[83][84] April 8, 2005 Died in 2007 in Des Moines, Iowa before deportation proceedings could begin.
Hartmann, Martin (born c. 1919) SS-Death Head's Battalion guard at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.[85] September 2007[85] Agreed to permanently depart the United States for Germany on August 31, 2007 in an agreement with the OSI.[86]
Hrusitzky, Anatoly (1917–1992) Member of Nazi-controlled police force in Cherny Ostrov, Ukraine[87] June 29, 1984[88] Fled to Venezuela in 1984, where he renounced his United States citizenship and later died in 1992.[89]
Hutyrczyk, Sergis (1924–1993) Guard at Koldyczewo concentration camp. October 2, 1992[90] Died in 1993 while appealing his denaturalization.[91]
Jean-Baptiste, Lionel (born 1947) Failure to "establish and maintain 'good moral character'"[92] due to conviction as a drug dealer after application for citizenship, but before his naturalization on April 23, 1996. circa 2003 Denied entry to Haiti, his homeland, after denaturalization, on the grounds he had relinquished his Haitian citizenship by becoming a U.S. citizen. Jailed in 2006 for a subsequent drug-related crime. Released on an Order of Supervision after the United States Supreme Court ruled that foreigners who could not be deported could not be detained indefinitely.[citation needed]
Jordan, Gilberto (born 1956) Participated in the Dos Erres massacre, Guatemala in December 1982. September 16, 2010[93] Currently serving 10-year prison sentence at FDC Miami for naturalization fraud.[94][95]
Kairys, Liudas (1920–1999), born Liudvikas Kairys[96] and also known as Ludwig Kairys Platoon leader at Treblinka.[97][98] December 28, 1984[47] Deported to Germany in 1993.[97] Germany suspended its investigation of him in 1999, by which time he had died.[99]
Kalymon, John (1921–2014), born Jan Kalymun, also known later as Iwan Kalymon Service in Nazi-affiliated Ukrainische Hilfspolizei (Ukrainian Auxiliary Police) during World War II. The U.S. Justice Department says Kalymon claimed to have shot and killed a Jew in 1942 when Jews were being removed from what is now Lviv, Ukraine. He later denied having done so.[100] March 29, 2007[101] Ordered deported in 2011, but remained in the USA pending an appeal, where he died in 2014.
Kauls, Juris (1912–2008) Deputy chief and inspector of guards at a concentration camp near Riga, Latvia.[102] September 8, 1988[103] Fled to West Germany in August 1988.[104][105] Died in Latvia in 2008.[106]
Kiršteins, Miķelis (1916–1994)[107] Member of Arajs Kommando military unit in Nazi-occupied Latvia. December 1991[108] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1994.[109]
Klimavičius, Jonas (1907–1993)[110] Member of the Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft November 28, 1988[111] Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship and nationality in 1988; died in 1993.
Knauer, Paul (1895–1962) False oath of allegiance due to affiliations with German-American Bund, German-American Citizens Alliance and the German Winter Relief Fund, the last being an official agency of the German government for which German consulates solicited money in the United States.[112] June 10, 1946[112] Regained entry to the United States in 1957.[113]
Koréh, Ferenc (1909–1997) Editor of the Hungarian pro-Axis newspaper Szekely Nep. June 28, 1994[114] Ordered deported in 1997, but deportation was not carried out due to his health;[115] died later that same year.[116]
Kowalchuk, Serge (1920–1998), aka Serhij Kowalczuk[117] Senior member of Lithuania militia supporting Nazi persecution of Jews in the town of Lubomyl.[118] July 1, 1983[119] Fled to Paraguay in 1987.[120] Died in 1998.[121]
Koziy, Bohdan (1923–2003), né Bogdanus Kosij,[122] aka Bohdan Jozij[123] Member of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. March 29, 1982[124] Fled to Costa Rica in 1985, where he died in 2003.[125]
Krysa, Wasyl (1925–2004) SS guard at Poniatowa and Gusen concentration camps. October 5, 2001[126] Died in 2004, appealing his denaturalization.[127]
Kuhn, Fritz Julius (1896–1951) Fraud in naturalization process. June 1, 1943[128] Leader of the German American Bund. Jailed as an enemy agent, and deported to Germany in late 1945.
Kumpf, Josias (1925–2009) SS-Death's Head Guard at Sachsenhausen and Trawniki.[129] May 10, 2005[130] Deported to Austria in 2009, where he died later that year.
Kungys, Juozas (aka Joseph Kungys;[131] 1915–2009)[132] Making false statements on his visa application.[133] A district court decision in Kungys' favor was reversed by the Court of Appeals, and he was remanded for denaturalization on June 20, 1986.[134] The decision was overturned by the Supreme Court on May 2, 1988.[135] Kungys agreed to give up his U.S. citizenship in 1988 to avoid deportation.[136] Died in 2009.
