List of dog diseases

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This list of dog diseases is a continuously updated selection of diseases and other conditions found in the dog. Some of these diseases are unique to dogs or closely related species, while others are found in other animals, including humans. Not all of the articles listed here contain information specific to dogs. Articles with non-dog information are marked with an asterisk (*)

Animal Infections Rabies (hydrophobia) is a fatal viral disease that can affect any mammal, although the close relationship of dogs with humans makes canine rabies a zoonotic concern. Vaccination of dogs for rabies is commonly required by law. Please see the article dog health for information on this disease in dogs.[1]

  • Canine parvovirus is a sometimes fatal gastrointestinal infection that mainly affects puppies. It occurs worldwide.[2]
  • Canine coronavirus is a gastrointestinal disease that is usually asymptomatic or with mild clinical signs. The signs are worse in puppies.[3]
  • Canine distemper is an often fatal infectious disease that mainly has respiratory and neurologic signs.[4]
  • Canine influenza is a newly emerging infectious respiratory disease. Up to 80 percent of dogs infected will have symptoms, but the mortality rate is only 5 to 8 percent.[5]
  • Infectious canine hepatitis is a sometimes fatal infectious disease of the liver.[6]
  • Canine herpesvirus is an infectious disease that is a common cause of death in puppies less than three weeks old.[7]
  • Pseudorabies is an infectious disease that primarily affects swine, but can also cause a fatal disease in dogs with signs similar to rabies.[8]
  • Canine minute virus is an infectious disease that can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal signs in young puppies.[9]

Bacterial infections[edit]

Fungal infections[edit]

  • Blastomycosis* is a fungal disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis" that affects both dogs and humans. Dogs are ten times more likely to be infected than humans. The disease in dogs can affect the eyes, brain, lungs, skin, or bones.[15]
  • Histoplasmosis* is a fungal disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum that affects both dogs and humans. The disease in dogs usually affects the lungs and small intestine.[16]
  • Coccidioidomycosis* is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii that affects a variety of species, including dogs. In dogs signs of primary pulmonary disease include a cough, fever, weight loss, anorexia, and lethargy. Disseminated disease occurs when the fungus has spread outside of the lungs and may include clinical signs such as lameness, pain, seizures, anterior uveitis, and localized swelling.[17] Diagnosis of Valley Fever may include multiple tests, including serology and radiology. According to a study performed in the Tucson and Phoenix area, 28% of dogs will test positive for exposure to the fungus by two years of age, but only 6% of the dogs will be ill with clinical disease.[18] There is an increased risk of infection associated with amount of time spent outdoors, a larger roaming space accessed by the dog, and increasing age.[19]
  • Cryptococcosis* is a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that affects both dogs and humans. It is a rare disease in dogs, with cats seven to ten times more likely to be infected. The disease in dogs can affect the lungs and skin, but more commonly the eye and central nervous system.[20]
  • Ringworm is a fungal skin disease that in dogs is caused by Microsporum canis (70%), Microsporum gypseum (20%), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (10%). Typical signs in dogs include hair loss and scaly skin.[21]
  • Sporotrichosis is a fungal disease caused by Sporothrix schenckii that affects both dogs and humans. It is a rare disease in dogs, with cat and horse infections predominating in veterinary medicine. The disease in dogs is usually nodular skin lesions of the head and trunk.[22]
  • Aspergillosis* is a fungal disease that in dogs is caused primarily by Aspergillus fumigatus. Infection is usually in the nasal cavity. Typical signs in dogs include sneezing, nasal discharge, bleeding from the nose, and ulcerations of the nose.[23]
  • Pythiosis is a disease cause by a water mould of the genus Pythium, P. insidiosum. It occurs primarily in dogs and horses, but can also affect humans. In dogs it affects the gastrointestinal system and lymph nodes, and rarely the skin.[24]
  • Mucormycosis is a collection of fungal and mold diseases in dogs including pythiosis, zygomycosis, and lagenidiosis that affect the gastrointestinal tract and skin.[6]

Protozoal diseases[edit]

Other Bad Things To Happen To An Animal

Parasites[edit]

Skeletal and muscular disorders[edit]

