List of dual-code rugby internationals

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A dual-code rugby international is a rugby footballer who has played at the senior international level in both rugby league and rugby union.

Rugby league started as a breakaway version of rugby in Northern England (1895) and in New Zealand and Australia in 1908 and consequently a number of the top-class rugby league pioneers had been star players in the rugby union code. Accordingly, a high proportion of Australia and New Zealand's dual-code rugby internationals played in rugby league's formative years in those countries.

From 1910 through to 1995, dual-code internationals were infrequent and with the single exception of Karl Ifwersen, the player had always first appeared as a union international before shifting to league due to the strict "black-banning" approach take by union administrators to those players who crossed to the professional code. In 1995 rugby union itself turned professional and the tide of switches began to reverse. Since then generally all cross-code representatives have debuted internationally in league before being lured to union where there is a larger international competitive arena.

Backs have more often been dually successful at the highest level than forwards - approximately 65% of the players here listed are backs. Although pre-1995 there were many notable forwards who made the union to league switch. Since 1995 nearly 90% of the league to union converts who went on to play internationally have been backs.

The following is an incomplete list of dual-code internationals, listed by country.

Australia[edit]

No.[1] Player Test debut[2] Year At Cross-code debut [2] Date At Position
1. Dally Messenger 2nd RU Test v New Zealand [3] 1907 Brisbane RL Test All Golds v Wales[4] 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Centre
2. Denis Lutge [5] Inaugural RU Test v New Zealand[6] 1903 Sydney Inaugural RL Test v New Zealand [7] 9 May 1908 Sydney Forward
3. Doug McLean, Snr. 2nd RU Test v British Lions[8] 1904 Brisbane Inaugural RL Test v New Zealand 9 May 1908 [7] Sydney Winger
4. Micky Dore RU Test v New Zealand[9] 1905 Dunedin Inaugural RL Test v New Zealand[7] 9 May 1908 Sydney Half-back
5. Johnny Rosewell 1st RU Test v New Zealand[10] 1907 Sydney Inaugural RL Test v New Zealand [7] 9 May 1908 Sydney Forward
6. Robert Graves[11] 1st RU Test v New Zealand[10] 1907 Sydney Inaugural RL Test v New Zealand[7] 9 May 1908 Sydney Forward
7. Bill Hardcastle 4th RU Test v British Lions[12] 1899 Sydney 2nd RL Test v New Zealand [7] 30 May 1908 Brisbane Forward
8. George Watson 1st RU Test V New Zealand[10] 1907 Sydney 2nd RL Test v New Zealand [7] 30 May 1908 Brisbane Winger
9. Alex Burdon [13] Inaugural RU Test v New Zealand[6] 1903 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain[7] 12 Dec 1908 London Forward
10. Pat Walsh 1st RU Test v British Lions [14] 1904 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain [7] 12 Dec 1908 London Forward
11. Arthur Anlezark RU Test v New Zealand [9] 1905 Dunedin 3rd RL Test v Great Britain [7] 10 Feb 1909 Birmingham Half-back
12. Charles Russell 1st RU Test v New Zealand [10] 1907 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain 18 June 1910 [7] Sydney Winger
13. Chris McKivat [15] 1st RU Test v New Zealand[10] 1907 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain[7] 18 June 1910 Sydney Half-back
14. John Barnett 1st RU Test v New Zealand [10] 1907 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain 18 June 1910 Sydney[7] Forward
15. Bob Craig Olympic Final v Great Britain[16] 1908 London 1st RL Test v Great Britain [7] 18 June 1910 Sydney Forward
16. Jack Hickey Olympic Final v Great Britain[16] 1908 London 1st RL Test v Great Britain 18 June 1910 Sydney Centre
17. Patrick McCue 1st RU Test v New Zealand[10] 1907 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain [7] 18 Nov 1911 Newcastle Forward
18. Herb Gilbert 1st RU Test v New Zealand [17] 1910 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain[7] 18 Nov 1911 Newcastle Centre
19. Peter Burge 1st RU Test v New Zealand[10] 1907 Sydney Kangaroo tour match 1911 England Forward
20. Charles McMurtrie Olympic Final v Great Britain [16] 1908 London Kangaroo tour match 1911 England Forward
21. Bob Stuart 2nd RU Test v New Zealand [18] 1910 Sydney Kangaroo tour match 1911 England Forward
22. Claud O'Donnell 1st RU Test v New Zealand[19] 1913 Wellington 1st RL Test v New Zealand [7] 23 Aug 1919 Wellington Hooker
23. Clarrie Prentice 1st RU Test v New Zealand[20] 1914 Sydney 1st RL Test v New Zealand[7] 23 Aug 1919 Wellington Hooker
24. Doug McLean jnr 1st RU Test v South Africa[21] 1933 Cape Town 1st RL Test v New Zealand [7] 7 Aug 1937 Auckland Winger
25. Trevor Allan RU Test Aust v New Zealand[22] 1949 Wellington RL Test Other Nats 1950 ? Back
26. Ken Kearney [23] 1st RU Test v New Zealand[24] 1947 Brisbane 3rd RL Test v Great Britain[7] 13 Dec 1952 Bradford Hooker
27. Rex Mossop 1st RU Test v New Zealand[25] 1949 Wellington 1st RL Test v Great Britain[7] 14 June 1958 Sydney Forward
28. Arthur Summons [26] 1st RU Test v Wales[27] 1958 Cardiff 1st RL Test v New Zealand[7] 1 July 1961 Auckland Half-back
29. Michael Cleary RU Test v France [28] 1961 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain[7] 9 June 1962 Sydney Winger
30. Jim Lisle 1st RU Test v Fiji[29] 1961 Brisbane 3rd RL Test v Great Britain [7] 14 July 1962 Sydney Five-eighth
31. Dick Thornett RU Test v France 1961 Sydney 1st RL Test v South Africa[7] 20 July 1963 Brisbane Forward
32. Kevin Ryan RU Test v England 1958 London 2nd RL Test v France[7] 4 July 1964 Brisbane Forward
33. Bob Honan 1st RU Test v New Zealand 1964 Dunedin 1st RL Test v New Zealand [7] 1 June 1969 Auckland Back
34. Phil Hawthorne [30] 3rd RU Test v New Zealand 1962 Wellington 1st RL Test v Great Britain [7] 6 June 1970 Brisbane Five-eighth
35. John Brass[31] 2nd RU Test v British Lions 1966 Brisbane 1st RL Test v Great Britain[7] 6 June 1970 Brisbane Centre
36. Stephen Knight 2nd RU Test v South Africa 1969 Kimberley, SA RLWC v Great Britain 29 Oct 1972 Perpignan Winger
37. Geoff Richardson 1st RU Test v South Africa 1971 Sydney 1st RL Test v Great Britain[7] 15 June 1974 Brisbane Five-eighth
38. Ray Price 1st RU Test v New Zealand 1974 Sydney 1st RL Test v New Zealand[7] 24 June 1978 Sydney Forward
39. Michael O'Connor 1st RU Test v Argentina 1979 Buenos Aires 1st RL Test v New Zealand [7] 6 July 1986 Auckland Centre
40. Ricky Stuart Wallaby Argentina Tour 1987 Argentina 1st RL Test v Great Britain 27 Oct 1990 London [7] Half-back
41. Scott Gourley RU Test v Scotland 1988 Edinburgh 1st RL Test v PNG [7] 6 Oct 1991 Goroka Forward
42. Andrew Walker RL Test v PNG [7] 1996 Port Moresby 1st RU Test v New Zealand 25 July 2000 Sydney Back
43. Wendell Sailor 1st RL Test v Great Britain [7] 1994 London 1st RU Test v France 22 June 2002 Melbourne Winger
44. Mat Rogers 1st RL Test v New Zealand [7] 1998 Auckland 1st RU Test v France 22 June 2002 Melbourne Back
45. Lote Tuqiri 1st RL Test v New Zealand [7] 2001 Wellington 1st RU Test v Ireland 7 June 2003 Perth Winger
46. Timana Tahu RL Test v Great Britain[7] 2002 Sydney 1st RU Test v New Zealand 26 June 2008 Sydney Centre
47. Israel Folau RL Test v New Zealand 2007 Wellington 1st RU Test v British and Irish Lions 22 June 2013 Brisbane Winger