Kuras, Andrew (aka Andrej/Andrij/Andrey/Andreas/Andrzej/Andre Kuras; 1922–2007[137]) Guard at Trawniki, Poniatowa, and Dorohucza concentration camps;[138] member of SS-Battalion Striebel. April 14, 2004[138] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 2007.[139]
Kwoczak, Fedir (aka Fedor Kwoczak; 1921–2003[140]) Guard at Trawniki and Poniatowa concentration camps; participated in liquidation of Warsaw and Białystok ghettos; member of SS-Battalion Streibel.[141] June 27, 2002[142] Died in 2003 while appealing his denaturalization.[143]
Leili, Stefan (1909–1995) SS-Death's Head guard at Mauthausen concentration camp who admitted shooting a 17-year-old French Jew, Leon Axelroud, during an escape attempt.[144] December 30, 1986[144] Fled to West Germany in August 1986,[144] where he died in 1995.[145]
Leprich, Johann (aka John M. Leprich 1925–2013)[146] SS Death's Head Battalion guard at Mauthausen concentration camp.[147][148] July 13, 1987[147][148][149] Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2013.[150][151]
Lileikis, Aleksandras (1907–2000) Accused of leading a secret Lithuanian police unit during World War II. May 24, 1996[152][153] Returned to Lithuania in 1996. War crimes trial suspended in 2000 due to ill health of defendant, who died the same year, aged 93.[154]
Linnas, Karl (1919–1987) Making false statements to gain citizenship. Commandant of a Nazi concentration camp. July 30, 1981[155][156] Deported to the Soviet Union. Died while awaiting trial.
Lytwyn, Wasyl (born 1921) Guard at Trawniki concentration camp; participated in the liquidation of Warsaw ghetto; member of SS-Battalion Streibel.[157] December 1995[157] Repatriated to Ukraine in December 1995 as per agreement with the OSI.[158]
Mandycz, Iwan (born 1920) Guard at the Trawniki and Poniatowa camps near Lublin in Nazi-occupied Poland. Became a U.S. citizen in 1955. February 28, 2005. Appeal dismissed May 22, 2006.[159] Has not been deported due to his health.[citation needed]
Miling, Jakob (1924–2009) SS-Death's Head Battalion guard at Gross-Rosen and Sachsenhausen concentration camps.[160] August 4, 2003[161][162] Fled to Serbia in September 2002, where he renounced his U.S. citizenship a year later and died in 2009.[163]
Milius, Adolph (né Adolfas Milinavičius; 1918–1999) Member of the Lithuanian Security Police. August 17, 1998[164] Fled to Lithuania in 1996, where he died in 1999.[165]
Mineikis, Antanas (1918–1997)[166] Stripped of his United States citizenship on suspicion of organizing reprisals during the Nazi occupation of the Baltic region during World War II.[167] January 1992[167] Deported to Lithuania in September 1992, where he died on November 24, 1997.[168]
Mozumdar, A. K. (1864–1953) Claimed to be Caucasian to satisfy a law then in effect restricting naturalization to "free white persons", becoming the first Asian Indian to gain American citizenship. United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind ruled that Asian Indians were not white. 1923
Munyenyezi, Beatrice (born 1970) Member of the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development, assisted in the Rwandan Genocide February 21, 2013[169] Currently serving 10-year prison sentence at FCI Aliceville for naturalization fraud.[170]
Negele, Michael (1920–2008) Guard and attack dog handler at Sachsenhausen and Theresienstadt concentration camps.[171] July 20, 1999[172] Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2008.[173]
Negewo, Kelbessa (born 1950) Convicted in Ethiopia in absentia of torture as a member of the then-ruling Derg. 2006[174] Deported to Ethiopia, where he is serving a life sentence.[174]
Osidach, Wolodymir (1904–1981) Member of the Ukrainian police involved in the persecution of Jews in Rawa Ruska during German occupation.[47] March 17, 1981[47][175] Died while case was being appealed.
Palčiauskas, Kazys (1907–1992)[176] World War II-era mayor of Kaunas, complicit in the persecution of Jews.[177] February 23, 1983[47][178] Died in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida in 1992 while appealing his deportation.[179]
Palij, Jakiw (born 1923) Failed to disclose he had been a concentration camp guard at the Trawniki concentration camp. July 31, 2003[180][181] Remains in the United States, as no country has been found to accept him.
Pasker, Mike (né Mečys Paškevičius; 1901–1993) Failed to disclose his World War II era service in the Nazi-affiliated Lithuanian Security Police from 1941–44 August 23, 1979 (consented to denaturalization)[182] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1993.
