Lists of earthquakes
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- Historical earthquakes (before 1901)
- List of 20th-century earthquakes (1901–2000)
- List of 21st-century earthquakes (2001–present)
Lists of earthquakes by country
- Costa Rica
- El Salvador
- Georgia (country)
Largest earthquakes by magnitude
This list is biased towards recent years due to development and widespread deployment of seismometers. Also, records that were detailed enough to make magnitude estimates (est.) were not generally available before 1900.
|May 22, 1960||Valdivia, Chile||1960 Valdivia earthquake||9.5|
|December 26, 2004||Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia||2004 Indian Ocean earthquake||9.3|
|March 27, 1964||Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA||1964 Alaska earthquake||9.2|
|March 11, 2011||Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan||2011 Tōhoku earthquake||9.0|
|November 4, 1952||Kamchatka, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union||1952 Kamchatka earthquakes||9.0|
|August 13, 1868||Arica, Chile (then Peru)||1868 Arica earthquake||9.0 (est.)|
|January 26, 1700||Pacific Ocean, USA and Canada (then part of the British Empire)||1700 Cascadia earthquake||8.7–9.2 (est.) |
|July 9, 869||Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan||869 Sanriku earthquake||8.9 (est.)|
|December 2, 1611||Pacific Ocean, Hokkaido, Japan||1611 Sanriku earthquake||8.9 (est.)|
|April 2, 1762||Chittagong, Bangladesh (then Kingdom of Mrauk U)||1762 Arakan earthquake||8.8 (est.)|
|November 25, 1833||Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies)||1833 Sumatra earthquake||8.8 (est.)|
|January 31, 1906||Ecuador – Colombia||1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake||8.8|
|February 27, 2010||Bio-Bio, Chile||2010 Chile earthquake||8.8|
|October 28, 1707||Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan||1707 Hōei earthquake||8.7 (est.)|
|July 8, 1730||Valparaiso, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1730 Valparaiso earthquake||8.7 (est.)|
|November 1, 1755||Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal||1755 Lisbon earthquake||8.7 (est.)|
|February 4, 1965||Rat Islands, Alaska, USA||1965 Rat Islands earthquake||8.7|
|October 28, 1746||Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1746 Lima–Callao earthquake||8.6 (est.)|
|March 28, 1787||Oaxaca, Mexico (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1787 Mexico earthquake||8.6 (est.)|
|April 1, 1946||Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA||1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake||8.6|
|August 15, 1950||Assam, India – Tibet, China||1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake||8.6|
|March 9, 1957||Andreanof Islands, Alaska, USA||1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake||8.6|
|March 28, 2005||Sumatra, Indonesia||2005 Sumatra earthquake||8.6|
|April 11, 2012||Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia||2012 Aceh earthquake||8.6|
|December 16, 1575||Valdivia, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1575 Valdivia earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|November 24, 1604||Arica, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1604 Arica earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|May 13, 1647||Santiago, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1647 Santiago earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|May 24, 1751||Concepción, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1751 Concepción earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|November 19, 1822||Valparaíso, Chile||1822 Valparaíso earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|February 20, 1835||Concepción, Chile||1835 Concepción earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|February 16, 1861||Sumatra, Indonesia||1861 Sumatra earthquake||8.5|
|May 9, 1877||Iquique, Chile (then Peru)||1877 Iquique earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|November 10, 1922||Atacama Region, Chile||1922 Vallenar earthquake||8.5|
|February 1, 1938||Banda Sea, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies)||1938 Banda Sea earthquake||8.5|
|October 13, 1963||Kuril Islands, Russia (USSR)||1963 Kuril Islands earthquake||8.5|
|September 12, 2007||Sumatra, Indonesia||2007 Sumatra earthquakes||8.5|
|October 20, 1687||Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire)||1687 Peru earthquake||8.5 (est.)|
|October 17, 1737||Kamchatka, Russia||1737 Kamchatka earthquakes||8.5 (est.)|
|August 3, 1361||Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan||1361 Shōhei earthquake||8.5(est.)|
|June 15, 1896||Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan||1896 Sanriku earthquake||8.5(est.)|
Largest earthquakes by Country
- This list is a work in progress. Information is likely to be changed.
