List of earthquakes in Turkey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Map of plate boundaries affecting Turkey

This is a list of earthquakes in Turkey, including any notable historical earthquakes that have epicenters within the current boundaries of Turkey, or which caused significant effects in this area. This list is incomplete.

Magnify-clip.png
Location of major earthquakes in Turkey with year of occurrence

Tectonic setting[edit]

Turkey is a seismically active area within the complex zone of collision between the Eurasian Plate and both the African and Arabian Plates. Much of the country lies on the Anatolian Plate, a small plate bounded by two major strike-slip fault zones, the North Anatolian Fault and East Anatolian Fault. The western part of the country is also affected by the zone of extensional tectonics in the Aegean Sea caused by the southward migration of the Hellenic arc. The easternmost part of Turkey lies on the western end of the Zagros fold and thrust belt, which is dominated by thrust tectonics.

Seismic hazard[edit]

Seismic hazard for Turkey from the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) in terms of peak ground acceleration with a 10% chance of being exceeded (or a 90% chance of not being exceeded) within the next 50 years

Seismic hazard in Turkey is highest along the plate boundaries, but there is a significant risk of damaging earthquakes almost anywhere in the country.

List of notable earthquakes[edit]

Date Time‡ Place Latitude Longitude Fatalities Magnitude Comments Sources
17 CE
n/a
Alaşehir
see Alaşehir earthquake
38.21 28.31
n/a
n/a
n/a
[1]
December 13, 115 Antioch
see 115 Antioch earthquake
36.1 36.1 ~260,000 7.5 Ms [2]
May 19, 526 Antioch
see 526 Antioch earthquake
250,000 VIII   The city of Antioch was greatly damaged, and some decades later the city's population was just 300,000. [3]
December 14, 557 just before midnight Constantinople
see 557 Constantinople earthquake
40.9 28.7
n/a
X (Intense)   Constantinople was "almost completely razed to the ground" by the earthquake. [4]
1268 Cilicia, Anatolia
see 1268 Cilicia earthquake
37.5 35.5 60,000 ~7
September 10, 1509 Constantinople
see 1509 Constantinople earthquake
40.9 28.7 10,000 7.2 Mw
February 23, 1653 Smyrna
see 1653 East Smyrna earthquake
38.2 28.2 2,500 7.5 [5]
01668-08-17August 17, 1668 Anatolia 40 36 8,000 8 USGS
July 10, 1688 11:45 Smyrna
see 1688 Smyrna earthquake
38.4 26.9 16,000 7.0 Ms [6]
February 28, 1855 01:00 Bursa
see 1855 Bursa earthquake
40.2 29.1 1,900 6.7 [7]
June 2, 1859 10:30 Erzurum
see 1859 Erzurum earthquake
39.9 41.3 15,000 6.1 Ms [8]
April 3, 1881 11:30 Chios, Çeşme, Alaçatı
see 1881 Chios earthquake
38.25 26.25 7,866 7.3 Mw [9]
July 10, 1894 12:24 Gulf of Izmit
see 1894 Istanbul earthquake
40.73 29.25 1,300 7.0 [10]
01903-04-29April 29, 1903 01:46 local time Malazgirt
see 1903 Malazgirt earthquake
39.14 42.65 600 6.7 Ms [11][12]
01912-08-09August 9, 1912 03:29 local time Mürefte
see 1912 Mürefte earthquake
40.75 27.2 216 7.3 MS [11][12]
01914-10-04October 4, 1914 00:07 local time Burdur
see 1914 Burdur earthquake
37.82 30.27 300 6.9 MS [11][12]
01924-09-13September 13, 1924 16:34 local time Horasan
see 1924 Pasinler earthquake
40.0 42.1 60 6.8 Ms [11][12]
October 22, 1926 21:59 local time Kars
see 1926 Kars earthquake
40.7 43.7 360 6.0 Ms [13]
01928-03-31March 31, 1928 02:29 local time Smyrna 38.5 28.0 50 6.5 MS Possible M=6.2 foreshock previous day [11][12]
01929-05-18May 18, 1929 08:37 local time Suşehri 40.2 37.9 64 6.1 Ms [11][12]
01935-01-04January 4, 1935 16:41 local time Erdek 40.4 27.5 5 6.4 Ms [11][12]
01938-04-19April 19, 1938 12:59 local time Kırşehir 39.1 34.0 160 6.6 MS [11][12]
01939-09-22September 22, 1939 02:36 local time Dikili 39.1 26.8 60 6.6 MS [11][12]
01939-12-26December 26, 1939 23:57 Erzincan
see 1939 Erzincan earthquake
39.77 39.53 32,700 7.8 MS USGS
01942-11-15November 15, 1942 19:01 local time Bigadiç 39.2 28.2 16 6.1 MS [11][12]
December 20, 1942 14:03 Erbaa
see North Anatolian Fault
40.87 36.47 3000 7.0 [14]
01943-06-20June 20, 1943 17:32 local time Hendek 40.6 30.5 336 6.6 MS [11][12]
November 26, 1943 22:24 Ladik
see North Anatolian Fault
41.05 33.72 4000 7.4 [14]
February 1, 1944 03:25 Gerede
see North Anatolian Fault
40.8 32.2 3959 7.5 [14]
01944-10-06October 6, 1944 04:34 local time Ayvalık 39.37 26.53 30 6.8 MS [11][12]
August 17, 1949 Karlıova
see North Anatolian Fault
39.54 40.57 450 6.8 [14]
August 13, 1951 18:36 Kurşunlu
see North Anatolian Fault
40.88 32.87 50 6.9 [14]
01953-03-18March 18, 1953 21:06 local time Yenice 40.02 27.53 265 7.2 MS [11][12]
01955-07-16July 16, 1955 09:07 local time Söke 37.55 27.05 23 6.8 MS [11][12]
01957-04-25April 25, 1957 04:25 local time Fethiye 36.5 28.6 67 7.1 MS [11][12]
May 26, 1957 6:36 Abant
see North Anatolian Fault
40.67 31.00 52 7.1 [14]
