List of elements

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The following is a list of the 118 identified chemical elements.

List[edit]

Z Sym Element Origin of name[1] Group Period Atomic weight
u ()
Density
g / cm3
Melt
K
Boil
K
Heat
J/g·K
Neg10 Abundance
(mg/kg)
 
−999  !a  !a  !a −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999
1 H Hydrogen the Greek 'hydro' and 'genes' meaning water-forming 1 1 1.0082 3 4 9 0.00008988 14.01 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400
2 He Helium the Greek 'helios' meaning sun 18 1 4.002602(2)2 4 0.0001785 0.956 4.22 5.193 0.008
3 Li Lithium the Greek 'lithos' meaning stone 1 2 6.942 3 4 5 9 0.534 453.69 1560 3.582 0.98 20
4 Be Beryllium the Greek name for beryl, 'beryllo' 2 2 9.012182(3) 1.85 1560 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8
5 B Boron the Arabic 'buraq', which was the name for borax 13 2 10.812 3 4 9 2.34 2349 4200 1.026 2.04 10
6 C Carbon the Latin 'carbo', meaning charcoal 14 2 12.0112 4 9 2.267 3800 4300 0.709 2.55 200
7 N Nitrogen the Greek 'nitron' and 'genes' meaning nitre-forming 15 2 14.0072 4 9 0.0012506 63.15 77.36 1.04 3.04 19
8 O Oxygen the Greek 'oxy' and 'genes' meaning acid-forming 16 2 15.9992 4 9 0.001429 54.36 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000
9 F Fluorine the Latin 'fluere', meaning to flow 17 2 18.9984032(5) 0.001696 53.53 85.03 0.824 3.98 585
10 Ne Neon the Greek 'neos', meaning new 18 2 20.1797(6)2 3 0.0008999 24.56 27.07 1.03 0.005
11 Na Sodium the English word soda (natrium in Latin)[2] 1 3 22.98976928(2) 0.971 370.87 1156 1.228 0.93 23600
12 Mg Magnesium Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece 2 3 24.3059 1.738 923 1363 1.023 1.31 23300
13 Al Aluminium the Latin name for alum, 'alumen' meaning bitter salt 13 3 26.9815386(8) 2.698 933.47[3] 2792 0.897 1.61 82300
14 Si Silicon the Latin 'silex' or 'silicis', meaning flint 14 3 28.0854 9 2.3296 1687 3538 0.705 1.9 282000
15 P Phosphorus the Greek 'phosphoros', meaning bringer of light 15 3 30.973762(2) 1.82 317.30 550 0.769 2.19 1050
16 S Sulfur Either from the Sanskrit 'sulvere', or the Latin 'sulfurium', both names for sulfur[2] 16 3 32.062 4 9 2.067 388.36 717.87 0.71 2.58 350
17 Cl Chlorine the Greek 'chloros', meaning greenish yellow 17 3 35.452 3 4 9 0.003214 171.6 239.11 0.479 3.16 145
18 Ar Argon the Greek, 'argos', meaning idle 18 3 39.948(1)2 4 0.0017837 83.80 87.30 0.52 3.5
19 K Potassium the English word potash (kalium in Latin)[2] 1 4 39.0983(1) 0.862 336.53 1032 0.757 0.82 20900
20 Ca Calcium the Latin 'calx' meaning lime 2 4 40.078(4)2 1.54 1115 1757 0.647 1 41500
21 Sc Scandium Scandinavia (with the Latin name Scandia) 3 4 44.955912(6) 2.989 1814 3109 0.568 1.36 22
22 Ti Titanium Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology 4 4 47.867(1) 4.54 1941 3560 0.523 1.54 5650
23 V Vanadium Vanadis, an old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja 5 4 50.9415(1) 6.11 2183 3680 0.489 1.63 120
24 Cr Chromium the Greek 'chroma', meaning colour 6 4 51.9961(6) 7.15 2180 2944 0.449 1.66 102
25 Mn Manganese Either the Latin 'magnes', meaning magnet or from the black magnesium oxide, 'magnesia nigra' 7 4 54.938045(5) 7.44 1519 2334 0.479 1.55 950
26 Fe Iron the Anglo-Saxon name iren (ferrum in Latin) 8 4 55.845(2) 7.874 1811 3134 0.449 1.83 56300
27 Co Cobalt the German word 'kobald', meaning goblin 9 4 58.933195(5) 8.86 1768 3200 0.421 1.88 25
28 Ni Nickel the shortened of the German 'kupfernickel' meaning either devil's copper or St. Nicholas's copper 10 4 58.6934(4) 8.912 1728 3186 0.444 1.91 84