England[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Anthony Starks RU Test v Wales 1896 Blackheath RL Test v Other Nationalities 5 April 1904 Wigan Forward/Prop
2. George Marsden RU Test v Wales 1900 Gloucester RL Test v Other Nationalities 2 Jan 1905 Bradford Five-eighth
3. Alf Wood RU Test v France 1 January 1908 Colombes 2nd Ashes Test v Australia 16 Dec 1911 Edinburgh Forward/Prop
4. Thomas "Tommy" Woods RU Test v Scotland 1908 Inverleith 2nd Ashes Test v Australia 16 Dec 1911 Edinburgh Forward
5. Dave Holland RU Test v Wales 1912 Twickenham 1st RL Test GB v Australia 27 June 1914 Sydney Forward
6. Jim Brough RU Test v New Zealand 1925 Twickenham RL Test v Wales 12 Apr 1926 Pontypridd Fullback
7. Thomas Holliday RU Test v Scotland 1923 Inverleith RL Test v Wales 11 Jan 1928 Wigan Fullback
8. Thompson "Tom" Danby RU Test v Wales 1949 Cardiff RL Test v Wales 1 Mar 1950 Wigan Wing
8. Ray French RU Test v Wales 1961 Cardiff RL Test GB v France 11 Feb 1968 Paris Forward
9. Bev Risman 1st RU Test v Wales 1959 Cardiff RLWC GB v Australia 25 May 1968 Sydney Half
10. Keith Fielding 1st RU Test v Ireland 1969 Lansdowne Road RLWC v France 19 Jan 1975 Perpignan Wing
11. Mike Coulman 1st RU Test v Australia 1967 Twickenham RLWC v Wales 10 June 1975 Brisbane Prop
12. Keith Smith RU Test v France 1974 Paris RL Test v Wales 16 Mar 1979 Widnes Centre
13. Peter Williams 1st RU Test v Scotland 1987 London 1st RL Test v France 21 Jan 1989 Central Park Fly-half/Centre
14. John Bentley 1st RU Test v Ireland 1988 Dublin 1st RL Test v France 8 Feb 1992 Perpignan Wing
15. Barrie-Jon Mather RL Test v France 1994 Carcasonne RU Test v Wales 11 Apr 1999 London Back
16. Jason Robinson 1st RL Test v New Zealand 1993 London RU Test v Italy 17 Feb 2001 London Back
17. Andy Farrell 3rd RL Test v New Zealand 1993 Leeds RU Test v Scotland 3 Feb 2007 London Forward
18. Chris Ashton[32] RL Test v France 2006 Leeds RU Test v France 20 Mar 2010 Paris Wing
19. Kyle Eastmond RL Test v Wales 2009 Bridgend RU Test v Argentina 8 Jun 2013 Salta
20. Joel Tomkins RL Test v France 2010 Leigh RU Test v Australia 2 November 2013 Twickenham centre

Fiji[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Kaleveti Naisoro RU Test 1991 RL Test 1994
2. Fili Seru RU Test v Tonga 24 March 1990 Nuku A'lofa RL Test v France 9 Jul 1995 Suva Centre
3. Noa Nadruku RU Test v England 1988 Suva RLWC v South Africa 8 Oct 1995 Keighley, UK Back
4. Jioji Vatubua RU Test v Tonga 25 Jul 1992 Nuka A'lofa RLWC v South Africa 8 Oct 1995 Lawkholme Lane, UK Bench
5. Niumaia Korovata RU Test v Hong Kong 4 Dec 1990 Hong Kong RLWC v England 11 Oct 1995 Central Park, UK Bench
6. Kiniviliame Koroibuleka RU game v Auckland 4 Apr 1992 RLWC v Australia 14 Oct 1995 Alfred McAlpine Stadium, UK Bench
7. Waisale Vatubua RU Test v Tonga 2 Jul 1988 Nuka A'lofa RLWC v Australia 14 Oct 1995 Alfred McAlpine Stadium, UK Bench
8. Mesake Navugona RU Test vs Samoa 20 Jul 1992 Suva RLWC v Australia 1 Nov 2000 Gateshead International Stadium Bench
9. Alipate Noilea RL Test vs Samoa 2006 PNC v Tonga 13 June 2009 Outside back
10. Waisale Suka RL Test vs France 2008 Canberra Stadium PNC v Samoa 27 June 2009 Churchill Park Outside Center

