List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland
- 1 Introduction of dukedoms into England
- 2 Dukedoms in the Peerage of England, 1337–1707
- 3 Dukedoms in the Peerage of Scotland, 1398–1707
- 4 Dukedoms in the Peerage of Great Britain, 1707–1801
- 5 Dukedoms in the Peerage of Ireland, 1661–1868
- 6 Dukedoms in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, 1801 to present
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Introduction of dukedoms into England
Edward III of England created the first three dukedoms of England (Cornwall, Lancaster, and Clarence). His eldest son Edward, the Black Prince, was created Duke of Cornwall, the first English Duke, in 1337. Two weeks after the Prince's death the dukedom was recreated for his 9 year old son Richard of Bordeaux, who would eventually succeed his grandfather as Richard II. The Dukes of Cornwall are not numbered as part of their style.
The second dukedom was originally given to Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, but upon his death was re-created for the 3rd son of Edward III, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. On that same day Edward III also created a dukedom for his second son, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence. When Richard II reached majority, he created dukedoms for his last two uncles on the same day: Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester.
By the end of the Middle Ages, traditionally marked by the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485, a total of 31 dukedoms (with 16 distinct titles) had been created; yet only those of Cornwall and Lancaster remained. The duchy of Cornwall was permanently associated with the heir apparent, and the duchy of Lancaster became crown property.
The first Duke of Norfolk had died in the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. Three decades later the Dukedom of Norfolk was restored to his son by Henry VIII. Thus when Elizabeth I came to power the only living duke was Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. Elizabeth did not create any dukes, and she beheaded Thomas Howard at the age of 36 for plotting to wed Mary, Queen of Scots and overthrow her. By 1572, this class of peerage was extinct - there were no Dukes in the last 30 years of her reign. The extant Dukedoms in the Peerage of England were all created (or restored, in the cases of Norfolk and Somerset) in the Stuart period, beginning with James I's re-creation of the Duke of Buckingham in 1623 for George Villiers.
With the possible exception of the Duchy of Cornwall and the Duchy of Lancaster (which come attached with great territories), all ducal titles in England have been created and held by royal patent or charter, and not by tenure. As a result, the rules of succession to a ducal title are usually explicitly laid out in the patent, and are not necessarily consistent, nor do they coincide with common inheritance laws on property. For instance, an heir does not usually inherit the ducal title by virtue of being the heir of the last holder, but by virtue of descent from the first person to whom the title was given - so a full-blood daughter of a duke may be superseded by a half-blood male relative who can prove direct descent from the first holder.
Dukedoms in the Peerage of England, 1337–1707
|Title||Date of creation||Surname||Current status||Notes|
|Duke of Cornwall||9 February 1337||Plantagenet (originally)||extant||held by the eldest son of the monarch who is also heir-apparent to the throne; title currently held by Charles, Prince of Wales. Also includes the Duchy of Cornwall.|
|Duke of Lancaster||6 March 1351||Plantagenet||extinct 13 March 1361|
|Duke of Clarence||13 November 1362||Plantagenet||extinct 17 October 1368|
|Duke of Lancaster||13 November 1362||Plantagenet||merged in crown 30 September 1399||the Sovereign is occasionally styled as Duke of Lancaster, regardless of gender. See also Duchy of Lancaster.|
|Duke of Cornwall||20 November 1376||Plantagenet||merged in crown 22 June 1377||distinct from the 1337 creation, as the holder was not the eldest son of the monarch|
|Duke of York||6 August 1385||Plantagenet||merged in crown 4 March 1461||forfeit 1415-1425; November 1459–7 October 1460|
|Duke of Gloucester||6 August 1385||Plantagenet||forfeit 8 September 1397|