Prouty, Nada Nadim (born c. 1970) Former CIA agent who pled guilty two felonies related to a sham (green card) marriage and to one misdemeanor count of unauthorized use of an FBI computer. Renounced all claims to United States citizenship. 2007 Granted withholding of deportation/removal due to perceived threat to her life in her native Lebanon; she must comply with an Order of Supervision issued by the Department of Homeland Security.[183]
Quintus, Peter (1915–1997)[184] SS guard at Majdanek concentration camp[185] July 1988[186] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1997.[187]
Reger, Stefan (1925–2003) Reger, a native of Filipovo, Yugoslavia, was stripped of his United States citizenship due to naturalization fraud related to World War II service in the SS Death's Head Battalion (which he admitted) and at Birkenau (which he denied). September 8, 1988[188] Fled to West Germany in 1988, where he died in 2003.[189]
Reimer, Jakob (aka Jack Reimer; 1918–2005) Trawniki concentration camp guard. September 5, 2002[190] Died before he could be deported to Germany.[191]
Rudolph, Arthur (1906–1996) German rocket scientist who worked on the V-2. Renounced citizenship under pressure.[11][192] March 25, 1984[192]
Rydlinski, Chester (né Wiatscheslaw Rydlinskis; 1924–1997) Guard and attack dog handler at the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland, the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany and at Buchenwald's Laura subcamp. July 21, 1995[193] Fled to Germany in late 1994,[194] where he died in 1997.[195]
Sawchuk, Dmytro (1924–2004)[196] Guard at Trawniki concentration camp and Bełżec extermination camp; participated in liquidation of Białystok ghetto; member of SS-Battalion Streibel[197] March 23, 1999[198] Fled to Germany in 1999, where he renounced his US citizenship[198] and later died in 2004.[199]
Schellong, Conrad (1910–1992) For "concealing his role as a guard and later commander at the Sachsenburg and Dachau Nazi death camps from 1934 to 1939."[177] September 9, 1982[118][200] Deported to West Germany in 1988, where he later died.[201]
Schiffer, Nikolaus (1919–2007) Guard at Sachsenhausen, Hersbruck, Majdanek, and Trawniki concentration camps.[202] August 25, 1993[203](Born in the US, he expatriated himself by serving in the Romanian Army and Waffen SS during World War II.) Deported to Romania in 2002, where he later died in 2007.[204]
Schmidt, Michael (1923–2008) Did not contest the Office of Special Investigations/Justice Department Criminal Division allegation that he participated in the persecution of civilians while serving as an armed guard at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.[205] January 3, 1990[6] Agreed to permanently depart the United States by December 31, 1992 in an agreement with the OSI.[206] Died in Germany in 2008.[207]
Schuk, Mykola (1909–1986)[208] Member of Nazi police force in Ukraine. November 1, 1985[7] Not deported from the United States in a settlement with the government that required him to give up his U.S. citizenship and nationality in 1985; died a year later [8].
Schwinn, Hermann Max (aka Herman Schwinn; 1905–1973) Fraudulently and illegally procured naturalization. He became a United States citizen on July 22, 1932. Leader of the Western Division of the Friends of New Germany and the German-American Bund.[209] Citizenship canceled on July 15, 1939; on May 10, 1940, judgment affirmed and appeal denied.[209] Died in 1973 in Florida.[210]
Sokolov, Vladimir (aka Vladimir Sokolov-Samarin; 1913–1992) Editor and propaganda writer for the pro-Nazi Russian newspaper Rech.[211] June 2, 1986[212] Fled to Canada in 1988, where he later died.[213]
Sosa, Jorge (born 1958) Participated in the Dos Erres massacre, Guatemala in December 1982. February 10, 2014 [9] Sentenced to 10 years in prison for naturalization fraud on February 10, 2014. [10]
Mollie Steimer (born 1897, Tsarist Russia – died 1980, Mexico), et al (3 co-defendants) Anarchist; arrested in 1918 for violating the Espionage Act of 1917 Deported November 1, 1922 to Russia along with three co-defendants Received a 15 year sentence in prision. Samuel Lipman (co-defendant) was executed on the orders of Stalin, Hyman Lachowsky (co-defendant) was killed by the Nazis, and Jacob Abrams (co-defendant) settled in Mexico, as did Steimer.
Stelmokas, Jonas (né Stelmokevičius; 1916–1998) Lithuanian officer in the "[3rd Company of the 3rd Battalion of the Lithuanian] Schutzmannschaft... acquiesced in the murder and persecution of Jews and other unarmed civilians in Lithuania. Around August 1944, at the time the German occupation of Lithuania ended, Stelmokas entered the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) in the 91st Light Flak Replacement Unit."[214] August 2, 1995(original decision); November 12, 1996 (appeal rejected by the United States Court of Appeals)[215] Died in Pennsylvania in 1998 while appealing his deportation.[216]
Szehinskyj, Theodor (born 1924) SS Death's Head Battalion guard at Gross-Rosen, Sachsenhausen and Nazi camp in Warsaw concentration camps.[3][217] July 24, 2000[217][218] Remains in the United States, as no country will accept him.
Szendi, Joseph (né József Szendi; 1915–2004) Member of Royal Hungarian Gendarmerie, a paramilitary unit which deported Hungarian Jews to Nazi-occupied Poland.[219] June 18, 1993 Fled to Hungary in 1993 in an agreement with the Justice Department; died in 2004.[220]
Tannenbaum, Jacob (c. 1912–1989) Jewish kapo at Goerlitz concentration camp.[11] February 4, 1988[12] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1989. [13]
Theodorovich, George (né Jurij Theodorowytsch; born 1922) Member of Nazi-controlled police force in Ukraine January 27, 1984[14] Fled to Paraguay on December 18, 1988. [15]
Thind, Bhagat Singh Second attempt at citizenship. Naturalization revoked for being of Asian descent, based on then caselaw.[221][222][223] December 13, 1918 and February 19, 1923 (two separate occasions) Thind remained in the U.S. and eventually qualified under U.S. law to become a citizen, which he did in 1936 (his third attempt).
Tittjung, Anton (1924–2012) Guard at Mauthausen concentration camp.[224][225] December 14, 1990[226] Not deported as no country would accept him; died in 2012. [16]
Trifa, Valerian ("Viorel") (1914–1987) Former member of the fascist Iron Guard of Romania. He was Detroit Archbishop of the Romanian Orthodox Church until the Department of Justice's OSI investigation, which began in 1975.[227] Renounced U.S. citizenship. August 26, 1980[17] Fled to Portugal, where he died in 1987.