  • Osteoarthritis*, also known as degenerative arthritis, is a common condition in dogs characterized by progressive deterioration of articular cartilage in the joints of the limbs. It can cause a great deal of pain and lameness. Treatment options include medications such as NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and joint fluid modifiers such as glycosaminoglycans. Other treatments include surgery, massage, warm compresses, chiropractic, and acupuncture.[35]
  • Hip dysplasia is an inherited disease in dogs that is characterized by abnormal development of the acetabulum and head of the femur. It is more common in large breeds.[6]
  • Elbow dysplasia is a condition found more commonly in large breeds. It incorporates several different hereditary conditions of the elbow, including osteochondritis of the medial condyle of the humerus, fragmentation of the medial coronoid process of the ulna, and ununited anconeal process of the ulna.[6]
  • Luxating patella is a medial or lateral displacement of the patella, or kneecap. It is strongly suspected to be inherited, but can also result from trauma.[36] It is more common in smaller breeds of dogs [1]
  • Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is separation of immature articular cartilage from underlying bone. It is caused by osteochondrosis, which is characterized by abnormal endochondral ossification of epiphyseal cartilage. It is most commonly seen in the stifle, elbow, shoulder, and hock.[37]
  • Panosteitis is a common disease of unknown cause that causes pain and a shifting leg lameness in medium and large breed dogs. It affects the long bones of the hind and forelimbs.[38]
  • Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, also known as Perthes disease or aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, is characterized by a deformity of the head of the femur and hip pain. It occurs in small breed puppies.[6]
  • Back pain* in dogs, particularly in long-backed breeds, such as Basset Hounds and Dachshunds, is usually caused by intervertebral disk disease. It is caused by degeneration and protrusion of the disk and compression of the spinal cord. It occurs most commonly in the cervical and thoracolumbar regions. Signs include back pain, hind limb weakness, and paralysis.[39]
  • Congenital vertebral anomalies, including butterfly, block, and transitional vertebrae, and hemivertebrae, are a collection of malformations of the spine in animals. Most are not clinically significant, but they can cause compression of the spinal cord by deforming the vertebral canal or causing instability.[6]
  • Craniomandibular osteopathy is a hereditary disease in West Highland White Terriers and also occurs in other terrier breeds. It is a developmental disease in puppies causing extensive bony changes in the mandible and skull. Signs include pain upon opening the mouth.[40]
  • Hypertrophic osteopathy is a bone disease secondary to disease in the lungs. It is characterized by new bone formation on the outside of the long bones.[6]
  • Hypertrophic osteodystrophy is a bone disease in rapidly growing large breed dogs. Signs include swelling of the metaphysis (the part of the bone adjacent to the joint), pain, depression, loss of appetite, and fever. The disease is usually bilateral in the limb bones.[41]
  • Spondylosis*, known as spondylosis deformans in dogs, is growth of osteophytes on the ventral and lateral surfaces of the vertebral bodies. It is usually an incidental finding on radiographs and rarely causes symptoms.[39]
  • Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM) is an inflammatory disease in dogs affecting the muscles of the jaw. Signs include swelling of the jaw muscles and pain on opening the mouth. In chronic MMM there is atrophy of the jaw muscles, and scarring of the masticatory muscles due to fibrosis may result in inability to open the mouth (trismus).[6]

Cardiovascular and circulatory[edit]

  • Platelet disorders
    • von Willebrand disease* is an inherited, common disease found in both dogs and humans. It is characterized by a deficiency of a protein called von Willebrand factor, which is involved in blood clotting. The disease varies from mild to severe, depending on the amount of von Willebrand factor present in the dog. Signs include spontaneous bleeding and excessive bleeding following surgery, injury, or during an estrous cycle.[42]
    • Thrombocytopenia* is a common condition in dogs characterized by low platelet counts. Platelets are used in clotting the blood, so dogs with this condition may have spontaneous bleeding or prolonged bleeding following surgery, injury, or during an estrous cycle. Causes include some rickettsial infections such as ehrlichiosis, cancers such as hemangiosarcoma, or immune-mediated disease.[43]
    • Thrombocytosis* is a condition characterized by an excess of platelets. Most cases are physiologic (caused by exercise) or reactive (secondary to some cancers, blood loss, or certain drugs). Rarely the condition is caused by a primary bone marrow disorder. In this last case, the platelets may not function normally, causing the blood to not clot properly.[44]
  • Hemolytic anemia* is a type of regenerative anemia found in dogs characterized by destruction of the red blood cell. The most important type is immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, which can be a primary disease or secondary to cancer, infection, drugs, or vaccinations. Antibodies are present on the cell surface, leading to lysis and severe anemia. Other causes of hemolytic lesion include hypophosphatemia, exposure to toxins such as lead, infections such as ehrlichiosis or babesiosis, and rarely, neonatal isoerythrolysis.[45] The behavioral condition pica, especially when involving the eating of concrete dust, tile grout, or sand, may be a sign of hemolytic anemia, indicating the need for a complete blood count to investigate a possible diagnosis.[46][47]