|Duke of Ireland||13 October 1386||Vere||forfeit 3 February 1388||creation for life only.|
|Duke of Hereford||29 September 1397||Plantagenet||merged in crown 30 September 1399|
|Duke of Aumale||29 September 1397||Plantagenet||deprived of title 3 November 1399||also Earl of Rutland from 1390 and Duke of York from 1402|
|Duke of Exeter||29 September 1397||Holland||deprived of title 1399|
|Duke of Surrey||29 September 1397||Holland||forfeit 1399|
|Duke of Norfolk||29 September 1397||Mowbray||extinct 17 January 1476||title not in use 1399 to 1425|
|Duchess of Norfolk||29 September 1397||Plantagenet||extinct 24 March 1400||for life only|
|Duke of Lancaster||10 November 1399||Plantagenet||merged in crown 20 March 1413||also Duke of Cornwall|
|Duke of Clarence||2 July 1412||Plantagenet||extinct 22 March 1421|
|Duke of Bedford||16 May 1414||Plantagenet||extinct 14 September 1435|
|Duke of Gloucester||16 May 1414||Plantagenet||extinct 28 February 1447|
|Duke of Exeter||18 November 1416||Beaufort||extinct 30 December 1426|
|Duke of Exeter||6 January 1443||Holland||forfeit 4 November 1461|
|Duke of Somerset||28 August 1443||Beaufort||extinct 27 May 1444|
|Duke of Buckingham||14 September 1444||Stafford||forfeit 17 May 1521||also forfeit 2 November 1483–November 1485|
|Duke of Warwick||5 April 1445||Beauchamp||extinct 11 June 1446|
|Duke of Somerset||31 March 1448||Beaufort||forfeit 3 April 1464||also forfeit 1461–1463|
|Duke of Suffolk||2 July 1448||de la Pole||surrendered 26 February 1493||forfeit 1450-1463|
|Duke of Clarence||June 1461||Plantagenet||forfeit 18 February 1478|
|Duke of Gloucester||1461||Plantagenet||merged in crown 22 June 1483|
|Duke of Bedford||5 January 1470||Nevill||deprived of title 1478|
|Duke of York||28 May 1474||Plantagenet||extinct 1483||also Duke of Norfolk from 1477|
|Duke of Norfolk||12 June 1477||Plantagenet||extinct 1483||also Duke of York|
|Duke of Norfolk||28 June 1483||Howard, Fitzalan-Howard||extant||title forfeit 22 August 1485–1 February 1514,
27 January 1547–October 1553,
2 June 1572–September 1660
|Duke of Bedford||27 October 1485||Tudor||extinct 21 December 1495|
|Duke of York||31 October 1494||Tudor||merged in crown 21 April 1509||also Duke of Cornwall from 1502|
|Duke of Somerset||24 February 1499||Tudor||extinct 19 June 1500|
|Duke of Suffolk||1 February 1514||Brandon||extinct 14 July 1551|
|Duke of Richmond and Somerset||18 June 1525||Fitzroy||extinct 22 July 1536|
|Duke of Somerset||16 February 1547||Seymour||extant||forfeit 22 January 1552–13 September 1660|
|Duke of Northumberland||11 October 1551||Dudley||forfeit 22 August 1553|
|Duke of Suffolk||11 October 1551||Grey||forfeit 23 February 1554|
|Duke of York||6 January 1605||Stewart||merged in crown 27 March 1625||also Duke of Albany in Scotland and Duke of Cornwall from 1612|
|Duke of Richmond||17 May 1623||Stuart||extinct 16 February 1624|
|Duke of Buckingham||18 May 1623||Villiers||extinct 16 April 1687|
|Duke of Richmond||8 August 1641||Stuart||extinct 12 December 1672|
|Duke of Cumberland||24 January 1644||none (royal prince)||extinct 29 November 1682|
|Duke of York||27 January 1644||Stewart||merged in crown 6 February 1685|
|Duke of Gloucester||13 May 1659||Stewart||extinct 13 September 1660|
|Duke of Albemarle||7 July 1660||Monck||extinct 6 October 1688|
|Duke of Monmouth||14 February 1663||Scott||forfeit 15 July 1685|
|Duke of Cambridge||23 August 1664||Stewart||extinct 20 June 1667|
|Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne||16 March 1665||Cavendish||extinct 26 July 1691|
|Duke of Kendal||1666||Stuart||extinct 22 May 1667|
|Duke of Cambridge||7 October 1667||Stewart||extinct 8 June 1671|
|Duke of Cleveland||3 August 1670||Villiers, Fitzroy||extinct 18 May 1774||also Duke of Southampton from 1709|
|Duchess of Portsmouth||19 August 1673||Penancoët de Kérouaille||extinct 14 November 1734|
|Duke of Richmond||9 August 1675||Lennox||extant||also Duke of Gordon in the United Kingdom from 1876 and Duke of Lennox in Scotland|
|Duke of Southampton||10 September 1675||Fitzroy||extinct 18 May 1774||also Duke of Cleveland from 1709|
|Duke of Grafton||11 September 1675||Fitzroy||extant|
|Duke of Ormonde||9 November 1682||Butler||forfeit 20 August 1715||also Duke of Ormonde in Ireland|
|Duke of Beaufort||2 December 1682||Somerset||extant|
|Duke of Northumberland||6 April 1683||Fitzroy||extinct 3 July 1716|
|Duke of St Albans||10 January 1684||Beauclerk||extant|