Virkutis, Antanas (1913–1993) Warden of Siauliai prison in Nazi-occupied Lithuania [18] April 1988[19] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1993. [20] [21]
Von Bolschwing, Otto Albrecht Alfred (1909–1982) SS Captain and advisor to Adolf Eichmann.[228] December 22, 1981[228] Never deported from the United States due to his health; died in 1982.[229]
Wasylyk, Mykola (1923–2010) Concentration camp guard at Trawniki and Budzyn.[3][230] July 13, 2001[231] Remained in the U.S. after denaturalization as no other country would accept him. He died in 2010.[232]
Wieland, Josef (1908–1992) SS-Death's Head guard at Mauthausen concentration camp.[233] June 19, 1986[233] Fled to West Germany in 1986,[233] where he died in 1992.[234]
Wittje, Joseph (1920–2006) Waffen-SS guard at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.[235] August 27, 2004[236] Died in 2006 before deportation hearings could begin.
Wojciechowski, Chester (1920–2003) Guard at the Majdanek concentration camp. October 5, 1987[237] Fled to West Germany, where he died in 2003.[238]
Zajančkauskas, Vladas (born 1915) Trawniki concentration camp guard who participated in the Nazi operation at the Warsaw Ghetto. January 26, 2005[239][240] Ordered deported by an immigration judge; appeal denied by Supreme Court on November 18, 2010 [22].
Ziegler, John (né Johann Ziegler; 1907–1997)[241] SS-Death's Head guard at Stutthof, Kauen, and Gotenhafen concentration camps. [23] 1991 [24] Fled to Austria in 1991 [25]; died in 1997.
Zultner, Martin (1912–1997) Guard at Schwechat, Floridsdorf, and Modling, three subcamps of Mauthausen in Austria. October 23, 1990[26] Moved to Austria in 1975,[242] where he renounced his US citizenship in 1990 and later died in 1997.[243]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Detroit-Area Man Who Shot Jews While Serving as Nazi Policeman Ordered Removed from the United States". United States Department of Justice. February 2, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  2. ^ Eric Lichtblau (November 13, 2010). "Nazis Were Given ‘Safe Haven’ in U.S., Report Says". The New York Times. 
  3. ^ a b c Tom Teicholz (June 13, 2008). "The pariah loophole". Los Angeles Times. 
  4. ^ a b "United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit decision, No. 06-10962, United States of America, Plaintiff v. Rasmi Khader Almallah, Defendant—Apellant in the Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas (3:04-CV-2230)". CourtListener.com. August 7, 2007. 
  5. ^ "Dispensing with dual citizenship". The Washington Times. March 12, 2005. 
  6. ^ "United Nations, Palestine Refugees Discussed During Iinternational Conference". United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine. April 30, 2008. 
  7. ^ "Jerseyan Accused Of Nazi Atrocities". The New York Times. November 13, 1982. 
  8. ^ United States v. Artishenko, No. 82-3822 (JWB) (D.N.J. 1984)
  9. ^ "Secret Justice Department Report Details How the U.S. Helped Former Nazis". New York Times.  p. 579
  10. ^ Breitman, Richard (2005). U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis. Cambridge University Press. p. 229. ISBN 0-521-85268-4. 
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  12. ^ Dates of birth and death for John Avdzej per U.S. Social Security Death Index
  13. ^ "Former Nazi guard stripped of U.S. citizenship". Milwaukee Journal. May 30, 1987. 
  14. ^ Dates of birth and death as per U.S. Social Security Death Index
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  17. ^ "Rogers v. Bellei, 401 U.S. 815 (1971)". Lawnix.com. 
  18. ^ "Rogers v. Bellei, 401 U.S. 815 (1971)". Justia.com. 
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  20. ^ "Obituary: Wolodymyr Berezowskyj (1924–2010)". Guilford Funeral Home. August 11, 2010. 
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  22. ^ "Federal Court Revokes U.S. Citizenship of Former Deputy of Nazi Official Responsible for Mass Killings". Department of Justice. May 24, 2002. 
  23. ^ "Man accused of aiding Nazis leaves U.S.". Chicago Tribune. August 4, 2002. 
  24. ^ "Lecanto startled by neighbor's Nazi past". Ocala Star-Banner. December 29, 1992. 
  25. ^ Dates of birth and death of Anton Bless per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
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  28. ^ Renate Frydman (2005). "A mensch on the bench/An interview with U.S. District Court Judge Rice". Dayton Jewish Observer. 
  29. ^ "Accused Nazi Tries to Stay in U.S.". Lakeland Ledger. January 20, 2005. 
  30. ^ a b "Former Member of Lithuanian Mobile Killing Unit Relinquishes United States Citizenship and Departs USA". U.S. Department of Justice. June 3, 1996. 
  31. ^ Dates of birth and death of Budreika as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  32. ^ Dates of birth and death for Čiurinskas as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  33. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Kazys Ciurinskas, Defendant". June 18, 1997. 
  34. ^ "Former Member of Nazi Killing Unit is Deported from the United States". U.S. Department of Justice. May 12, 1999. 
  35. ^ a b "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Algimantas M. Dailide, Defendant-appellant - 316 F.3d 611". justia.com. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Nazi Collaborator Who Helped Lure Jews For Execution Departs United States". U.S. Department of Justice. January 14, 2004. 
  37. ^ Assaf Uni (August 31, 2008). "Nazi collaborator fled arrest, living peacefully in Germany". Haaretz. 
  38. ^ a b "Muslim cleric stripped of U.S. citizenship". MSNBC. September 24, 2004. 