Nervous system[edit]

Eyes[edit]

  • Eyelid diseases
    • Ectropion (eyelid folding outward) is a common condition in dogs, usually affecting the lower lid. Breeds associated with ectropion include the Cocker Spaniel, the St. Bernard, the Bloodhound, and the Basset Hound.[59]
    • Entropion (eyelid folding inward) is a common condition in dogs, especially the Chow Chow, Shar Pei, St. Bernard, and Cocker Spaniel. Upper lid entropion involves the eyelashes rubbing on the eye, but the lower lid usually has no eyelashes, so hair rubs on the eye. Surgical correction is used in more severe cases.[59]
    • Distichia (including ectopic cilia) is an eyelash that arises from an abnormal spot on the eyelid. Distichiae usually cause no symptoms because the lashes are soft, but they can irritate the eye and cause tearing, squinting, inflammation, and corneal ulcers.[59]
    • Chalazion* is a granuloma that forms in the eyelid due to blocked secretions from the Meibomian gland. Inflammation of the eyelid may result.[60]
    • Trichiasis in dogs is hair from the eyelid growing in the wrong direction and rubbing on the eye, causing irritation. It usually occurs at the lateral upper eyelid, especially in the English Cocker Spaniel.[59]
  • Lens diseases
    • Cataracts* are an opacity in the lens of the eye. Most cataracts in dogs are caused by a genetic predisposition, but diabetes mellitus is also a common cause.[61] The only effective treatment is surgical removal.[62] At present, a new drug is being tested that may prevent the formation of cataracts in diabetic dogs and to reverse early cataract formation.[63]
    • Lens luxation is a displacement of the lens from its normal position. Terrier breeds are predisposed.[59]
    • Nuclear sclerosis is a consistent finding in dogs greater than seven years old. Nuclear sclerosis appears as a bilateral bluish-grey haziness at the nucleus, or center of the lens.[59] Many people get this confused with Cataracts, and that is not the case. Many people also think the dog loses its vision, but the dogs can actually see quite well.[2]
  • Retinal diseases
A young Airedale Terrier, suffering from a congenital retina condition and subsequent cataract formation, and totally blind by the age of six years.[64]

Ears[edit]

  • Ear infections are common in dogs, particularly breeds with hanging ears, such as Beagles, and dogs with narrow ear canals, such as Cocker Spaniels. Other predisposing factors include allergies, ear parasites, and hypothyroidism.[71]
  • Deafness* in dogs can be either acquired or congenital. Predisposing factors for acquired deafness include chronic infection, use of certain drugs, and most commonly, age-related changes in the cochlea. Congenital deafness can be genetic, seen sometimes in dogs with merle or white coats, or caused by in utero damage from infections or toxins.[72]
  • Fly strike dermatitis occurs at the tip and folds of the ear in dogs. It is caused by bites of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans.[73]

Skin[edit]

See also dog skin disorders
  • Allergies*
    • Atopy* is an allergy to a substance with which the dog is not necessarily in direct contact. It is a type I hypersensitivity to a substance that is inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Up to 10 percent of dogs are affected.[74] It is common in dogs, especially seen in breeds such as Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and Shih Tzus. The most common symptom is itching. Affected areas include the underside, the face, the feet, and the ears.[75]
    • Flea allergy dermatitis is the most common skin disease of dogs in the United States. It is caused by sensitivity to flea saliva.[76]
    • Food allergy* in dogs is commonly manifested as itching, especially of the face, paws, and the underside. Skin testing has proved unreliable, and a trial of a hypoallergenic diet is usually used for diagnosis.[77]
  • Follicular dysplasia is a genetic disease of dogs causing alopecia, or hair loss. It is caused by hair follicles that are misfunctioning due to structural abnormality.[33]
  • Dermoid sinus a genetic, autosomal skin condition in dogs. It can appear as single or multiple lumps on the dorsal midline.[33]
Lick granuloma from excessive licking