France[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Jean Galia RU Test v England 1927 Paris 1st RL Test v England 15 Apr 1934 Paris Forward
2. Max Rousié RU Test v Scotland 1931 Edinburgh 1st RL Test v Australia 2 Jan 1938 Paris Back
3. Jean Dauger Inaugural RL Test v Australia 1938 Paris 1st RU Test v British Army 1 Jan 1945 Paris Centre
4. Jean Duhau
5. Jacques Merquey
6. Claude Mantoulan v Ireland 18 April 1959 Lansdowne Road
7. Henri Marracq RU Test v Romania 1961 Bayonne 1st RL Test v Australia 8 Dec 1963 Bordeaux Second-row
9. Jean Capdouze RU Test v South Africa 1964 Springs 2nd RL Test v Australia 17 Dec 1967 Carcassonne Five-eighth
10. Fabrice Estebanez RL Test v 2005 1st RU Test v Fiji 13 Nov 2010 Nantes Centre

Ireland[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Brian Carney RLWC v Samoa 2000 Belfast RU Test v Scotland 11 Aug 2007 Edinburgh Back

Italy[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Vincenzo Bertolotto RU International v Germany 1936 Berlin RL Tour Match v Wigan 26 August 1950 Central Park, Wigan Left-Second-row
2. Giovanni Bonino RU International v France XV 1949 Stade Vélodrome, Marseille RL Tour Match v Wigan 26 August 1950 Central Park, Wigan Loose forward/Lock
3. Angelo Arrigoni RU International v Czechoslovakia 1949 Strahov Stadium, Prague RL Tour Match v Wigan 26 August 1950 Central Park, Wigan Centre

Germany[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. James Keinhorst RU Test v ?  ?  ? RL Test v ?  ?  ? Fullback
2. Michael Kerr RU Test v ?  ?  ? RL Test v ?  ?  ? Flanker

Malta[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Jarrod Sammut RU Test v ? 2008  ? RL Test v Norway 4 June 2010 Ħamrun Back

New Zealand[edit]

There have been thirty seven New Zealand dual-code rugby internationals, including eighteen who made their debuts before World War One.[33] However, only two people became dual-code rugby internationals after first representing New Zealand in rugby league: Karl Ifwersen and Sonny Bill Williams. The comprehensive list is:

No.[1] Player Test debut[2] Year At Cross-code debut [2] Date At Position
1. Thomas Cross RU Test v British Lions[34] 1904 Wellington RL Test All Golds v Wales[35] 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Forward
2. Edgar Wrigley RU Test v Australia[36] 1905 Dunedin RL Test All Golds v Wales[35] 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Five-eighth
3. Herbert Turtill RU Test v Australia[37][38] 1905 Dunedin RL Test All Golds v Wales[35][37] 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Fullback
4. Massa Johnston RU Test Originals tour match [39] 1905 Britain RL Test All Golds v Wales[35][39] 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Forward
5. William Mackrell RU Test v France[4] 1906 Paris RL Test All Golds v Wales[4] 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Forward
6. George Smith RU Test v Scotland[40] 1905 Edinburgh RL Test All Golds v Northern Union [40] 25 Jan 1908 Headingley Centre
7. Duncan McGregor RU Test v Australia [41] 1903 Sydney RL All Golds tour [41] 1908 Britain & Aust Wing
8. Eric Watkins RU Test v Australia [42] 1905 Dunedin RL All Golds tour [42] 1908 Britain & Aust Forward
9. John Spencer RU Test v Australia [43] 1905 Dunedin RL 1st Test v Australia [43] 12 June 1909 Sydney Forward
10. George Spencer All Black tour match[43] 1907 Australia RL 3rd Test v Australia[43] 3 July 1909 Sydney Fullback
11. Albert Asher RU Test v Australia[44][45] 1903 Sydney RL Int'l Australasia v GB [44] 9 July 1910 Sydney Winger
12. Ned Hughes RU Test v Australia[46] 1907 Sydney RL Test v Great Britain [47] 30 July 1910 Auckland Hooker
13. George A. Gillett RU Test v Scotland[48] 1905 Edinburgh RL Kiwis tour match [48] 1911 Australia Fullback
14. Billy Mitchell RU Test v Australia [49] 1910 Sydney RL Kiwis tour match [49] 1911 Australia Wing
15. Arthur Francis RU Test v Australia [50] 1905 Dunedin RL Kiwis tour match [50] 1911 Australia Forward
16. Harold Hayward RU Test v British Lions [51] 1908 Auckland RL Kiwis tour match [51] 1912 Australia Flanker
17. Dave Evans RU Test v Australia 1910 Sydney RL Kiwis tour match 1912 Australia Flanker
18. John Hogan RU tour match v Queensland 1907 Brisbane RL Kiwis tour match 1913 Australia Flanker
19. Dougie McGregor RU Test v Australia [51] 1913 Wellington[52] RL 3rd Test v Australia [51] 6 Sept 1919 Auckland Winger
20. Karl Ifwersen RL Test v Australia 1913 Auckland RU Test v South Africa [53] 17 Sept 1921 Wellington 2nd 5/8
21. Jim O'Brien RU international [54] v New South Wales 1922 Sydney RL 1st Test v Great Britain[55] 2 Aug 1924 Wellington Forward
22. Charles Fitzgerald RU international[54] v New South Wales 1922 Sydney RL 1st Test v Great Britain[55] 2 Aug 1924 Wellington Centre
23. Lou Petersen RU international [54] v New South Wales [51] 1921 Christchurch RL 2nd Test v Great Britain[56] 6 Aug 1924 Wellington Forward
24. Alphonsus Carroll RU international [54] v New South Wales [57] 1920 Sydney RL 1st Test v Great Britain [58] 2 Oct 1926 Wigan Hooker
25. Bert Cooke RU international [54] v New South Wales 1924 Sydney RL 1st Test v Great Britain[59] 30 July 1932 Auckland Centre
26. Herb Lilburne RU Test v Sth Africa [60] 1928 Port Elizabeth RL 2nd Test v Australia [7] 2 Oct 1935 Auckland Winger
27. George Nepia RU Test v Ireland 1924 Edinburgh RL 2nd Test v Australia 14 Aug 1937 Auckland Fullback
28. Hawea Mataira RU Test v Australia [61] 1934 Sydney RL Kiwi tour match [61] 1939 Britain Forward
29. Dave Solomon RU All Black tour match[62] 1935 Britain RL Kiwi tour match [62] 1939 Britain Back
30. Jimmy Haig RU Test v Australia [63] 1946 Dunedin RL Test v England[64] 20 Dec 1947 Bradford Halfback
31. Kurt Sherlock RU All Black tour match[65] 1985 Argentina RL 3rd Test v Australia [66] 23 July 1989 Auckland Back
32. Matthew Ridge RU tour match v Cardiff 1989 Cardiff RL 1st Test v Australia 19 Aug 1990 Wellington Fullback
33. Frano Botica RU Test v France 1986 Christchurch RL 1st Test v Australia 3 July 1991 Melbourne Fullback
34. John Timu RU 1st Test v Argentina 1991 Buenos Aires RL 1st Test v Australia 7 July 1995 Sydney Centre
35. Marc Ellis RU Test v Scotland 1993 Edinburgh RL 1st Test v Great Britain 9 May 1996 Auckland Back
36. Craig Innes RU Test v Wales 1989 Cardiff RL Rest of the World v Australia 11 July 1997 Brisbane Back
37. Sonny Bill Williams RL Anzac Test v Australia 2004 Newcastle RU Test v England 6 Nov 2010 Twickenham Centre