29 Cu Copper the Old English name coper in turn derived from the Latin 'Cyprium aes', meaning a metal from Cyprus 11 4 63.546(3)4 8.96 1357.77[3] 2835 0.385 1.9 60
30 Zn Zinc the German, 'zinc', which may in turn be derived from the Persian word 'sing', meaning stone 12 4 65.38(2) 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70
31 Ga Gallium France (with the Latin name Gallia) 13 4 69.723(1) 5.907 302.9146 2477 0.371 1.81 19
32 Ge Germanium Germany (with the Latin name Germania) 14 4 72.630(8) 5.323 1211.40 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5
33 As Arsenic the Greek name 'arsenikon' for the yellow pigment orpiment 15 4 74.92160(2) 5.776 1090 7 887 0.329 2.18 1.8
34 Se Selenium Moon (with the Greek name selene) 16 4 78.96(3)4 4.809 453 958 0.321 2.55 0.05
35 Br Bromine the Greek 'bromos' meaning stench 17 4 79.9049 3.122 265.8 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4
36 Kr Krypton the Greek 'kryptos', meaning hidden 18 4 83.798(2)2 3 0.003733 115.79 119.93 0.248 3 1×10−4
37 Rb Rubidium the Latin 'rubidius', meaning deepest red 1 5 85.4678(3)2 1.532 312.46 961 0.363 0.82 90
38 Sr Strontium Strontian, a small town in Scotland 2 5 87.62(1)2 4 2.64 1050 1655 0.301 0.95 370
39 Y Yttrium Ytterby, Sweden 3 5 88.90585(2) 4.469 1799 3609 0.298 1.22 33
40 Zr Zirconium the Persian 'zargun', meaning gold coloured 4 5 91.224(2)2 6.506 2128 4682 0.278 1.33 165
41 Nb Niobium Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology 5 5 92.90638(2) 8.57 2750 5017 0.265 1.6 20
42 Mo Molybdenum the Greek 'molybdos' meaning lead 6 5 95.96(2)2 10.22 2896 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2
43 Tc Technetium the Greek 'tekhnetos' meaning artificial 7 5 [98]1 11.5 2430 4538 1.9 ~ 3×10−9
44 Ru Ruthenium Russia (with the Latin name Ruthenia) 8 5 101.07(2)2 12.37 2607 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001
45 Rh Rhodium the Greek 'rhodon', meaning rose coloured 9 5 102.90550(2) 12.41 2237 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001
46 Pd Palladium the then recently discovered asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time 10 5 106.42(1)2 12.02 1828.05 3236 0.244 2.2 0.015
47 Ag Silver the Anglo-Saxon name siolfur (argentum in Latin)[2] 11 5 107.8682(2)2 10.501 1234.93[3] 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075
48 Cd Cadmium the Latin name for the mineral calmine, 'cadmia' 12 5 112.411(8)2 8.69 594.22 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159
49 In Indium the Latin 'indicium', meaning violet or indigo 13 5 114.818(1) 7.31 429.75 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25
50 Sn Tin the Anglo-Saxon word tin (stannum in Latin, meaning hard) 14 5 118.710(7)2 7.287 505.08 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3
51 Sb Antimony the Greek 'anti – monos', meaning not alone (stibium in Latin) 15 5 121.760(1)2 6.685 903.78 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2
52 Te Tellurium Earth, the third planet in the solar system (with the Latin word tellus) 16 5 127.60(3)2 6.232 722.66 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001
53 I Iodine the Greek 'iodes' meaning violet 17 5 126.90447(3) 4.93 386.85 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45
54 Xe Xenon the Greek 'xenos' meaning stranger 18 5 131.293(6)2 3 0.005887 161.4 165.03 0.158 2.6 3×10−5
55 Cs Caesium the Latin 'caesius', meaning sky blue 1 6 132.9054519(2) 1.873 301.59 944 0.242 0.79 3
56 Ba Barium the Greek 'barys', meaning heavy 2 6 137.327(7) 3.594 1000 2170 0.204 0.89 425