Cancers[edit]

Behavioral[edit]

Environmental[edit]

  • Sensitivity to anaesthesia can occur in any breed, but sighthounds have been the breeds most documented to have anesthetic concerns. Sighthounds are known to have prolonged recovery times from ultra short-acting thiobarbiturates such as thiopental.[84]
  • Heat stroke can occur in dogs, especially in flat-faced breeds such as the Bulldog or in giant breeds. Breed, lack of water, exercise, and high ambient temperature predispose dogs to heat stroke. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, collapse, difficulty breathing, and body temperature approaching 42°C to 43°C. Treatment includes cooling the dogs with wet towels and fans, intravenous fluid therapy, and other supportive care.[85] If a dog's temperature begin to drop to around 40°C, stop the cooling process. Once a dog’s body begins to cool, it can drop quickly and getting them too cool can create different problems. Allow the dog only a couple of laps of water until their temperature begins to drop to a more normal level. Do not allow a dog to gulp large quantities of water. If a dog is panting excessively and then drinks a lot of water, he will swallow large amounts of air with the water and this can cause an equally life-threatening case of bloat in their stomach.[86]
  • Foxtails and sandburs can penetrate the lining of the mouth or skin and migrate, causing abscesses and draining tracts.[87]

Endocrine diseases[edit]

Shown here are the pituitary gland: (Acromegaly, a form of Cushing's disease, a form of Diabetes Insipidus, atypical Addison's diesase), the ovary for females: (Secondary Diabetes, Transient Diabetes), the adrenal gland: (a form of Cushing's disease, typical Addison's disease), the thyroid gland: (Hypothyroidism), and the pancreas: (Diabetes Mellitus).
  • Thyroid diseases, including:
    • Hyperthyroidism* is rare in dogs. The most common cause is thyroid carcinoma, a malignant tumor. Signs include weight loss, increased appetite, and enlargement of the thyroid gland.[101]
    • Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease in dogs. It can be caused by autoimmune destruction (lymphocytic thyroiditis) or idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland.[102] These two causes are responsible for over 95% of the hypothyroidism cases in dogs.[103] Signs include decreased appetite, weight gain, hair loss, dry skin/coat, skin that is cold to the touch, recurring skin infections, and lethargy. The dog may also seek out warm places to lie. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are shared with many other medical conditions; it may not be the first thought when a diagnosis is made.[104] Symptoms may not appear until 75% or more of the gland is non-functional. In less than 10% of hypothyroidism cases, the problem is not with the thyroid gland itself, but with the pituitary gland in the brain. The pituitary gland produces a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH);[105] without this hormone to signal the thyroid gland to produce its thyroid hormone, the thyroid gland remains inactive.[103] Treatment is with oral thyroid hormone supplementation.[106][107] Lack of enough iodine in the diet can produce a form of hypothyroidism; without the proper amount of it, the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormone.[103] Myxedema coma is a rare but serious aspect of the disease that is a medical emergency.[108]
  • Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism,[109] is a reduction of production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids by the adrenal glands. There is more familiarity with the glucocortcoids, such as cortisol; mineralcorticoids control the amount of potassium, salt and water in the body.[110][111][112] It is most commonly caused by destruction of adrenal tissue, probably by autoimmune disease. Signs include increased drinking and urination, vomiting, diarrhea, collapse, shivering and weight loss; at times neither the causes nor symptoms are especially specific.[113][114] Because of this it is sometimes referred to as "the Great Mimic" or "the Great Imitator".[111][115] It is possible not to see any symptoms of the disease until the adrenal cortex is 90% dysfunctional.[116] Addison's can occur when regular steroid use is abruptly discontinued; during their use, the system the adrenal gland does not function at 100%. The system senses sufficient levels of these hormones in the body and does not signal for their production. Tapering the medication off gradually allows them to return to full production after discontinuation.[114][116] About 35% of canine Addison's patients are not diagnosed until they experience an Addisonian crisis, which outwardly appears to be a "classic" shock and is a medical emergency.[108][116] Hyperkalemia[110] can develop and cause severe bradycardia. Only typical Addison's patients have the risk of Addisonian crisis due to the lack of mineralocorticoids.[114] Treatment is with supplementation of mineralocorticoids in daily pills or a monthly injection. The atypical form and the form caused by abrupt withdrawal of steroids do not need mineralocorticoids.[114] Glucocorticoids are usually supplemented with oral prednisone.[117][118]
  • Cushing's syndrome, also known as hyperadrenocorticism, is a condition characterized by an increase in glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal glands. About 85 percent of cases are caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, while 15 percent are caused by an adrenal tumor. The pituitary gland produces a hormone that signals the adrenal gland to produce cortisol; a tumor can cause it to produce the adrenal-stimulating hormone even when it is not needed.[119][120] Signs include increased appetite, increased drinking and urination, a pot-bellied appearance, muscle weakness, and lethargy.[119] Cushing's can be caused by overuse of steroid medications; in some cases, stopping the medication is enough to solve the problem.[119] Diagnosis can be difficult as there are no tests with both high sensitivity and specificity.[121] Treatments inclulde mitotane, trilostane,[122][123] ketoconazole, or selegiline.[124][125] Surgery is used in some cases of adrenal tumors.[126]
  • Diabetes insipidus* in dogs and cats can be central, caused by a lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or nephrogenic, caused by a lack of response of the kidneys to ADH. Neither form is common. Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is usually idiopathic, but can also be caused by head trauma[127] or tumors of the brain. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) can be primary (hereditary) or secondary (caused by a variety of metabolic[128] and renal diseases, including Cushing's syndrome and pyometra). Because the disease is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine, the most common sign is increased drinking and urinating.[129][130] Treatment of CDI is to use desmopressin, a synthetic analog of ADH. Treatment of NDI is to treat the underlying cause, if any.[131]
  • Acromegaly (also known as hypersomatotropism) is a hormonal condition resulting from over-secretion of the growth hormone somatotropin[132] from the pituitary gland.[133] The hormone is responsible for growth from birth to adulthood. Normally in adulthood, the growth plates of the bones close and the secretion of the hormone slows considerably. Because the bone plates close when entering maturity, the continued growth of acromegaly is not of normal proportions.[134] Most canine sufferers of the disease are unspayed females but the condition can come about with use of medications containing progesterone.[134][135][136][137][138] Acromegaly patients often also have diabetes mellitus.[139][140] There is a transient form of acromegaly which can affect females at the diestrus portion of the reproductive cycle.[128] This condition is brought about by the mammary glands[141] excreting excess growth hormone, which is triggered by progesterone from the ovaries. As with non-transient acromegaly, spaying is necessary.[139] The symptoms can include overgrowth or enlargement of gums with wide spaces between teeth,[134] increased drinking, increased urination, thickening of the skin and skin folds, enlargement of the tongue and excessive panting.[142] Acromegaly is also possible from a somatotroph adenoma.[142] The hormone somatostatin can also be useful in treatment.[143] Since hypothyroidism is connected with the release of excess growth hormone, hypothyroidism can be mistaken for acromegaly.[144]