|Duke of Berwick-upon-Tweed||19 March 1687||Fitzjames||unclear||it was long thought that the title was forfeit sometime around 1695, but there is no evidence of an attainder. If there was not one, the title is extant|
|Duke of Cumberland||9 April 1689||none (royal prince)||extinct 28 October 1708|
|Duke of Bolton||9 April 1689||Paulet||extinct 25 December 1794|
|Duke of Schomberg||10 April 1689||Schomberg||extinct 5 July 1719||also Duke of Leinster in Ireland from 1691|
|Duke of Shrewsbury||30 April 1694||Talbot||extinct 1 February 1718|
|Duke of Leeds||4 May 1694||Osborne||extinct 20 March 1964|
|Duke of Bedford||11 May 1694||Russell||extant|
|Duke of Devonshire||12 May 1694||Cavendish||extant|
|Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne||14 May 1694||Holles||extinct 15 July 1711|
|Duke of Marlborough||14 December 1702||Churchill, Spencer, Spencer-Churchill||extant|
|Duke of Buckingham and Normanby||23 March 1703||Sheffield||extinct 30 October 1735|
|Duke of Rutland||29 March 1703||Manners||extant|
|Duke of Montagu||14 April 1705||Montagu||extinct 16 July 1749|
|Duke of Cambridge||9 November 1706||none (royal prince)||merged in crown 11 June 1727||also Duke of Cornwall from 1714|
Dukedoms in the Peerage of Scotland, 1398–1707
|Title||Date of Creation||Surname||Current Status||Notes|
|Duke of Rothesay||28 April 1398||Stewart||extant||held by eldest son of the monarch who is also heir-apparent; thus also Duke of Cornwall since 1603|
|Duke of Albany||28 April 1398||Stewart||forfeit 24 May 1425|
|Duke of Albany||abt 1457||Stewart||extinct 2 June 1536||forfeit 1479-1482, 1483–1514|
|Duke of Ross||29 January 1488||Stewart||extinct 17 January 1504|
|Duke of Montrose||18 May 1488||Lindsay||extinct December 1495||deprived of title 1488-1489, title for life from 1489|
|Duke of Ross||1514||Stewart||extinct 18 December 1515|
|Duke of Albany||1541||Stewart||extinct 1541|
|Duke of Albany||20 July 1565||Stewart||merged in crown 24 July 1567|
|Duke of Orkney||12 May 1567||Hepburn||forfeit 29 December 1567|
|Duke of Lennox||5 August 1581||Stuart||extinct 12 December 1672||also Duke of Richmond in England from 1623 until 1624 and from 1641; sat in the English House of Lords as Earl of Richmond 1613-1623 and as Earl of March 1624-1641|
|Duke of Albany||23 December 1600||Stewart||merged in crown 27 March 1625||also Duke of York in England from 1605 and Duke of Rothesay from 1612|
|Duke of Kintyre and Lorne||1602||Stewart||extinct 1602|
|Duke of Hamilton||12 April 1643||Hamilton, Douglas-Hamilton||extant||also Duke of Brandon in Great Britain from 1711; sat in the English House of Lords as Earl of Cambridge in the Peerage of England 1643-1651 and in the British House of Lords as Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain 1782-1963|
|Duke of Hamilton||20 September 1660||Douglas (Hamilton)||extinct 18 April 1694||for life only; husband of the suo jure Duchess of Hamilton|
|Duke of Albany||31 December 1660||Stewart||merged in crown 6 February 1685||also Duke of York in England|
|Duke of Buccleuch||20 April 1663||Scott||forfeit 15 July 1685||also Duke of Monmouth in England|
|Duke of Buccleuch||20 April 1663||Scott, Montagu-Douglas-Scott||extant||also Duke of Queensberry from 1810; sat in the House of Lords as Earl of Doncaster in the Peerage of England 1743-1963|
|Duke of Lauderdale||1 May 1672||Maitland||extinct 24 August 1682|
|Duke of Lennox||9 September 1675||Lennox||extant||also Duke of Gordon in the United Kingdom from 1876 and Duke of Richmond in England|
|Duke of Rothes||29 May 1680||Leslie||extinct 27 July 1681|
|Duke of Gordon||3 November 1684||Gordon||extinct 28 May 1836||sat in the House of Lords as Earl of Norwich in the Peerage of Great Britain 1784-1836|
|Duke of Queensberry||3 November 1684||Douglas, Montagu-Douglas Scott||extant||also Duke of Dover in Great Britain from 1708 until 1778 and Duke of Buccleuch from 1810|
|Duke of Argyll||23 June 1701||Campbell||extant||also Duke of Greenwich in Great Britain from 1718 until 1743 and Duke of Argyll in the United Kingdom from 1892; sat in the House of Lords as Earl of Greenwich 1705-1743, and as Baron Sundridge 1782-1892|
|Duke of Douglas||10 April 1703||Douglas||extinct 21 July 1761||created for the Marquess of Douglas|
|Duke of Atholl||30 June 1703||Murray||extant||sat in the House of Lords as Earl Strange 1786-1957|
