List of early modern universities in Europe

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The University of Altdorf, Germany, in 1714

The list of early modern universities in Europe comprises all universities which existed in the early modern age (1501–1800) in Europe. It also includes short-lived foundations and educational institutions whose university status is a matter of debate. The operation of the degree-awarding university with its corporate organization and relative autonomy, which had emerged in the Christian medieval world,[1] was continued into the new era. The number of universities which had been in existence at one time during the period rose from around eighty medieval universities to nearly two hundred.[2] While the universitas arrived in Eastern Europe as far as Moscow, many were established further west either by the new Protestant powers or the Catholic Counter-Reformation spearheaded by the Jesuits. At the same time, the Spanish founded colonial universities and the British colonial colleges in the New World, thus heralding the spread of the university as the center of higher learning around the globe (see List of oldest universities).[3]

Definition[edit]

A short definition of the university and its defining characteristics as they evolved in the medieval and early modern era is offered by the multi-volume History of the University in Europe of the European University Association:

The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution par excellence. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realization of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognized degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity...

No other European institution has spread over the entire world in the way in which the traditional form of the European university has done. The degrees awarded by European universities – the bachelor's degree, the licentiate, the master's degree, and the doctorate – have been adopted in the most diverse societies throughout the world. The four medieval faculties of artes – variously called philosophy, letters, arts, arts and sciences, and humanities –, law, medicine, and theology have survived and have been supplemented by numerous disciplines, particularly the social sciences and technological studies, but they remain none the less at the heart of universities throughout the world.

Even the name of the universitas, which in the Middle Ages was applied to corporate bodies of the most diverse sorts and was accordingly applied to the corporate organization of teachers and students, has in the course of centuries been given a more particular focus: the university, as a universitas litterarum, has since the 18th century been the intellectual institution which cultivates and transmits the entire corpus of methodically studied intellectual disciplines.[1]

List of universities existing in the early modern age, but created before[edit]

The list is sorted by the date of recognition. At places where more than one university was established, the name of the institution is given in brackets.

11th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
established 1088 [1]; emperor charter (Constitutio habita) from Frederick I Barbarossa issued in 1158 Bologna Italy

12th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1175 Modena Italy

13th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
Beginning of 13th c.[2] Paris France
Beginning of 13th c.[2] Oxford England
Beginning of 13th c.[2] Montpellier France
1209–25[2] Cambridge England
Before 1218/9[2] Salamanca Spain
1222[2] Padua Italy
1224[2] Naples Italy
1229[2] Toulouse France
1231[2] Salerno Italy
c.1235[2] Orléans France
1246[2] Siena Italy
c.1250[2] Angers France
1261 Northampton England
1272[2] Murcia Spain
End of 13th c.[2] Valladolid Spain
1290 Macerata Italy
1290[2] Lisbon Portugal
1300[2] Lleida Spain

14th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1303[2] Avignon France
1303[2] Rome (Sapienza) Italy
1308[2] Coimbra Portugal
1308[2] Perugia Italy
1311[4] Dublin Ireland
1332[2] Cahors (French) France
1336 University of Camerino Italy
1339[2] Grenoble France
1343[2] Pisa Italy
1347[2] Prague (Charles University) Czech Republic
1350[2] Perpignan France
1354[2] Huesca (Spanish) Spain
1361[2] Pavia Italy
1364[2] Cracow Poland
1365[2] Orange France
1365[2] Vienna Austria
1367[5] Pécs Hungary
1369[2] Lucca (Italian) Italy
1386[2] Heidelberg Germany
1388[2] Cologne Germany
1389[2] Erfurt Germany
1391[2] Ferrara Italy
1395[2] Budapest Hungary