All Golds[edit]

The 1907 Professional All Blacks (derisively referred to by the New Zealand press as the All Golds) left New Zealand in August 1907 for their ground-breaking tour of Britain via Sydney. The squad contained eight former All Blacks in George Smith, Thomas Cross, William Mackrell, Herbert Turtill, Duncan McGregor, Eric Watkins, Massa Johnston and Edgar Wrigley. These men became New Zealand's first dual-code internationals at the point they first played on the ten month tour.

The three matches in Sydney between 17 and 24 August against professional New South Wales rugby rebels were played under rugby union rules so do not qualify as international rugby league appearances. But full internationals under "Northern Union" (rugby league) rules were played against Wales in Aberdare on 1 Januard 1908 and three Tests against Great Britain in Leeds on 25 January 1907, Chelsea on 8 February 1907 and Cheltenham on 15 February 1908. Three Test matches were played in Australia on the homeward leg before the All Golds arrived home in June 1908 having played 48 games (tour matches and Tests) as internationals.

Samoa[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Earl Va'a RWC v Japan 1996 Wrexham RL Pacific Cup v Fiji Nov 1994 Suva Half-back
2. Apollo Perelini RWC v Wales 1991 Cardiff RLWC v France 12 Oct 1995 Cardiff Forward

Scotland[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Alex Laidlaw RU Test v Ireland [67] 1897 Edinburgh RL Test Other Nationalities v England 1905 or 1906 Bradford or Wigan Forward
2. Roy Muir Kinnear British Lions v South Africa[68] 1924 Durban RL 1st Test Great Britain v Australia 5 Oct 1929 Hull Centre
3. Dave Valentine RU Five Nations v Ireland [69] 1947 Edinburgh RL 1st Test Great Britain v Australia 9 Oct 1948 Leeds Forward
4. David Rose RU Test v France[70] 1951 Colombes RLWC Great Britain v Australia 13 Nov 1954 Paris Three-quarter
5. Alan Tait RWC v France [71] 1987 Christchurch RLWC Great Britain v Australia 24 Oct 1992 London Back
6. Andy Craig RL Test v Wales 1999 Glasgow RU Test v Canada [72] 15 June 2002 Vancouver Centre

Possibly[edit]

South Africa[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Alan Skene RU Test v France 1958 Ellis Park Stadium RL Test v Australia 20 July 1963 Lang Park Centre, Centre
2. Colin Greenwood RU Test v Ireland 1961 Newlands Stadium RL Test v Australia 20 July 1963 Lang Park Centre, Stand-off/Five-eighth
3. Gary Botha RU Test v Australia 2005 Loftus Versfeld RL Test v British Amateur Rugby League Association 1999

Tonga[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Tevita Vaikona RLWC v New Zealand 1995 Warrington RU PNC v Japan 4 June 2006 Fukuoka Winger
2. Taniela Moa Halfback