- Please note, multiple countries could have the same earthquake listed, such as the 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake being listed for both Ecuador and Colombia.
|Argentina||8.0||27 October 1894||1894 San Juan earthquake|
|Australia||7.2||29 April 1941|
|Bangladesh||8.8||2 April 1762||1762 Arakan earthquake|
|Canada||8.7||26 January 1700||1700 Cascadia earthquake|
|Chile||9.5||22 May 1960||1960 Valdivia earthquake|
|China||8.6||15 August 1950||1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake|
|Colombia||8.8||31 January 1906||1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake|
|Cuba||7.6||11 June 1766|
|Dominican Republic||8.1||4 August 1946||1946 Dominican Republic earthquake|
|Ecuador||8.8||31 January 1906||1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake|
|Egypt||7.3||22 November 1995||1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake|
|Germany||6.1||18 February 1756|
|Greece||8.5+||21 July 325||365 Crete earthquake|
|Haiti||8.1||7 May 1842||1842 Cap-Haitien earthquake|
|Iceland||6.6||17 June 2000||2000 Iceland earthquakes|
|India||8.2||16 June 1819||1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake|
|Indonesia||9.3||26 December 2004||2004 Boxing Day earthquake|
|Italy||7.4||11 January 1693||1693 Sicily earthquake|
|Japan||9.0||11 March 2011||2011 Tōhoku earthquake|
|Mexico||8.6||28 March 1787|
|New Zealand||8.3||23 January 1855||1855 Wairarapa earthquake|
|Peru||8.6||28 October 1746||1746 Lima–Callao earthquake|
|Portugal||8.5||1 November 1755||1755 Lisbon earthquake|
|Russia||9.0||4 November 1952||1952 Kamchatka earthquake|
|Samoa||8.5||26 June 1917||1917 Samoa earthquake|
|South Africa||6.3||29 September 1969|
|Spain||7.0||21 March 1954|
|Switzerland||6.5||18 October 1356||1356 Basel earthquake|
|Turkey||7.8||27 December 1939||1939 Erzincan earthquake|
|United Kingdom||5.9||6 April 1580||1580 Dover Straits earthquake|
|United States||9.2||27 March 1964||1964 Alaska earthquake|
Deadliest earthquakes on record
|1||"Shaanxi"||January 23, 1556||Shaanxi, China||820,000–830,000 (est.)||8.0 (est.)||Estimated death toll in Shaanxi, China.|
|2||"Haiyuan"||December 16, 1920||Ningxia–Gansu, China||273,400||7.8||Major fractures, landslides.|
|3||"Tangshan"||July 28, 1976||Hebei, China||242,769||7.8|
|4||"Antioch"||May 21, 526||Antioch, Turkey (then Byzantine Empire)||240,000||7.0 (est.)||Procopius (II.14.6), sources based on John of Ephesus.|
|5||"Indian Ocean"||December 26, 2004||Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia||230,210+||9.1–9.3||Deaths from earthquake and resulting tsunami.|
|6||"Aleppo"||October 11, 1138||Aleppo, Syria||230,000||Unknown||The figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and the large seismic event of September 30, 1139 in the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.|
|7||"Haiti"||January 12, 2010||Haiti||100,000–316,000||7.0||Estimates vary from 316,000 (unsubstantiated Haitian government claim) to 222,570 (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs estimate) to 158,000 (report published in the Medicine, Conflict and Survival) to between 85,000 and 46,000 (unpublished LTL Strategies report commissioned by USAID).|
|8||"Damghan"||December 22, 856||Damghan, Iran||200,000 (est.)||7.9 (est.)|
|9||"Ardabil"||March 22, 893||Ardabil, Iran||150,000 (est.)||Unknown||Reports probably relate to the 893 Dvin earthquake, due to misreading of the Arabic word for Dvin, 'Dabil' as 'Ardabil'. This is regarded as a 'fake earthquake'.|
|10||"Aleppo"||November 29, 533||Syria||130,000||?|