Gastrointestinal diseases[edit]

  • Megaesophagus is a disease of the esophagus characterized by low motility and dilation. Most cases in adult dogs are idiopathic. It is the most common cause of regurgitation in dogs. Other causes of megaesophagus include myasthenia gravis, lead poisoning, and Addison's disease.[145]
  • Bloat*, also known as torsion or gastric dilatation volvulus, is a serious condition in which the stomach swells with air (gastric dilatation), sometimes twisting on itself (volvulus). Deep-chested breeds are at a higher risk of bloating. Factors that predispose dogs to this condition are intestinal foreign bodies, intestinal cancer, intussusception, and other intestinal diseases. It has a poor prognosis.[146]
  • Foreign body is an object foreign to the body that becomes lodged in the gastrointestinal tract (or other part of the dog). Dogs are susceptible to gastrointestinal obstruction due to their ability to swallow relatively large objects and pass them through the esophagus. Foreign bodies most commonly become lodged in the stomach because of the inability to pass through the pyloric sphincter, and in the jejunum.
  • Anal fistulae*, known as perianal fistulae in dogs, are most common in German Shepherd Dogs. They are characterized by draining tracts in the skin around the anus. The cause is unknown. Surgical treatment is common, but recently use of cyclosporine in combination with ketoconazole has been shown to be effective.[147]
  • Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas. This disease is found frequently in dogs.[6]
  • Pancreatitis*, or inflammation of the pancreas, is common in dogs. It is most commonly seen in middle-aged and older overweight dogs. Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed. Contributing factors include diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and dietary indiscretion. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, lethargy, and anorexia.[148]
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)* is a group of diseases in dogs that are idiopathic and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates in the stomach and/or intestinal walls. It is a common condition. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Treatment is with dietary modification and use of medications such as corticosteroids, metronidazole, sulfasalazine, and azathioprine.[149]
  • Bilious vomiting syndrome is vomiting in response to bile-induced inflammation of the stomach. Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis.[150]
  • Intussusception* is characterized by telescoping of one part of the gastrointestinal tract into another part, forming an obstruction. It is most common in dogs six to eight months old. Surgery is necessary for treatment.[151]
  • Lymphangiectasia is an intestinal disease of dogs characterized by chronic diarrhea and loss of proteins such as serum albumin and globulin. It is considered to be a chronic form of protein-losing enteropathy. Breeds commonly affected include the Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier, Norwegian Lundehund, Basenji, and Yorkshire Terrier.[6]
  • Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis is a disease of dogs characterized by sudden vomiting and bloody diarrhea. The symptoms are usually severe and can be fatal if not treated. It is most common in young adult dogs of any breed, but especially small dogs such as the Toy Poodle and Miniature Schnauzer.[6]