Wales[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Jack Rhapps RU Test v England 1897 Newport RL Test Other Nationalities v England 5 Apr 1904 Wigan Forward
2. David Jones RU Test v England 1902 London RL Test v New Zealand All Golds[73] 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Forward
3. Billy O'Neill RU Test v Scotland 1904 Swansea RL Test v England 28 Dec 1908 Broughton Forward
4. William Dowell RU Test v England 1907 Swansea RL Test v England 28 Dec 1908 Broughton Forward
5. Jake Blackmore RU Test v England 1909 Cardiff RL Test v England 10 Dec 1910 Coventry Forward
6. Ben Gronow RU Test v France 1910 Swansea RL Test v England 10 Dec 1910 Coventry Forward
7. Ernie Jenkins RU Test v England 1910 Cardiff RL Test v England 10 Dec 1910 Coventry Forward
8. Joseph Pugsley RU Test v Scotland 1910 London RL Test v Australia 7 Oct 1911 Ebbw Vale Forward
9. William Evans RU Test v Ireland 1911 Cardiff RL Test v England 20 Jan 1912 Oldham Forward
10. Percy Coldrick RU Test v England 1911 Swansea RL Test v England 15 Feb 1913 Plymouth Forward
11. Gus Merry RU Test v Ireland 1912 Belfast RL Test v England 15 Feb 1913 Plymouth Forward
12. William Davies RU Test v Scotland 1912 Swansea RL Test v England 14 Apr 1914 Swansea Back
13. Rees Richards RU Test v Scotland 1913 Inverleith RL Test v England 14 Apr 1914 Swansea Forward
14. Bobby Lloyd RU Test v Scotland 1913 Inverleith RL Test Great Britain v Australia 3 July 1920 Sydney Half-back
15. Brinley Williams RU Test v Scotland 1920 Inverleith RL Test v England 19 Jan 1921 Leeds Back
16. Ike Fowler RU Test v New Zealand Army XV 1919 Swansea RL Test Other Nationalities v England 5 Feb 1921 Workington Back
17. Wick Powell RU Test v England 1920 Swansea RL Test Other Nationalities v England 5 Feb 1921 Workington Back
18. Edgar Morgan RU Test v Ireland 1920 Cardiff RL Test Great Britain v Australia 1 Oct 1921 Leeds Forward
19. George Oliver RU Test v England 1920 Swansea RL Test v Australia 10 Dec 1921 Pontypridd Forward
20. Frank Evans RU Test v Scotland 1921 Swansea RL Test v Australia 10 Dec 1921 Pontypridd Back
21. Jerry Shea RU Test v New Zealand Army XV 1919 Swansea RL Test v England 11 Dec 1922 London Back
22. Wilfred Hodder RU Test v England 1921 London RL Test Wales v England 11 Dec 1922 London Forward
23. Dai Edwards RU Test v England 1921 London RL Test v England 7 Feb 1923 Wigan Forward
24. Joe Thompson RU Test v England 1923 London RL Test v England 1 Oct 1923 Huddersfield Forward
25. Johnny Ring RU Test v England 1921 London RL Test Great Britain v Australia 23 Jun 1924 Sydney Back
26. Ambrose Baker RU Test v Ireland 1921 Belfast RL Test v England 7 Feb 1925 Workington Forward
27. Mel Rosser RU Test v Scotland 1924 Inverleith RL Test v England 12 Apr 1926 Pontypridd Back
28. Joseph Jones RU Test v France 1924 Paris RL Test v England 12 Apr 1926 Pontypridd Back
29. Bryn Phillips RU Test v England 1925 London RL Test v England 12 Apr 1926 Pontypridd Back
30. Jack Gore RU Test v Ireland 1924 Cardiff RL Test v New Zealand 4 Dec 1926 Pontypridd Forward
31. David Morgan Jenkins RU Test v England 1926 Cardiff RL Test v England 26 Apr 1927 Broughton Forward
32. Emlyn Watkins RU Test v Scotland 1926 Edinburgh RL Test v England 6 Apr 1927 Salford Forward
33. David Jenkins RU Test v Australia 1927 Cardiff RL Test v England 6 Apr 1927 Salford Forward
34. Candy Evans RU Test v England 1924 Swansea RL Test v England 14 Nov 1928 Cardiff Forward
35. Edwin Williams RU Test v New Zealand 1924 Swansea RL Test v England 14 Nov 1928 Cardiff Half-back
36. Tommy Rees RU Test v Ireland 1926 Swansea RL Test Great Britain v Australia 5 Oct 1929 Hull Back
37. Billy Williams RU Test v England 1927 London RL Test Great Britain v Australia 15 Jan 1930 Rochdale Forward
38. Gwyn Davies RU Test v France 1928 Paris RL Test v England 27 Jan 1932 Salford Back
39. Trevor 'Ocker' Thomas RU Test v England 1930 Cardiff RL Test v England 27 Jan 1932 Salford Forward
40. Norman Fender RU Test v Ireland 1930 Swansea RL Test v England 27 Jan 1932 Salford Forward
41. Dicky Ralph RU Test v France 1931 Swansea RL Test v Australia 30 Dec 1933 Wembley Half-back
42. Iorrie Isaacs RU Test v England 1933 London RL Test v Australia 30 Dec 1933 Wembley Forward
43. Lewis Rees RU Test v Ireland 1933 Belfast RL Test v France 1 Jan 1935 Bordeaux Forward
44. Gomer Hughes RU Test v England 1934 Cardiff RL Test v France 1 Jan 1935 Wigan Forward
45. Con Murphy RU Test v England 1935 Swansea RL Test v England 1 Jan 1935 Bordeaux Forward
46. Bert Day RU Test v Scotland 1930 Edinburgh RL Test v England 10 Apr 1935 Liverpool Forward
47. Tommy Scourfield RU Test v France 1930 Paris RL Test v England 10 Apr 1935 Liverpool Back
48. Jack Morley RU Test v England 1929 London RL 1st Test Great Britain v Australia 19 Jun 1936 Sydney Back
49. Dai Prosser RU Test v Scotland 1934 Murrayfield RL Test v England 7 Nov 1936 Pontypridd Forward
50. Harold Thomas RU Test v England 1936 Swansea RL Test v England 5 Nov 1938 Llanelli Forward
51. Arthur Bassett RU Test v Ireland 1934 Swansea RL Test v England 23 Dec 1939 Odsal Back
52. Sydney Williams RU Test v England 1939 London RL Test v England 9 Nov 1940 Oldham Back
53. Eddie Watkins RU Test v New Zealand 1935 Cardiff RL Test v England 18 Oct 1941 Bradford Forward
54. Emrys Evans RU Test v England 1937 London RL Test v England 10 Mar 1945 Wigan Forward
55. Idwal Davies RU Test v England 1939 London RL Test v England 10 Mar 1945 Wigan Back
56. Willie Davies RU Test v Ireland 1936 Cardiff RL Test Great Britain v New Zealand 1 Aug 1946 Auckland Half-back
57. George Parsons RU Test v England 1947 Cardiff RL Test v Australia 20 Nov 1948 Swansea Forward
58. Leslie Williams RU Test v England 1947 Cardiff RL Test v England 22 Oct 1949 Wigan Back
59. Terence Cook RU Test v Scotland 1949 Edinburgh RL Test v Other Nationalities 31 Mar 1951 Swansea Back
60. Ray Cale RU Test v England 1949 Cardiff RL Test v Other Nationalities 1 Dec 1951 Swansea Forward
61. Lewis Jones RU Test v England 1950 London RL Test v France 13 Dec 1953 Marseilles Back
62. Garfield Owen RU Test v Ireland 1955 Cardiff RL Test v France 1 Mar 1959 Toulouse Back
63. Colin Evans RU Test v England 1960 London RL Test v England 17 Feb 1963 Toulouse Half-back
64. John Mantle RU Test v England 1964 London RL Test v England 16 Jan 1966 Perpignan Forward
65. Malcolm Price RU Test v England 1959 Cardiff RL Test Great Britain v Australia 21 Oct 1967 Leeds Back
66. John Warlow RU Test v England 1962 Cardiff RL Test Great Britain v France 2 June 1968 Auckland Forward
67. Kel Coslett RU Test v England 1962 London RL Test v England 7 Nov 1968 Salford Back
68. David Watkins RU Test v England 1963 Cardiff RL Test v England 7 Nov 1968 Salford Back
69. Terry Price RU Test v England 1965 Cardiff RL Test v England 7 Nov 1968 Salford Back
70. Maurice Richards RU Test v Ireland 1968 Lansdowne Road RL Test v France 23 Oct 1969 Salford Back
71. Keith Jarrett RU Test v England 1967 Cardiff RL Test vs France 25 Jan 1970 Perpignan Back
72. Keri Jones RU Test v New Zealand 1967 Cardiff RL Test Great Britain v New Zealand 31 Oct 1970 Swinton Back
73. Roy Mathias RU Test v France 1970 Cardiff RL Test v England 2 Mar 1975 Toulouse Back
74. Robert Wanbon RU Test v England 1968 London RL Test v England 10 Jun 1975 Brisbane Forward
75. Stuart Gallacher RU Test v France 1970 Cardiff RL Test v New Zealand 2 Nov 1975 Swansea Forward
76. John Bevan RU Test v England 1971 Cardiff RL 1st Test Great Britain v Australia 15 Jun 1974 Brisbane Back
77. Glyn Shaw RU Test v New Zealand 1972 Cardiff RL Test v France 15 Jan 1978 Widnes Forward
78. Clive Griffiths RU Test v England 1979 Cardiff RL Test v France 26 Jan 1980 Widnes Back
79. Tom David RU Test v France 1973 Paris RL match v England 8 Nov 1981 Cardiff Back
80. Steve Fenwick RU Test v France 1975 Paris RL match v England 8 Nov 1981 Cardiff Back
81. Paul Ringer RU Test v New Zealand 1978 Cardiff RL Test v England 8 Nov 1981 Cardiff Forward
82. Brynmor Williams RU Test British Lions v New Zealand 1977 Wellington RL Test v England 24 Oct 1982 Cardiff Half-back
83. David Bishop RU Test v Australia 1984 Cardiff RL Test Great Britain v France 7 Apr 1990 Leeds Half-back
84. Robert Ackerman RU Test v New Zealand 1980 Cardiff RL Test v Papua New Guinea 17 Oct 1991 Swansea Back
85. Gary Pearce RU Test v Ireland 1981 Cardiff RL Test v Papua New Guinea 17 Oct 1991 Swansea Half-back
86. Mark Jones RU Test v Scotland 1987 Edinburgh RL Test Great Britain v France 16 Feb 1992 Perpignan Forward
87. Richard Webster RU Test v Australia 1987 Rotorua RL Test v France 4 Mar 1994 Cardiff Forward
88. Jonathan Davies RU Test v England 1985 Cardiff RL 1st Test v Australia 22 Oct 1994 London Back
89. Dai Young RWC Qtr-final v England 1987 Brisbane RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Forward
90. Adrian Hadley RU Test v Romania 1983 Bucharest RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Back
91. John Devereux RU Test v England 1986 London RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Back
92. Paul Moriarty RU Test v Ireland 1986 Dublin RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Forward
93. Rowland Phillips RU Test v USA 1987 Cardiff RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Forward
94. Allan Bateman RU Test v Scotland 1990 Cardiff RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Back
95. Scott Gibbs RU Test v England 1991 Cardiff RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Back
96. Scott Quinnell RU Test v Canada 1993 Cardiff RLWC v France 9 Oct 1995 Cardiff Forward
97. Iestyn Harris RLWC v France 1995 Cardiff RU v Argentina 10 Nov 2001 Cardiff Back
98. Anthony Sullivan RLWC v France 1995 Cardiff RU v Argentina 10 Nov 2001 Cardiff Back
99. Gareth Thomas RUWC v Japan 1995 Bloemfontein RL Test v Italy 6 Oct 2010 Wrexham Back