15th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1402[2] Würzburg Germany
1404[2] Turin Italy
1409[2] Leipzig Germany
1409[2] Aix-en-Provence France
1411[2] St Andrews Scotland
1412[2] Parma Italy
1419[2] Rostock Germany
1422[2] Dole France
1425[2] Leuven Belgium
1431[2] Poitiers France
1432[2] Caen France
1441[2] Bordeaux France
1444[2] Catania Italy
1450[2] Barcelona Spain
1451[2] Glasgow Scotland
1452[2] Valence France
1453[2] Istanbul Turkey
1454[2] Trier Germany
1456[2] Greifswald Germany
1457[2] Freiburg Germany
1459[2] Basel Switzerland
1459[2] Ingolstadt Germany
1460[2] Nantes France
1464[2] Bourges France
1465[2] Bratislava Slovakia
1470[2] Venice[uncertain 1] Italy
1471[2] Genoa Italy
1474[2] Zaragoza Spain
1476[2] Mainz Germany
1476[2] Tübingen Germany
1477[2] Uppsala Sweden
1479[2] Copenhagen Denmark
1483[2] Palma, Majorca Spain
1489[2] Sigüenza Spain
1495[2] Old Aberdeen Scotland
1498[2] Frankfurt on the Oder Germany
1499[2] Alcalá de Henares Spain
1500[2] Valencia Spain

List of universities created in the early modern age[edit]

16th century[edit]

16th century building of the University of Évora, Portugal.
Recognized University Modern country
1502[2] Wittenberg Germany
1505[2] Seville (Santa María de Jesús) Spain
1516[2] Seville (Santo Tomás) Spain
1521[2] Toledo Spain
1526[2] Santiago de Compostela Spain
1527[2] Marburg Germany
1531[2][6] Granada Spain
1534[2] Sahagún Spain
1537 Lausanne Switzerland
1539[2][6] Nîmes France
1540[2] Macerata Italy
1540[2] Oñate (Spanish) Spain
1542[2] Baeza Spain
1544[2] Königsberg Russia
1547[2] Gandía Spain
1548[2] Reims France
1548[2] Messina Italy
1548[2] Tournon France
1548/9[2] Osuna Spain
c.1550[2] Irache Spain
1550[2] Almagro (Spanish) Spain
1551[2] Tortosa Spain
1552[2] Orihuela (Spanish) Spain
1553[2] Dillingen Germany
1555[2] Burgo de Osma Spain
1556[2] Milan Italy
1556[2] Prague (Collegium Clementinum) Czech Republic
1556[2] Rome (Gregorianum) Italy
1557/8[2] Jena Germany
1558/9[2] Évora Portugal
1559[2] Geneva Switzerland
1559[2] Nice France
1559/60[2] Douai France
1560[2] Mondovì Italy
1562[2] Ancona Italy
1565[2] Estella Spain
1568[2] Braunsberg Poland
1570[2] Olomouc Czech Republic
1572[2] Pont-à-Mousson France
1574[2] Oviedo Spain
1574[2] Tarragona Spain
1575[2] Leiden Netherlands
1575/6[2] Helmstedt Germany
1576[2] Ávila Spain
1577[7] Rome, Collegium Divi Thomae, (Angelicum) Italy
1578[2] Palermo Italy
1578[2] Vilnius Lithuania
1582/3[2] Edinburgh Scotland
1583[2] Orthez France
1585[2] Fermo Italy
1585[2] Franeker Netherlands
1585/6[2] Graz Austria
1587[2] El Escorial Spain
1587[2] Gerona Spain
1592[8] Malta Malta
1592[2] Dublin (Trinity College) Ireland
1593[2] New Aberdeen Scotland
1594[2] Zamość Poland
1596/1604[2] Saumur France
1598[2] Montauban (French) France
1599[2] Vic Spain
1599/1602[2] Sedan France