|11||"Messina"||December 28, 1908||Messina, Italy||123,000||7.1||On December 28, 1908 from about 5:20 to 5:21 am an earthquake of 7.1 on the moment magnitude scale occurred centered on Messina, a city in Sicily, Italy. Reggio Calabria on the Italian mainland also suffered heavy damage. The ground shook for some 30 to 40 seconds, and the destruction was felt within a 300 km radius. Moments after the earthquake, a 40 feet (12 m) tsunami struck nearby coasts causing even more devastation. 93% of structures in Messina were destroyed and some 70,000 residents were killed. Rescuers searched through the rubble for weeks, and whole families were still being pulled out alive days later, but thousands remained buried there. Buildings in the area had not been constructed for earthquake resistance, having heavy roofs and vulnerable foundations.|
|12||"Ashgabat"||October 6, 1948||Ashgabat, Turkmen SSR (modern-day Turkmenistan)||110,000||7.3|
|13||"Great Kantō"||September 1, 1923||Kantō region, Japan||105,385||7.9||An earthquake which struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. Varied accounts hold that the duration of the earthquake was between 4 and 10 minutes. The quake had an epicenter deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. The power and intensity of the earthquake is easy to underestimate, but the 1923 earthquake managed to move the 93-ton Great Buddha statue at Kamakura. The statue slid forward almost two feet. Casualty estimates range from about 100,000 to 142,800 deaths, the latter figure including approximately 40,000 who went missing and were presumed dead.|
|14||"Chihli"||September 27, 1290||Ningcheng, China||100,000||6.8|
|15||"Kashmir"||October 8, 2005||Muzaffarabad, Pakistan||100,000||7.6|
Property damages caused by earthquake
|1||2011 Tōhoku earthquake, Japan||9.0||$235 billion|
|2||1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, Japan||6.9||$100 billion|
|3||2008 Sichuan earthquake, China||8.0||$75 billion|
|4||2011 Christchurch earthquake, New Zealand||6.3||$40 billion |
|5||2010 Chile earthquake, Chile||8.8||$15–30 billion|
|6||1994 Northridge earthquake, United States||6.7||$20 billion|
|7||2012 Emilia earthquakes, Italy||6.1||$13.2 billion|
|8||1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, United States||~7.0; 6.9-7.1 reported||$11 billion|
|9||1999 921 earthquake, Taiwan||7.6||$10 billion|
|10||1906 San Francisco earthquake, United States||7.7 to 7.9 (est.)||$9.5 billion ($400 million 1906 value)|
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- If the death toll in Myanmar was 400–600 as claimed by dissident groups there, rather than just 61 or 90, more than 230,000 people would have perished in total from the tsunami.
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A missioner in Ranong, a town on the border between Thailand and Myanmar, says locals talk about 600 victims. Burmese political dissidents say the same.
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- Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning: the Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, p. 278, citing Francis Hawks, (1856). Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854 under the Command of Commodore M.C. Perry, United States Navy, Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson by order of Congress, 1856; originally published in Senate Executive Documents, No. 34 of 33rd Congress, 2nd Session.
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Its main impact zone was in AJK and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. An area (mostly mountainous and rugged terrain) of about 30,000 km2 [11,600 sq mi] approximately was affected by this earthquake. It damaged about 6,440 km [4,000 mi] of roads. It damaged 50-70% of services including power, water and sanitation, etc. Approximately 400,153 houses, 6,298 schools and 796 health facilities were damaged or destroyed (UN 2006). Approximately 100,000 people were dead, around 138,000 people were seriously injured and 3.5 million people were displaced in this earthquake.
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- Map of earthquakes in the last 24 hours