|Duke of Montrose||24 April 1707||Graham||extant||sat in the House of Lords as Earl Graham 1782-1963|
|Duke of Roxburghe||25 April 1707||Ker||extant||dormant 22 October 1805–11 May 1812; Sat in the House of Lords as Earl Ker 1782-1804 and as Earl Innes 1837-1963|
Dukedoms in the Peerage of Great Britain, 1707–1801
|Title||Date of Creation||Grantee||Surname||Current Status||Notes|
|Duke of Dover||26 May 1708||James Douglas, Duke of Queensberry||Douglas||extinct 22 October 1778||also Duke of Queensberry in Scotland|
|Duke of Kent||28 April 1710||Henry Grey, Marquess of Kent||Grey||extinct 5 June 1740|
|Duke of Brandon||10 September 1711||James Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton||Douglas-Hamilton||extant||also Duke of Hamilton in Scotland|
|Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven||26 July 1715||Robert Bertie, Marquess of Lindsey||Bertie||extinct 8 February 1809|
|Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull||10 August 1715||Evelyn Pierrepont, Marquess of Dorchester||Pierrepont||extinct 23 September 1773|
|Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne||11 August 1715||Thomas Pelham-Holles, Earl of Clare||Pelham-Holles||extinct 17 November 1768||also Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne from 1757|
|Duke of York and Albany||5 July 1716||Ernest Augustus, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück||none (royal prince)||extinct 14 August 1728|
|Duke of Portland||6 July 1716||Henry Bentinck, Earl of Portland||Bentinck||extinct 30 July 1990|
|Duke of Wharton||28 January 1718||Philip Wharton, Marquess of Wharton||Wharton||extinct 31 May 1731|
|Duchess of Kendal||19 March 1719||Ehrenbard Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Munster||Schulenburg||extinct 10 May 1743||also Duchess of Munster in Ireland, peerage for life only|
|Duke of Greenwich||27 April 1719||John Campbell, Duke of Argyll||Campbell||extinct 4 October 1743||also Duke of Argyll in Scotland|
|Duke of Manchester||28 April 1719||Charles Montagu, Earl of Manchester||Montagu||extant|
|Duke of Chandos||29 April 1719||James Brydges, Earl of Carnarvon||Brydges||extinct 29 September 1789|
|Duke of Dorset||17 June 1720||Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Earl of Dorset||Sackville||extinct 29 July 1843|
|Duke of Bridgewater||18 June 1720||Scroop Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater||Egerton||extinct 8 March 1803|
|Duke of Edinburgh||26 July 1726||Prince Frederick Louis||none (royal prince)||merged in crown 25 October 1760||also Duke of Cornwall from 1727 to 1751|
|Duke of Cumberland||27 July 1726||Prince Ernest Augustus||none (royal prince)||extinct 31 October 1765|
|Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne||17 November 1756||Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne||Pelham-Holles, Pelham-Clinton||extinct 25 December 1988||also Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne until 1768|
|Duke of York and Albany||1 April 1760||Prince Edward Augustus||none (royal prince)||extinct 17 September 1767|
|Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh||19 November 1764||Prince William Henry||none (royal prince)||extinct 30 November 1834|
|Duke of Northumberland||22 October 1766||Hugh Percy, Earl of Northumberland||Percy||extant|
|Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn||22 October 1766||Prince Henry Frederick||none (royal prince)||extinct 18 September 1790|
|Duke of Montagu||5 November 1766||George Montagu, Earl of Cardigan||Montagu||extinct 23 May 1790|
|Duke of York and Albany||29 November 1784||Prince Frederick Augustus, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück||none (royal prince)||extinct 5 January 1827|
|Duke of Clarence and St Andrews||20 May 1789||Prince William Henry||none (royal prince)||merged in crown 26 June 1830|
|Duke of Kent and Strathearn||24 April 1799||Prince Edward Augustus||none (royal prince)||extinct 23 January 1820|
|Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale||24 April 1799||Prince Ernest Augustus||none (royal prince)||suspended 28 March 1919|
Dukedoms in the Peerage of Ireland, 1661–1868
|Title||Date of Creation||Grantee||Surname||Current Status||Notes|