57 La Lanthanum the Greek 'lanthanein', meaning to lie hidden 6 138.90547(7)2 6.145 1193 3737 0.195 1.1 39
58 Ce Cerium Ceres, the Roman God of agriculture 6 140.116(1)2 6.77 1068 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5
59 Pr Praseodymium the Greek 'prasinos didymos' meaning green twin 6 140.90765(2) 6.773 1208 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2
60 Nd Neodymium the Greek 'neos didymos' meaning new twin 6 144.242(3)2 7.007 1297 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5
61 Pm Promethium Prometheus of Greek mythology who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to humans 6 [145]1 7.26 1315 3273 1.13 2×10−19
62 Sm Samarium Samarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated 6 150.36(2)2 7.52 1345 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05
63 Eu Europium Europe 6 151.964(1)2 5.243 1099 1802 0.182 1.2 2
64 Gd Gadolinium Johan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist 6 157.25(3)2 7.895 1585 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2
65 Tb Terbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 158.92535(2) 8.229 1629 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2
66 Dy Dysprosium the Greek 'dysprositos', meaning hard to get 6 162.500(1)2 8.55 1680 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2
67 Ho Holmium Stockholm, Sweden (with the Latin name Holmia) 6 164.93032(2) 8.795 1734 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3
68 Er Erbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 167.259(3)2 9.066 1802 3141 0.168 1.24 3.5
69 Tm Thulium Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia 6 168.93421(2) 9.321 1818 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52
70 Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 173.054(5)2 6.965 1097 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2
71 Lu Lutetium Paris, France (with the Roman name Lutetia) 3 6 174.9668(1)2 9.84 1925 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8
72 Hf Hafnium Copenhagen, Denmark (with the Latin name Hafnia) 4 6 178.49(2) 13.31 2506 4876 0.144 1.3 3
73 Ta Tantalum King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology 5 6 180.94788(2) 16.654 3290 5731 0.14 1.5 2
74 W Tungsten the Swedish 'tung sten' meaning heavy stone (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite)[2] 6 6 183.84(1) 19.25 3695 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3
75 Re Rhenium Rhine, a river that flows from Grisons in the eastern Swiss Alps to the North Sea coast in the Netherlands (with the Latin name Rhenia) 7 6 186.207(1) 21.02 3459 5869 0.137 1.9 7×10−4
76 Os Osmium the Greek 'osme', meaning smell 8 6 190.23(3)2 22.61 3306 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002
77 Ir Iridium Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow 9 6 192.217(3) 22.56 2719 4701 0.131 2.2 0.001
78 Pt Platinum the Spanish 'platina', meaning little silver 10 6 195.084(9) 21.46 2041.4[3] 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005
79 Au Gold the Anglo-Saxon word gold (aurum in Latin, meaning glow of sunrise)[2] 11 6 196.966569(4) 19.282 1337.33[3] 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004
80 Hg Mercury Mercury, the first planet in the Solar System (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr- water and argyros silver) 12 6 200.592(3) 13.5336 234.43 629.88 0.14 2 0.085
81 Tl Thallium the Greek 'thallos', meaning a green twig 13 6 204.389 11.85 577 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85