  39. ^ "Individual terrorists/Fawaz Damrah". Investigative Project on Terrorism. 
  40. ^ a b "Demjanjuk convicted in Nazi death camp case". CBC News. May 12, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 
  41. ^ "The Demjanjuk trial one year on". Deutsche Welle. November 30, 2010. 
  42. ^ Aderet, Ofert. News article in HAARETZ Israeli News dated March 23, 2012. Convicted Nazi criminal Demjanjuk deemed innocent in Germany over technicality. Downloaded July 4, 2012 from here
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  44. ^ "Ohioan accused of being ex-Nazi guard". Portsmouth Daily News. December 2, 1989. 
  45. ^ "Secret Justice Department Report Details How the U.S. Helped Former Nazis". New York Times.  p. 586
  46. ^ "Accused Nazi stripped of citizenship". Toledo Blade. December 2, 1989. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f Henry Friedlander; Earlean M. McCarrick. "Nazi Criminals in the United States: Denaturalization after Fedorenko (Annual 3 Chapter 2 Part 1)". Museum of Tolerance. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  48. ^ a b Joseph P. Fried (February 5, 1982), "Citizenship Revoked On Nazi Role", The New York Times 
  49. ^ Dates of birth and death for Valdis Didrichsons per U.S. Social Security Death Index
  50. ^ "Ex-Latvian will give up citizenship". Spokane Chronicle. March 5, 1990. 
  51. ^ Mike Carter (July 18, 2008). "War-crime cases take years to sort out". The Seattle Times. 
  52. ^ Braham, Randolph L. (1983). Contemporary Views on the Holocaust. Springer. p. 216. ISBN 0-89838-141-X. 
  53. ^ William J. Eaton (July 28, 1987). "Soviets Execute Ex-Nazi Guard Deported by U.S.". Los Angeles Times. 
  54. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Osyp Firishchak, a.k.a. Osip/Yosef/Josif/Josyf, Firischtschak/Firiscak/Firis chak/Firiszczak/Firischtschuk/Firitschak/Firschak Defendant". Google.com. August 30, 2005. 
  55. ^ Dates of birth and death for Osyp Firishchak per U.S. Social Security Death Index
  56. ^ "Federal Judge Revokes U.S. Citizenship of Former Nazi Concentration Camp Guard in St. Louis". U.S. Department of Justice. February 25, 2004. 
  57. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Adam Friedrich, Defendant/Memorandum and Order". February 24, 2004. 
  58. ^ Arthur Max (May 20, 2007). "Nazi Archive Reveals Panorama of Misery". Washington Post. 
  59. ^ a b "Federal Court Revokes U.S. Citizenship of Former Florida Resident who Served in Nazi Police Unit". U.S. Department of Justice. November 21, 2006. 
  60. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Anton Geiser, Defendant". September 29, 2006. 
  61. ^ a b "Court Revokes U.S. Citizenship of Former Security Police Official in Nazi-Occupied Lithuania". U.S. Department of Justice. June 26, 1996. 
  62. ^ a b "Lithuanian man convicted but not jailed for WWII crimes". European Jewish Press. March 28, 2006. 
  63. ^ "Will Fight Deportation". The New York Times. December 1, 1919. Retrieved February 4, 2010. 
  64. ^ a b Bridget Johnson. "Most Wanted Nazis". About.com. 
  65. ^ "Federal Court Revokes U.S. Citizenship of Former Gestapo Interrogator Who Participated in Nazi Mass Murder". U.S. Department of Justice. July 31, 2002. 
  66. ^ "US strips citizenship, deports man tied to Bosnia war crimes". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. June 4, 2010. 
  67. ^ Dates of birth and death for Joseph Grabauskas per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  68. ^ "Justice Department Brings Suit to Revoke Citizenship of Officer of Nazi-sponsored Lithuanian Mobile Killing Unit". U.S. Newswire. January 21, 1993. 
  69. ^ "Ex-Nazi confesses role, departs U.S.". Toledo Blade. November 6, 1993. 
  70. ^ Dates of birth and death for Vytautas Gudauskas per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  71. ^ United States v. Gudauskas, No. 84-000215-T (D. Mass. 1994)
  72. ^ "Secret Justice Department Report Details How the U.S. Helped Former Nazis". New York Times.  p. 591
  73. ^ Vytautas Gudauskas, 79: [ALL Edition] (1997, November 17). Telegram & Gazette, p. B5. Retrieved March 16, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. (Document ID: 1204664481).
  74. ^ Dates of birth and death for Habich per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  75. ^ "Ex-Nazi guard loses his citizenship". The Bulletin. March 15, 1990. 
  76. ^ "Secret Justice Department Report Details How the U.S. Helped Former Nazis". New York Times. 
  77. ^ Dates of birth and death for Hajda per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  78. ^ a b "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Bronislaw Hajda, Defendant". findacase.com. April 9, 1997. 
  79. ^ Ron Grossman (March 8, 2009). "Area was haven for Nazi-era figures". Chicago Tribune. 
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  81. ^ Dates of birth and death for Ferdinand Hammer as per the Social Security Death Index
  82. ^ "Justice Department Moves to Revoke U.S. Citizenship of Nazi Concentration Camp Guard in Des Moines". U.S. Department of Justice. July 24, 2003. 