More than one country[edit]

No. Player Int'l Debut Year At Cross Code Debut Date At Position
1. Dally Messenger 2nd RU Test Australia v New Zealand 1907 Brisbane RL New Zealand v Wales 1 Jan 1908 Aberdare Centre
2. Frederick Stanley Jackson RU British Lions tour of Australasia 1908 New Zealand v Great Britain 1910 Auckland Back
3. Emosi Koloto RU Test Tonga v Wales 12 June 1986 Nuku A'lofa RL New Zealand v ? 1991 Forward
4. John Schuster RU Test New Zealand v Australia 3 July 1988 Sydney RL Western Samoa v France 5 Sept 1995 Cardiff Back
5. Va'aiga Tuigamala RWC New Zealand v USA 1991 Gloucester RLWC Western Samoa v France 12 Oct 1995 Cardiff Back
6. Henry Paul RL Test New Zealand v France 1995 Auckland RU England v France 2 Mar 2002 Saint-Denis Back
7. Michael Horak RL South Africa v ? 1997? RU England v Argentina 22 June 2002 Buenos Aires Back
8. Lote Tuqiri RLWC Fiji v Russia 2000 1st RU Test Australia v Ireland 7 June 2003 Perth Winger
9. Coenraad Breytenbach RLWC South Africa v Tonga 2000 Russia v Georgia 2002 Centre
10. Brad Thorn RL Australia v New Zealand [7] 1997 Sydney RU New Zealand v Wales 21 June 2003 Hamilton Forward
11. Maurie Fa'asavalu Rugby Union Samoa v South Africa 6 July 2002 Pretoria RL Test Great Britain v New Zealand 27 Oct 2007 Huddersfield Forward
12. Lesley Vainikolo RL ANZAC Test New Zealand v Australia [7] 1999 Sydney RU England v Wales 2 Feb 2008 London Wing
13. Craig Gower SL Test Australia v New Zealand[7] 1997 Sydney RU Test Italy v Australia 13 June 2009 Canberra Stadium Fly-half / five eighth
14. Shontayne Hape RL Tri-Nations Test New Zealand v Great Britain 20 Nov 2004 Hull RU Test England v Australia 12 June 2010 Perth Back
15. Tasesa Lavea RL ANZAC Test New Zealand v Australia 2000  ? RU Samoa v Ireland 13 Nov 2010 Dublin Back
16. Cooper Vuna RL Tonga v ?? 2008  ? RU Australia v Wales 09 Jun 2012 Brisbane Back

Dally Messenger

Main article: Dally Messenger

One week after his final Test appearance as a Wallaby, Messenger, who was born in Australia, toured Great Britain at the invitation of the All Golds in 1907 . His international rugby league debut was made on that tour representing New Zealand. His Australian international Test debut was made in Sydney in Australia's inaugural rugby league Test v the Kiwis on 9 May 1908. He made six further international rugby league appearances for Australia. His RU appearances for Australia and his subsequent RL appearance for New Zealand make him a dual country dual-code international. His international RL appearances for New Zealand and then Australia make him a dual-code international who represented two countries in one of those codes.