|Duke of Ormonde||30 March 1661||James Butler, Marquess of Ormonde||Butler||extinct 17 December 1758||also Duke of Ormonde in England until 1715; the title was generally considered forfeit after 1715, and the third duke, brother of the attainted second duke, who held the title after 1745, did not use it.|
|Duke of Leinster||3 March 1691||Lord Meinhardt Schomberg||Schomberg||extinct 16 July 1719||also Duke of Schomberg in England from 1693|
|Duchess of Munster||18 July 1716||Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg||Schulenberg||extinct 10 May 1743||also Duchess of Kendal in Great Britain from 1719|
|Duke of Leinster||26 November 1766||James FitzGerald, Marquess of Kildare||FitzGerald||extant||sat in the British House of Lords as Viscount Leinster 1747-1999|
|Duke of Abercorn||10 August 1868||James Hamilton, Marquess of Abercorn||Hamilton||extant||sat in the House of Lords as Marquess of Abercorn 1868-1999|
Dukedoms in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, 1801 to present
|Title||Date of Creation||Grantee||Surname||Current Status||Notes|
|Duke of Sussex||27 November 1801||The Prince Augustus Frederick||none (royal prince)||extinct 21 April 1843|
|Duke of Cambridge||27 November 1801||The Prince Adolphus||none (royal prince)||extinct 17 March 1904|
|Duke of Wellington||11 May 1814||Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington||Wellesley||extant|
|Duke of Buckingham and Chandos||4 February 1822||Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, Marquess of Buckingham||Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville||extinct 26 March 1889|
|Duke of Sutherland||28 January 1833||George Leveson-Gower, Marquess of Stafford||Leveson-Gower; Sutherland-Leveson-Gower; Egerton||extant|
|Duke of Cleveland||29 January 1833||William Vane, Marquess of Cleveland||Vane; Powlett||extinct 21 August 1891|
|Duchess of Inverness||10 April 1840||Cecilia Underwood||Underwood||extinct 1 August 1873|
|Duke of Edinburgh||24 May 1866||The Prince Alfred||none (royal prince)||extinct 30 July 1900|
|Duke of Westminster||27 February 1874||Hugh Grosvenor, Marquess of Westminster||Grosvenor||extant|
|Duke of Connaught and Strathearn||24 May 1874||The Prince Arthur||none (royal prince)||extinct 26 April 1943|
|Duke of Gordon||13 January 1876||Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Richmond||Gordon-Lennox||extant||also Duke of Richmond in England and Duke of Lennox in Scotland|
|Duke of Albany||24 May 1881||The Prince Leopold||none (royal prince)||suspended 28 March 1919|
|Duke of Fife||29 July 1889||Alexander Duff, Earl of Fife||Duff||extinct 29 January 1912||Letters Patent contained the standard remainder "heirs male of his body". A re-creation in 1900 allowed the first Duke's daughters and their male issue to inherit (see below).|
|Duke of Clarence and Avondale||24 May 1890||Prince Albert Victor of Wales||none (royal prince)||extinct 14 January 1892|
|Duke of Argyll||7 April 1892||George Campbell, Duke of Argyll||Campbell||extant||also Duke of Argyll in Scotland|
|Duke of York||24 May 1892||Prince George of Wales||none (royal prince)||merged in crown 6 May 1910||also Duke of Cornwall from 1901|
|Duke of Fife||24 April 1900||Alexander Duff, Duke of Fife||Duff; Carnegie||extant|
|Duke of York||5 June 1920||The Prince Albert||none (royal prince)||merged in crown 11 December 1936|
|Duke of Gloucester||31 March 1928||The Prince Henry||none (royal prince)||extant|
|Duke of Kent||12 October 1934||The Prince George||none (royal prince)||extant|
|Duke of Windsor||8 March 1937||The Prince Edward||none (royal prince)||extinct 28 May 1972|
|Duke of Edinburgh||20 November 1947||Sir Philip Mountbatten||Mountbatten||extant|
|Duke of York||23 July 1986||The Prince Andrew||none (royal prince)||extant|
|Duke of Cambridge||29 April 2011||Prince William of Wales||none (royal prince)||extant|
- List of dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland for a list of present and extant dukedoms in the peerages of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1927 and after.
- list of Marquessates
- list of Earldoms
- list of viscountcies
- list of baronies.
- The London Gazette: . 11 June 1720.
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- The London Gazette: . 25 May 1866.
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- The London Gazette: . 24 May 1881.
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- The London Gazette: . 30 March 1928.
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