  83. ^ "John Hansl, 82; ex-Nazi guard whose U.S. citizenship was revoked". Los Angeles Times. July 3, 2007. 
  84. ^ Jason Cato (April 15, 2007). "The Nazi hunt continues for ex-guards". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. 
  85. ^ a b "Former Nazi Concentration Camp Guard Loses U.S. Citizenship, Departs United States". U.S. Department of Justice. September 20, 2007. 
  86. ^ J.J. Hensley (September 21, 2007). "Mesa man was Nazi SS guard, leaves country". The Arizona Republic. 
  87. ^ New York Times coverage of Anatoly Hrusitzky case
  88. ^ Date of Anatoly Hrusitzky's denaturalization
  89. ^ Dates of birth and death for Anatoly Hrusitzky as per the Social Security Death Index
  90. ^ Judgment against Sergis Hutyrczyk
  91. ^ Notice of death of Sergis Hutyrczyk in 1993 in New York Times article
  92. ^ "United States of America versus Lionel Jean-Baptiste/Appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida". United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit. January 4, 2005. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  93. ^ Curt Anderson (September 16, 2010). "Ex-Guatemalan Soldier Gets 10 Years in US Prison; Authorities: Ex-Guatemalan soldier linked to 1982 massacre sentenced to 10 years in US prison". abcnews.com. Retrieved March 3, 2011. 
  94. ^ "U.S. Bureau of Prisons website profile of Gilberto Jordan; BOP# 73526-004; projected/actual release date: March 23, 2019". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved March 3, 2011. 
  95. ^ "Former Guatemalan Special Forces Soldier Sentenced to 10 Years in Prison for Making False Statements on Naturalization Forms Regarding 1982 Massacre of Guatemalan Villagers". United States Department of Justice. September 10, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2011. 
  96. ^ "United States of America v. Liudas Kairys, 600 F. Supp. 1254 - Dist. Court, ND Illinois". December 28, 1984. 
  97. ^ a b "U.S. Deports a Chicago Man Accused of Being Nazi Guard". The New York Times. April 10, 1993. 
  98. ^ Kairys v IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE (Appeal from an Order of the Immigration and Naturalization Service), U.S. Court of Appeals for the 7th Circuit, No. 91-2768, September 9, 1992, Argued — December 2, 1992, text of decision
  99. ^ San Francisco Sentinel report on death of Liudas Kairys
  100. ^ "Deportation ordered for man accused of killing Jew". The Kansas City Star. January 31, 2011. 
  101. ^ Justice Department press release on Kalymon's denaturalization
  102. ^ Profile of Juris Kauls
  103. ^ Juris Kauls stripped of U.S. citizenship
  104. ^ Juris Kauls flees to West Germany
  105. ^ Kauls stripped of U.S. citizenship and repatriated to West Germany
  106. ^ Dates of birth and death of Juris Kauls as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  107. ^ Dates of birth and death of Miķelis Kiršteins as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  108. ^ Judgment against Mikelis Kirsteins
  109. ^ Notice of death of Mikelis Kirsteins in 1994
  110. ^ Dates of birth and death of Jonas Klimavičius as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  111. ^ "Nazi Gives Up U.S. Citizenship". Lewiston Journal. November 30, 1988. 
  112. ^ a b "Knauer v. United States, 328 U. S. 654 (1946)". Justia.com. June 10, 1946. 
  113. ^ Milwaukeean Lost Citizenship in 1944; Regained Entry to US in 1957, Milwaukee Journal, June 18, 1962.
  114. ^ Judgment against Ferenc Koreh
  115. ^ Profile of Ferenc Koreh
  116. ^ Dates of birth and death of Ferenc Koreh as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  117. ^ "United States v. Kowalchuk, 571 F. Supp. 72 - Dist. Court, ED". July 1, 1983. 
  118. ^ a b Henry Friedlander; Earlean M. McCarrick. "Nazi Criminals in the United States: Denaturalization after Fedorenko (Annual 3 Chapter 2 Part 2)". Museum of Tolerance. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  119. ^ "Citizenship Lost in Nazi Case". The New York Times. July 2, 1983. 
  120. ^ Steve Feldman (January 16, 1998). "Nazi war criminals have found haven in Philadelphia". jweekly.com. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  121. ^ Dates of birth and death of Serge Kowalchuk as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  122. ^ "United States v. Koziy, 540 F. Supp. 25 - Dist. Court, SD Florida". March 29, 1982. 
  123. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Bohdan Koziy, a/k/a Bogdanus Kosij, a/k/a Bohdan Jozij, Defendant-Appellant. No. 82-5749". April 2, 1984. 
  124. ^ "Koziy zmarł przed procesem (Koziy died before the trial)". new-arch.rp.pl. 
  125. ^ "Awaiting extradition, Bohdan Koziy dies". The Ukrainian Weekly. December 7, 2003. 
  126. ^ Profile of Wasyl Krysa at the U.S. Department of Justice website
  127. ^ Marilyn H. Karfeld (April 22, 2004). "Nazi camp guard's death ends federal prosecution". Cleveland Jewish News. 
  128. ^ "Fritz Kuhn, Former Bund Chief, Ordered Back to Germany". Evening Independent. September 7, 1945. 
  129. ^ Profile of Josias Kumpf at United States Department of Justice website
  130. ^ United States v. Kumpf, United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin, No. 03-C-944.