01964-10-06October 6, 1964 16:31 local time Manyas 40.1 27.93 23 7.0 MS [11][12]
August 19, 1966 12:23 Varto
see Varto earthquake
39.17 41.56 2396 6.7 [14]
July 22, 1967 16:56 Mudurnu
see North Anatolian Fault
40.67 30.69 89 7.2 [14]
01968-09-03September 3, 1968 10:19 local time Bartın 41.79 32.31 29 6.5 MS [11][12]
01969-03-28March 28, 1969 03:48 local time Alaşehir 38.5 28.4 53 6.5 MS [11][12]
01970-03-28March 28, 1970 23:02 local time Gediz
see Gediz earthquake
39.2 29.5 1086 7.2 MS [11][12]
May 22, 1971 16:44 Bingöl
see North Anatolian Fault
38.83 40.52 1000+ 6.9 [15]
01975-09-06September 6, 1975 12:20 local time Lice 38.5 40.7 2385 6.6 MS [11][12]
01976-11-24November 24, 1976 14:22 local time Muradiye
see 1976 Çaldıran-Muradiye earthquake
39.12 44.03 3840 7.5 MS [11][12]
01983-10-30October 30, 1983 07:12 local time Erzurum 40.33 42.19 1155 6.9 MS [11][12]
March 13, 1992 17.18 Erzincan
see North Anatolian Fault
39.70 39.69 498 6.8 [16]
01995-10-01October 1, 1995 17:57 local time Dinar 38.06 30.13 90 6.1 MS [11][12]
01998-06-27June 27, 1998 16:55 local time Ceyhan
see Adana-Ceyhan earthquake
36.88 35.31 146 6.2 MS [11][12]
01999-08-17August 17, 1999 03:02 local time Izmit
see Izmit earthquake
40.77 30 17,127 7.6 M (PDE Monthly Listing) An official Turkish estimate of October 19, 1999, placed the toll at 17,127 killed and 43,959 injured, but many sources suggest the actual figure may have been closer to 45,000 dead and a similar number injured.[17] USGS
01999-11-12November 12, 1999 18:57 local time Düzce
see Düzce earthquake
40.75 31.16 894 7.2 M (PDE Monthly Listing) USGS
02002-02-03February 3, 2002 07:11 Afyon 38.573 31.271 44 6.5 Mw (HRV) [18]
02003-01-27January 27, 2003 05:26 Pülümür 39.46 39.79 1 6.1 Mw (HRV, USGS) USGS
02003-05-01May 1, 2003 00:27 Bingöl
see Bingöl earthquake
39.01 40.46 177 6.4 Mw (HRV, USGS) [19]
02010-03-08March 8, 2010 02:32 Elâzığ
see 2010 Elâzığ earthquake
38.87 39.99 41 6.1 Mw (HRV) [20]
02011-04-19April 19, 2011 23:15 Kütahya Province
see 2011 Kütahya earthquake
39.14 29.07 2 5.8 Mw (HRV) [21]
02011-10-23October 23, 2011 13:41 Van Province
see 2011 Van earthquake
38.63 43.49 604 7.2 Mw (HRV) [22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Internet Classics Archive. "Tacitus Annales Book 2, 47". Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  2. ^ National Geophysical Data Center. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  3. ^ Procopius, II.14.6; sources based on John of Ephesus
  4. ^ Agathias; Frendo, Joseph D. (1975), The histories, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-003357-1 
  5. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1653 Earthquake". Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  6. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1688 Earthquake". Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  7. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1855 Earthquake". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  8. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1859 Earthquake". Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  9. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1881 Earthquake". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  10. ^ Ambraseys, N. (January 2001). "The earthquake of 10 July 1894 in the Gulf of Izmit (Turkey) and its relation to the earthquake of 17 August 1999". Journal of Seismology (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 5 (1): 117–128. doi:10.1023/A:1009871605267. ISSN 1573-157X. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) List of earthquakes 1900-2004 (In Turkish)
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x IISEENET (Information Network of Earthquake disaster Prevention Technologies) - Search Page
  13. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1926 Earthquake". Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Toksoz, M.N., Shakal, A.F. & Michael, A.J. 1979. Space-Time Migration of Earthquakes Along the North Anatolian Fault Zone and Seismic Gaps. Pageophys, 117, 1258-1270.
  15. ^ USGS list of earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900
  16. ^ Bernard, P., Gariel, J-C. & Dorbath L. 1997. Fault location and rupture kinematics of the magnitude 6.8, 1992 Erzincan earthquake, Turkey, from strong ground motion and regional records. Bulletin Seismological Society of Americs, 87, 1230-1243.
  17. ^ Marza, Vasile I. (2004). On the death toll of the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) major earthquake. ESC General Assembly Papers, Potsdam: European Seismological Commission. 
  18. ^ USGS. "Significant Earthquakes of the World 2002". 
  19. ^ USGS. "Significant Earthquakes of the World 2003". 
  20. ^ USGS. "Magnitude 6.1 - eastern Turkey". 
  21. ^ USGS. "Magnitude 5.8 - WESTERN TURKEY". 
  22. ^ USGS. "Magnitude 7.2 - EASTERN TURKEY".