Emosi Koloto

Main article: Emosi Koloto

Koloto grew up in New Zealand playing rugby union and represented Tonga in the code before switching to league and moving to England. He was called up into the Kiwis in 1991 from the Widnes club and played five tests that year.

John Schuster

Main article: John Schuster

Schuster first played rugby union, representing both Samoa and New Zealand. Later he switched to rugby league and captained Western Samoa in their two pool games at the 1995 World Cup.

Henry Paul

Main article: Henry Paul

Paul was born in New Zealand. His senior club rugby league career was played in England but between 1995 and 2001 he regularly returned to New Zealand to make international appearances for the Kiwis. When he switched to union in 2002 he became eligible to represent England by ancestry of his grandfather and he did so in 2002.

Brad Thorn

Main article: Brad Thorn

Thorn was born in Mosgiel, New Zealand. From age eight he played rugby league in Queensland and at twenty-two he represented for Australia (Super League) during the Super League split year. When the code re-united in 1998 he also represented in the Australia national (ARL) side.

In 2001 he moved to New Zealand and switched to rugby union. He appeared in twelve Tests for the All Blacks from 2003. For 2005-06 he returned to the National Rugby League in Australia, winning a premiership with the Brisbane Broncos and representing at state level. In 2008 he switched to rugby union for a second time and was again selected for the All Blacks. He is thus a dual-code and dual-country international who has made the code switch twice and has represented internationally at rugby union in two different stages of his career.

Michael Horak

Main article: Michael Horak

Horak was born in South Africa and represented for the South Africa national rugby league team. He switched to rugby union in 1998 moving to England to play with the Leicester Tigers. He qualifies to represent England via his English mother and did so in 2002.

Lesley Vainikolo

Main article: Lesley Vainikolo

Vainikolo was born in Tonga but raised in New Zealand playing rugby league at school. His league club career was played with the Canberra Raiders in Australia and the Bradford Bulls in England. During that period he made twelve national representative appearances for Kiwis.

He took up union with Gloucester Rugby in 2007. He was eligible to play for Tonga by birth, New Zealand by parentage or England by residence. He had previously declined to play for Tonga in the 2007 Rugby World Cup so that he could play for his adopted nation. He made his international rugby union debut for England v Wales in February 2008 and played in five tests that season.

Craig Gower

Main article: Craig Gower

After a successful eleven year Australian rugby league career from 1996 to 2007 with the Penrith Panthers during which he made five State of Origin appearances for New South Wales and twenty-three Test appearances for Australia (5 x Super League and 18 ARL), Gower moved to Europe, switched codes and signed with French rugby union side Bayonne from 2008. He is eligible to play for Italy through the heritage of his Italian grandfather. He was selected for Italy on their mid-season tour of Australia and New Zealand in 2009.

Shontayne Hape

Main article: Shontayne Hape

Hape, a New Zealand Mãori, had a very successful rugby league career in both hemispheres, first with the New Zealand Warriors in the NRL (1999–2002) and then with the Bradford Bulls in Super League (2003–2008). He made his Test debut for New Zealand in the 2004 Tri-Nations, and eventually appeared in 14 Tests for New Zealand. Hape switched codes in 2008, signing with Bath, for whom he still plays. Under IRB rules, he was already eligible to represent England on residency grounds, having lived there for well over the three years required to qualify. Hape made his union Test debut for England in 2010 against Australia.

Maurie Fa'asavalu

Main article: Maurie Fa'asavalu

Maurie Fa'asavalu is a Samoan rugby union player who formerly played rugby league for St Helens. He was picked in the Great Britain rugby league squad after living in England for 4 years. He also played for England in the 2008 Rugby League World Cup

Bill Hardcastle

Main article: Bill Hardcastle

A New Zealander and an 1897 All Black, Hardcastle journeyed to Sydney in 1899 on hearing that the visiting British rugby union team would be not be travelling to New Zealand. Australian rugby in those days had no residential rules and once he joined Sydney's Glebe RU club he qualified for Australian national selection. He was chosen for Australia in the fourth test of 1899 against Great Britain.

In rugby league he made two Test appearances for Australia and six minor appearances on the 1908 Kangaroo tour.

Va'aiga Tuigamala

Main article: Va'aiga Tuigamala

Tuigamala initially represented New Zealand in rugby union and gained the nickname “Inga the Winger”. He then switched codes, joining Wigan in 1993. While playing league he represented Western Samoa at the 1995 World Cup. When rugby union turned professional he returned to his original code. Between 1996 and 2000 he represented Samoa in rugby union.

Lote Tuqiri

Main article: Lote Tuqiri

Born in Fiji, Tuqiri was a junior Australian rugby league international at age 19 in 1998. When he missed selection for Australia's 2000 Rugby League World Cup squad he opted to play for Fiji and captained the side in their three pool match appearances. He later played four rugby league Tests for Australia in 2001 before his 2003 switch to union and a long international representative career in that code.

Fred Jackson

Jackson toured Australasia with the 1908 Anglo-Welsh Lions. However during the tour he was accused of professionalism and recalled to England by the Rugby Football Union. Jackson left the touring party but failed to return to England to face the accusations. In 1910 Jackson played rugby league in New Zealand and represented both Auckland and New Zealand against the touring Great Britain side.

First dual-code rugby international[edit]

England's Anthony Starks and Wales' Jack Rhapps took the field in the inaugural rugby league international of 5 April 1904 between England and Other Nationalities[74] Starks had made two rugby union Test appearances for England in 1896, and Rhapps had made a single rugby union Test appearance for Wales in 1897, and thus in April 1904 they became the world's first dual rugby code internationals.

The first tour matches played by the New Zealand All Golds in Britain in Nov & Dec 1907 would have seen international cross-code debuts by some of the seven touring former All Blacks. At this stage of the tour the New Zealanders were still familiarising themselves with the new Northern Union rules which they had not seen until they arrived in Leeds in October.[75] The first full international of the tour against Wales on New Year's Day 1908 saw confirmed appearances by Mackrell,[4] Turtill, Wrigley, Johnston & Cross [35] for New Zealand and David Jones[73] for Wales. Thus New Zealand's first five dual-code rugby internationals all achieved that feat in the same match.[35]

Other firsts and lasts[edit]

Dual-code internationals who also represented in a third sport[edit]

Michael Cleary represented Australia in track & field at the Commonwealth Games making him an international at the senior level in three sports. Dick Thornett achieved the same distinction having also represented for Australia in water polo at the 1960 Rome Olympics.