  131. ^ Kungys profile at U.S. Search
  132. ^ Date of death as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index. Although the SSDI gives Kungys' date of birth as 1913, Kungys admitted in court proceedings that he was actually born in 1915.
  133. ^ Stuart Taylor Jr. (April 28, 1987). "Justices Question Bid to Denaturize Man Who Lied on Past". New York Times. 
  134. ^ "United States of America, Appellant, v. Juozas Kungys". June 20, 1986. 
  135. ^ "Kungys v. United States, 485 U.S. 759 (1988)". supreme.justia.com. May 2, 1988. 
  136. ^ "Man Linked to Nazis Loses Citizenship". Philadelphia Inquirer. November 23, 1988. 
  137. ^ Dates of birth and death as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  138. ^ a b "Federal Judge Revokes Citizenship of New Jersey Man Who Served as Guard at Nazi Slave Labor Camps". United States Department of Justice. April 14, 2004. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  139. ^ FOX News report on health of Andrew Kuras shortly before his death
  140. ^ Dates of birth and death of Fedir Kwoczak as per U.S. Social Security Death Index
  141. ^ "Justice Department Moves to Revoke U.S. Citizenship of Former Nazi Collaborator". U.S. Department of Justice. September 8, 1997. 
  142. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Fedir Kwoczak, Defendant. Civil Action No. 97-5632". June 27, 2002. 
  143. ^ Judy Feigin (December 2006). "The Office of Special Investigations: Striving for Accountability in the Aftermath of the Holocaust". New York Times.  p. 601
  144. ^ a b c "Ex-Nazi flees U.S. after admitting past". Pittsburgh Press. December 31, 1986. 
  145. ^ Dates of birth and death of Stefan Leili as per U.S. Social Security Death Index
  146. ^ Leprich profile at Intelius
  147. ^ a b "Government Arrests, Moves to Deport Detroit-area Nazi Collaborator". United States Department of Justice. July 2, 2003. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  148. ^ a b Francie Grace (July 3, 2003). "Accused Nazi Nabbed". CBS News. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  149. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Johann Leprich, a/k/a Johann Lepprich, Defendant". July 13, 1987. 
  150. ^ David Ashenfelter (October 18, 2006). "U.S. frees ex-Nazi camp guard in Michigan". USA Today. 
  151. ^ Dates of birth and death of Johann Leprich as per U.S. Social Security Death Index
  152. ^ "World News Briefs; Accused of Aiding Nazis, Man Returns to Lithuania". The New York Times. June 20, 1996. 
  153. ^ "United States of America v. Aleksandras Lileikis". May 24, 1996. 
  154. ^ "War crimes proceedings". The Baltic Times. July 13, 2000. 
  155. ^ Richard Lacayo, Anne Constable, and Jeanne McDowell (April 20, 1987). "Ethics: Problems Of Crime and Punishment". Time. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  156. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Karl Linnas, Defendant". July 30, 1981. 
  157. ^ a b "Justice Department Files Suit to Revoke Citizenship of Former Nazi Collaborator". United States Department of Justice. December 159, 1995. 
  158. ^ "Nazi Deported". The Victoria Advocate. December 16, 1995. 
  159. ^ "United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Iwan Mandycz, Defendant-Appellant". U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. May 22, 2006. 
  160. ^ Profile of Jakob Miling at U.S. Department of Justice website
  161. ^ Cleveland Jewish News report on Miling
  162. ^ Sun Newspapers report on Jakob Miling
  163. ^ Dates of birth and death of Jakob Miling as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  164. ^ Profile of Adolph Milius at U.S. Department of Justice website
  165. ^ Dates of birth and death of Adolph Milius as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  166. ^ Dates of birth and death for Antanas Mineikis as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index; Mineikis mistranscribed in American media as Mineiki.
  167. ^ a b "Man Accused of Ties to Nazis Is Sent by U.S. to Lithuania". The New York Times. September 17, 1992. 
  168. ^ "Antanas Mineiki, Suspected Nazi Collaborator, 80". The New York Times. November 30, 1997. 
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  171. ^ U.S. Department of Justice profile of Michael Negele
  172. ^ Judgment against Michael Negele
  173. ^ Dates of birth and death for Michael Negele as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
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  175. ^ "Around the Nation; Refugee Linked to Nazis Loses His U.S. Citizenship". The New York Times. March 18, 1981. 
  176. ^ Dates of birth and death for Kazys Palčiauskas per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  177. ^ a b Kenneth B. Noble (April 24, 1987). "12 with Nazi Ties Facing Deportation". The New York Times. 
  178. ^ Date of denaturalization of Kazys Palčiauskas
  179. ^ "Kazys Palciauskas". Orlando Sentinel. January 10, 1992. 
  180. ^ Jakiw Palij profile at the U.S. Department of Justice website
  181. ^ Corey Kilgannon (November 21, 2003). "Accused Nazi Guard Speaks Out, Denying He Had Role in Atrocities". The New York Times. 
  182. ^ Judgment against Mike Pasker (aka Mečys Paškevičius)
  183. ^ Scott Pelley (March 28, 2010). "The Case Against The Former Terrorism Fighter; Was She A Patriot Or A Traitor?". CBS News. 
  184. ^ Dates of birth and death for Peter Quintus as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  185. ^ Article on Peter Quintus's World War II background in the New York Times
  186. ^ Quintus stripped of U.S. citizenship
  187. ^ Death of Peter Quintus
  188. ^ "Ex-SS Man Loses Citizenship", New York Times, September 8, 1988
  189. ^ Dates of birth and death for Stefan Reger as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  190. ^ Benjamin Weiser (September 6, 2002). "Judge Revokes Citizenship of Man Linked to Nazi War Crimes". The New York Times. 