17th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1601/4[2] Die France
1603[2] Aix-en-Provence (Collège royal Bourbon) France
1607[2] Giessen Germany
1612/4[2] Groningen Netherlands
1614[2] Solsona Spain
1614/6[2] Paderborn Germany
1617[2] Sassari Italy
1617/8[2] Molsheim France
1619[2] Pamplona Spain
1620[2] Rinteln (German) Germany
1620/5[2] Salzburg Austria
1620[2][9] Cagliari Italy
1621[2] Strassburg France
1622/3[2] Altdorf Germany
1625[2] Mantua Italy
1629/32[2] Osnabrück Germany
1632[2] Tartu (Dorpat) Estonia
1633[2] Kassel Germany
1635[2] Trnava Slovakia
1636[2] Utrecht Netherlands
1640[2] Turku Finland
1647/8[2] Harderwijk Netherlands
1648[2] Bamberg Germany
1652[2] Kiel Germany
1654[2] Duisburg Germany
1655[2] Nijmegen Netherlands
1657[2] Košice Slovakia
1661[2] Lemberg Ukraine
1665[2] Prešov Slovakia
1666/8[2] Lund Sweden
1668[2] Innsbruck Austria
1671[2] Urbino Italy
1671[2] Montbéliard France
1674[2] Linz Austria
1685[2] Strassburg France
1691[2] Besançon France
1693/4[2] Halle Germany

18th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1701[2] La Laguna Spain
1702[2] Breslau Poland
1714/7[2] Cervera Spain
1722[2] Dijon France
1722[2] Pau France
1724[2] St Petersburg Russia
1727[2] Camerino Italy
1732/4[2] Fulda Germany
1733/7[2] Göttingen Germany
1735[2] Rennes France
1742/3[2] Erlangen Germany
1748[2] Altamura Italy
1755[2] Moscow Russia
1760[2] Bützow (German) Germany
1765[2] Corte France
1768[2] Nancy France
1769[10] Malta Malta
1771[2][11] Münster Germany
1772/3[2] Modena Italy
1773[2] Istanbul Turkey
1777[2] Bonn Germany
1781[2] Stuttgart Germany
1796[12] Strathclyde Scotland

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ University status open to dispute

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rüegg 1992, pp. XIX–XX
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj Frijhoff 1996, pp. 80–89
  3. ^ Roberts, Rodriguez & Herbst 1996, pp. 256–284
  4. ^ London: Newman, Cardinal Henry; The Rise and Progress of Universities, Chapter 17 (The Ancient University of Dublin), 207-212
  5. ^ Pécsi Tudományegyetem: University of Pécs, 1367. Eds.: Harka, Glass. Pécs: UP, (2007); Fényes, Miklós: Középkori egyetemek Magyarországon, A Pécsi Egyetem története, in: Bibliographie internationale l'histoire des Universités II, Genève, Librairie Droz, (1976).
  6. ^ a b Jílek 1984, pp. 75–322
  7. ^ Carlo Longo O.P., La formazione integrale domenicana al servizio della Chiesa e della società, Edizioni Studio Domenicano, 1996, "J. Solano O.P. (1505 ca.-1580) e la fondazione del "collegium S, Thomae de Urbe (1577)" http://books.google.com/books?id=gMW2uqe2MCwC&pg=PA156#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed 2-15-2013
  8. ^ University of Malta: History
  9. ^ University of Cagliari: History
  10. ^ University of Malta: History
  11. ^ Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster: Geschichte der Universität Münster (German)
  12. ^ "History". University of Strathclyde. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 

Sources[edit]

  • Frijhoff, Willem: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. II: Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800), Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-36106-0, pp. 43–113 (80–89)
  • Pécsi Tudományegyetem: University of Pécs, 1367, Eds.: Harka, Glass. Pécs: UP, (2007).
  • Fényes, Miklós: Középkori egyetemek Magyarországon, A Pécsi Egyetem története, in: Bibliographie internationale l'histoire des Universités, II, Genève, Librairie Droz, (1976).
  • Jílek, Jubor (ed.): "Historical Compendium of European Universities/Répertoire Historique des Universités Européennes", Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents and Vice-Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE), Geneva 1984
  • Roberts, John; Rodriguez Cruz, Agueda M.; Herbst, Jürgen: "Exporting Models", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. II: Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800), Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-36106-0, pp. 256–284
  • Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]