Disputed dual-code rugby internationals[edit]

Robert Graves[edit]

Robert Graves is erroneously excluded from some published sources listing Australian dual-code internationals (including a number of editions of David Middletons' Australian Rugby League Yearbook).[citation needed] This is most likely because his single Wallaby appearance was made as a reserve.

Len Smith[edit]

Len Smith's international status in rugby league is undoubted, despite the infamy of his 1948 selection controversy. Both his international league appearances were made as captain. What is contested is whether he ever made an international rugby union appearance.

Smith was selected as an Australian rugby union international for the ill-fated 1939 tour of Great Britain. Docking at Southampton the day before World War II was declared, the team left England without playing a game. The Whiticker reference records that "the squad played an exhibition match in Bombay on the journey home so that the players could be afforded international status".[76] However rugby league historian Sean Fagan casts doubt on this, citing his 1998 interview with Smith where Smith said the game was played between one-half of the touring squad against the other with the numbers made up by military personnel on hand in Bombay.[citation needed] This is supported by the Pollard reference which records that the Australia played against a "Gymkhana XV made up of military men and others".[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Where two players made a simultaneous cross-code debut, ranking is by chronology of the initial international debut.
  2. ^ a b c d Tour match international debut shown only where it was the player's highest international appearance; otherwise Test debuts shown. For players who made their cross-code international debut in a tour match but then later appeared in a Test match, this delays the recognition of their DCI status in this listing
  3. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/1918.html
  4. ^ a b c d http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=521
  5. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p16
  6. ^ a b http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19058.html
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Andrews pp19-49
  8. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/1666.html
  9. ^ a b http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19078.html
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19102.html
  11. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p34
  12. ^ Hardcastle had earlier debuted for the All Blacks v N.S.W in Sydney in 1897.
  13. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p20
  14. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/1662.html
  15. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p42
  16. ^ a b c http://www.databaseolympics.com/games/gamessport.htm?g=5&sp=RUG
  17. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19138.html
  18. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/2166.html
  19. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/2414.html
  20. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/2528.html
  21. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/4117.html
  22. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/4827.html
  23. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p160
  24. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/4967.html
  25. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/5243.html
  26. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p202
  27. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/6205.html
  28. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/6601.html
  29. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/australia/rugby/player/6606.html
  30. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p244
  31. ^ Whitaker (Captaining The Kangaroos) p280
  32. ^ "Chris Ashton England Statistics at englandrl.co.uk". englandrl.co.uk. 31 December 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
  33. ^ Coffey and Wood The Kiwis: 100 Years of International Rugby League ISBN 1-86971-090-8
  34. ^ http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=190
  35. ^ a b c d e f Shawn Dollin. "Wales vs New Zealand 1908". Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  36. ^ http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=990
  37. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=904
  38. ^ http://www.rleague.com/db/article.php?id=29285 Turtill's All Gold appearances
  39. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=438
  40. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=805
  41. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=568
  42. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=927
  43. ^ a b c d http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=825
  44. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=23
  45. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19058.html
  46. ^ http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=409
  47. ^ http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/matches/New_Zealand_vs_England_1910/New_Zealand-vs-England.html
  48. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=314
  49. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=623
  50. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=287
  51. ^ a b c d e http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=370
  52. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19180.html
  53. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=417
  54. ^ a b c d e The ARU since 1986 have considered these matches as Test matches, the NZRU does not.
  55. ^ a b http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/matches/New_Zealand_vs_England_1924/Game_1/New_Zealand-vs-England.html
  56. ^ http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/matches/New_Zealand_vs_England_1924/Game_2/New_Zealand-vs-England.html
  57. ^ http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=133
  58. ^ http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/matches/New_Zealand_vs_England_1926/Game_1/England-vs-New_Zealand.html
  59. ^ http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/matches/New_Zealand_vs_England_1932/Game_1/New_Zealand-vs-England.html
  60. ^ http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=494
  61. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=539
  62. ^ a b http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=815
  63. ^ http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=349
  64. ^ http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/matches/England_vs_New_Zealand_1932/Game_3/England-vs-New_Zealand.html
  65. ^ http://stats.allblacks.com/asp/profile.asp?ABID=789
  66. ^ http://www.rugbyleagueproject.org/matches/World_Cup_1989/Game_1/New_Zealand-vs-Australia.html
  67. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/scotland/rugby/player/1263.html
  68. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19280.html
  69. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19614.html
  70. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/19696.html
  71. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/scotland/rugby/player/9848.html
  72. ^ http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/match/24229.html
  73. ^ a b Brendan Gallagher (2 January 2008). "A real pro - 100 years ago". The telegraph. Retrieved 8 August 2008. 
  74. ^ England: W.B. Little (Halifax), full back; F. Spottiswoode (Oldham), G. Dickenson (Warrington), J. Lomas (Salford), J. Fish (Warrington), threequarters; J. Baxter (Rochdale Hornets), J. Morely (Halifax), half backs; A. Starks [c] (Hull K.R.), P. Tunney (Salford), J. Riley (Halifax), J.W. Bulmer (Halifax), J. Ferguson (Oldham), forwards. Other Nationalities: D. Smith (Salford), full back; D. Thomas (Salford), T.D. Llewellyn (Leeds), D. Harris (Wigan), D.J. Lewis (Oldham), threequarters; E. Davies (Wigan), P.J. Brady (Huddersfield), half backs; J. Rhapps (Salford), J.G. Moffatt (Leeds), G. Frater [c] (Oldham), D. Thomas (Oldham), H. Buckler (Salford), forwards
  75. ^ http://www.newzealandatoz.com/index.php?pageid=826&All+Golds+Rugby+League+Team&PHPSESSID=864 All Golds Tour on New Zealand AtoZ.com
  76. ^ Whiticker, Captaining the Kangaroos p129.

References[edit]

  • Whiticker, Alan (2004) Captaining the Kangaroos, New Holland, Sydney
  • Whiticker, Alan & Hudson, Glen (2006) The Encyclopedia of Rugby League Players, Gavin Allen Publishing, Sydney
  • Andrews, Malcolm (2006) The ABC of Rugby League Austn Broadcasting Corpn, Sydney
  • Pollard, Jack (1984) Australian Rugby Union: The Game and the Players Angus and Robertson Publishing
  • Fagan, Sean (2000–2006) http://www.rl1908.com

Further reading[edit]