  191. ^ Barry, Dan (September 17, 2005). "A Face Seen and Unseen on the Subway". The New York Times. 
  192. ^ a b "Obituary: Arthur Rudolph". The Independent (London). January 6, 1996. 
  193. ^ "FEDERAL COURT REVOKES U.S. CITIZENSHIP OF FORMER NAZI CONCENTRATION CAMP GUARD WHO FLED COUNTRY"
  194. ^ U.S. Department of Justice profile of Chester Rydlinski
  195. ^ Dates of birth and death for Chester Rydlinski as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  196. ^ Dates of birth and death for Dmytro Sawchuk as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  197. ^ U.S. Department of Justice profile of Dmytro Sawchuk
  198. ^ a b Paul von Zielbauer (June 11, 1999). "Man Accused in Nazi Case Leaves Country". The New York Times. 
  199. ^ San Francisco Sentinel report on death of Dmytro Sawchuk
  200. ^ Judgment against Conrad Schellong
  201. ^ "Former Nazi Guard Deported". Associated Press. September 23, 1988. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  202. ^ Profile of Nikolaus Schiffer at the United States Department of Justice website
  203. ^ Schiffer Google search results
  204. ^ Dates of birth and death for Nikolaus Schiffer as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  205. ^ "Schmidt does not contest OSI allegations"
  206. ^ "Admitted Nazi SS Guard to Permanently Depart U.S."
  207. ^ Dates of birth and death of Michael Schmidt as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  208. ^ Dates of birth and death of Mykola Schuk as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  209. ^ a b "Schwinn v. United States, 112 F. 2d 74 (1940) - Circuit Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit (May 10, 1940)". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  210. ^ Herman Schwinn died in Florida in January 1973 as per Social Security Death Index; SS#548-28-9201
  211. ^ Jewish World Review report on Vladimir Sokolov
  212. ^ Judgment against Vladimir Sokolov
  213. ^ Jewish World Review reference to the death of Vladimir Sokolov
  214. ^ Visa Law website coverage of Stelmokas decision
  215. ^ 100 F. 3d 302, 45 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 568, No. 95-1894 (United States v. Stelmokas) appeals case
  216. ^ Jonas Stelmokas dies, aged 82.
  217. ^ a b "Deportation Order Upheld in Case of Former Nazi Concentration Camp Guard". United States Department of Justice. August 30, 2004. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  218. ^ Judgment against Theodor Szehinskyj
  219. ^ Profile of Joseph Szendi's wartime history in Hungary
  220. ^ Dates of birth and death of Joseph Szendi as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  221. ^ PBS coverage of Bhagat Singh Thind
  222. ^ Bhagat Singh Thind biodata
  223. ^ Bhagat Singh Thind vs. United States of America, 261 U. S. 204 (1923); copy of decision by U.S. Supreme Court, dated February 19, 1923, which was written by Justice George Sutherland
  224. ^ "Anton Tittjung,petitioner, v. Janet Reno, U.S. Attorney General, and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service,respondents-199 F.3d 393". justia.com. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  225. ^ "Former Nazi Camp Guard Loses Battle". CBS News (AP story). June 29, 2000. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  226. ^ Final judgment on appeal re Anton Tittjung, cancelling his naturalization (US v. Tittjung, 753 F. Supp. 251 - Dist. Court, ED)
  227. ^ OSI investigation of Valerian "Viorel" Trifa
  228. ^ a b "Ex-Nazi SS Officer Loses Citizenship But Is Allowed To Stay In U.S.". The New York Times. December 23, 1981. 
  229. ^ "Otto Von Bolschwing; Ex-Captain In Nazi SS". The New York Times. March 10, 1982. 
  230. ^ "U.S. Appeals Court Affirms Deportation of Former Nazi Camp Guard". america.gov. March 25, 2004. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  231. ^ Profile of Mykola Wasylyk
  232. ^ Notice of Mykola Wasylyk's death
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  234. ^ Dates of birth and death of Josef Wieland per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  235. ^ Profile of Joseph Wittje
  236. ^ Judgment of denaturalization against Joseph Wittje, 333 F.Supp.2d 737 (2004) - UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff, v. Joseph WITTJE, Defendant. No. 03 C 6367., United States District Court, N.D. Illinois, Eastern Division
  237. ^ Chicago Tribune report on investigation and denaturalization of Wojciechowski
  238. ^ Dates of birth and death of Chester Wojciechowski (last name misspelled as "Wojciechowsk" by SSDI) as per the U.S. Social Security Death Index
  239. ^ Profile of Vladas Zajanckauskas
  240. ^ Shelley Murphy (August 17, 2007). "Alleged Nazi guard ordered deported". Boston Globe. 
  241. ^ Dates of birth and death of Johann Ziegler as per U.S. Social Security Death Index
  242. ^ Justice Dept. Starts Citizenship Action Against Ex-SS Aide :[FINAL Edition]. (August 4 1990). The Washington Post (pre-1997 Fulltext),p. a11; retrieved March 17, 2011, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 72608228).
  243. ^ Dates of birth and death of Martin Zultner as per U.S. Social Security Death Index

See also[edit]