Urinary and reproductive systems[edit]

Poisons and overdoses[edit]

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) can cause liver damage in dogs. The toxic dose is 150 mg/kg.[165]
  • Ibuprofen (Advil)* can cause gastrointestinal irritation, stomach ulcers, and kidney damage in dogs.[166]
  • Naproxen (Aleve)* has a long half-life in dogs and can cause gastrointestinal irritation, anemia, melena (digested blood in feces), and vomiting.[166]
  • Antifreeze* is very dangerous to dogs and causes central nervous system depression and acute renal failure. Treatment needs to be within eight hours of ingestion to be successful.[165] See Ethylene glycol poisoning.
  • Mouse and rat poison* ingestion is common in dogs. Most rodenticides in the United States are anticoagulant by depleting Vitamin K. This type is the most frequent cause of poisoning in pets. Third generation products contain brodifacoum or bromadiolone and are toxic after a single ingestion. Signs include spontaneous and excessive bleeding internally and externally. Treatment is with Vitamin K supplementation. Other rodenticides may contain cholecalciferol which causes hypercalcemia and leads to heart and kidney problems. Newer rodenticides may contain bromethalin which causes central nervous system signs such as seizures, muscle tremors, and depression.[167]
  • Insecticides* used in dogs for fleas and ticks commonly contain either organophosphates or carbamates. they can be absorbed through the skin, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Organophosphates inhibit acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and carbamates inhibit cholinesterase reversibly. Toxicity occurs through overdosage with an appropriate product or use of an agricultural product. Signs for both include hypersalivation, vomiting, lethargy, tremors, difficulty walking, weakness, and death.[165]
  • Chocolate is a common cause of poisoning in dogs. The toxic principles in chocolate are theobromine and caffeine. Baker's chocolate is the most dangerous form since it contains higher concentrations of these drugs, followed by semi-sweet, dark, and then milk chocolate. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, difficulty walking, seizures, and heart problems.[168]
  • Lead poisoning* is uncommon in dogs. Exposure to lead is from eating paint chips from lead-based paint (found in houses painted prior to 1950), and eating lead objects such as shot, fishing sinkers, or counterweights. Signs of poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, blindness, seizures, and tremors.[165]
  • Raisins and grapes are potential causes of kidney failure in dogs.[169]
  • Garlic & Onions* are toxic to dogs. Onions, Garlic, Chives - can cause the destruction of red blood cells known as Heinz body anemia, a form of hemolytic anemia. No clear quantity has been established as to the onset of the anemia. But for garlic, if your dog consumes the equivalent of 1 teaspoon of garlic for every 10 pounds of their weight (1 teaspoon for a 10 pound dog) it can destroy red blood cells. Poisonous reaction can result from raw, cooked or dried onions, garlic, chives, including those included in powdered or dehydrated forms. Avoid all foods that contain onions or onion variants (such as spagetti sauce).

Miscellaneous[edit]

  • Vertigo*, better known as vestibular disease* in dogs, is an uncommon condition in older dogs. Most cases are idiopathic, but it can also be caused by otitis interna, or inner ear infection, tumors, and encephalitis. Signs include nystagmus, head tilt, circling, vomiting, and falling to one side. Idiopathic vestibular disease will usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks.[170]
  • Molera (hole in skull), better known as an open fontanelle, may be a sign of hydrocephalus, but is also a normal finding in toy breeds such as Chihuahua.[171]
  • Anal gland problems are a very common issue with dogs. Disease of the anal glands or anal sacs may include impaction, infection, or abscessation. The dog will periodically discharge a fishy-smelling substance from its anus when they get too full. These glands are normally expressed when the dog defecates.
  • Shar Pei fever is a condition seen in Shar Peis characterized by recurring fever and swelling of the hocks. Shar Pei fever can result in renal and liver failure through accumulation of amyloid in those organs (amyloidosis).[6]
  • Liver failure* is common in dogs. Signs include vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, and jaundice. Causes include bacterial or viral infection, toxic insult, cancer, copper storage diseases, or it may be idiopathic.[172]
  • Dental disease is very common in dogs. Calculus is the most obvious sign of dental disease, but gingivitis progressing to periodontitis is what results in tooth loss. Treatment involves scaling and polishing of the teeth under general anesthesia and treatment of any periodontal disease. Prevention is very important and can be accomplished through the use of special diets or treats, brushing, and plaque prevention gels.[173]
  • Portosystemic shunt, also known as a liver shunt, is a bypass of the liver by the body's circulatory system. It can be either a congenital or acquired condition.
  • Perineal hernia is a condition seen in dogs characterized by herniation of abdominal contents through the pelvic diaphragm and causing swelling on one side of the anus.
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia* is a disorder causing dysfunction of cilia. In dogs this manifests as sperm immotility and respiratory disease. Signs include nasal discharge, recurring pneumonia, and infertility. Symptoms develop soon after birth.[174]
  • Cleft lip and palate is occasionally seen in dogs. Difficulty with nursing is the most common problem associated with clefts, but aspiration pneumonia may be seen with a cleft palate.[6]
  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia* is uncommon in dogs. Most diaphragmatic hernias are caused by trauma. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are usually communications between the peritoneum and pericardium. They are often incidental findings.[175]
  • Gingival hyperplasia is seen in brachycephalic breeds, especially Boxers. It is a benign condition, although food and hair impaction is common.[176]
  • Salmon poisoning disease is a fatal disease of dogs caused by infection with a type of rickettsia, either Neorickettsia helminthoeca or Neorickettsia elokominica. It results from eating raw salmon and is found in the Pacific Northwest.[6]
  • Vaccine reactions can be considered any type of adverse event stemming from vaccination, including granuloma formation, but most commonly the term vaccine reaction is used to describe a type I hypersensitivity reaction. The most common signs are facial swelling and hives, but more rarely very serious signs such as hypotension and collapse may occur.[177]
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)* is a disease of the immune system characterized by the presence of antibodies to nucleic acid and/or antibodies to red blood cells, platelets, lymphocytes, clotting factors, and thyroglobulin. The disease can result in deposition of immune complexes or autoimmune disease. Immune complex deposition can cause vasculitis, meningitis, neuritis, and joint and skin disease. Autoimmune disease may result in hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia, which are the most common manifestations of SLE in dogs.[178]
  • Myasthenia gravis* results from the presence of antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor. Signs include megaesophagus and muscle weakness.[179]
  • Tetanus* is a disease caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani following wound contamination. Dogs are not very susceptible to tetanus. Signs include difficulty opening the mouth and eating, contraction of the facial muscles, and rigid extension of the limbs. Dogs may also get localized tetanus, signs of which include stiffness of a limb spreading to the rest of the body.[180]
  • Polydactyly* is generally preaxial (on the dewclaw side) in dogs. Most cases are breed related, with the Great Pyrenees being the most well known example.[181]
  • Tracheal collapse is a condition characterized by incomplete formation or weakening of the cartilagenous rings of the trachea. It is most common in small and toy breeds. Signs include a cough (often called a "goose honk cough" due to its sound), especially when excited.[6]
  • Brachycephalic syndrome is a condition seen in brachycephalic (short-nosed) dogs, characterized by the presence of stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, narrow trachea, collapsed larynx, and everted laryngeal saccules. Signs include difficult and noisy breathing. Surgical options are available.[182]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]