82 Pb Lead the Anglo-Saxon lead (plumbum in Latin)[2] 14 6 207.2(1)2 4 11.342 600.61 2022 0.129 1.87 14
83 Bi Bismuth the German 'Bisemutum' a corruption of 'Weisse Masse' meaning white mass 15 6 208.98040(1)1 9.807 544.7 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009
84 Po Polonium Poland, the native country of Marie Curie, who first isolated the element 16 6 [209]1 9.32 527 1235 2.0 2×10−10
85 At Astatine the Greek 'astatos', meaning unstable 17 6 [210]1 7 575 610 2.2 3×10−20
86 Rn Radon From radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay 18 6 [222]1 0.00973 202 211.3 0.094 2.2 4×10−13
87 Fr Francium France, where it was first discovered 1 7 [223]1 1.87 300 950 0.7 ~ 1×10−18
88 Ra Radium the Latin 'radius', meaning ray 2 7 [226]1 5.5 973 2010 0.094 0.9 9×10−9
89 Ac Actinium the Greek 'actinos', meaning a ray 7 [227]1 10.07 1323 3471 0.12 1.1 5.5×10−10
90 Th Thorium Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder 7 232.03806(2)1 2 11.72 2115 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6
91 Pa Protactinium the Greek 'protos', meaning first, as a prefix to the element actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium 7 231.03588(2)1 15.37 1841 4300 1.5 1.4×10−6
92 U Uranium Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System 7 238.02891(3)1 18.95 1405.3 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7
93 Np Neptunium Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System 7 [237]1 20.45 917 4273 1.36 ≤ 3×10−12
94 Pu Plutonium Pluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System 7 [244]1 19.84 912.5 3501 1.28 ≤ 3×10−11
95 Am Americium Americas, the continent where the element was first synthesized 7 [243]1 13.69 1449 2880 1.13 ~ 3×10−33
96 Cm Curium Pierre Curie, a physicist, and Marie Curie, a physicist and chemist 7 [247]1 13.51 1613 3383 1.28 ~ 2×10−32
97 Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California, USA, where the element was first synthesized 7 [247]1 14.79 1259 2900 1.3 ~ 0
98 Cf Californium State of California, USA, where the element was first synthesized 7 [251]1 15.1 1173 (1743)11 1.3 ~ 0
99 Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein, physicist 7 [252]1 8.84 1133 (1269)11 1.3 0 8
100 Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi, physicist 7 [257]1 (1125)11 1.3 0 8
101 Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleyev, chemist and inventor 7 [258]1 (1100)11 1.3 0 8
102 No Nobelium Alfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer 7 [259]1 (1100)11 1.3 0 8
103 Lr Lawrencium Ernest O. Lawrence, physicist 3 7 [266]1 (1900)11 1.3 0 8
104 Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist 4 7 [267]1 (23.2)11 (2400)11 (5800)11 0 8
105 Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia 5 7 [268]1 (29.3)11 0 8
106 Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg, scientist 6 7 [269]1 (35.0)11 0 8
107 Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr, physicist 7 7 [270]1 (37.1)11 0 8
108 Hs Hassium Hesse, Germany, where the element was first synthesized 8 7 [269]1 (40.7)11 0 8
109 Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner, physicist 9 7 [278]1 (37.4)11 0 8
110 Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesized 10 7 [281]1 (34.8)11 0 8
111 Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist 11 7 [281]1 (28.7)11 0 8
112 Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus, astronomer 12 7 [285]1 (23.7)11 357 12 0 8
113 Uut Ununtrium IUPAC systematic element name 13 7 [286]1 (16)11 (700)11 (1400)11 0 8
114 Fl Flerovium Georgy Flyorov, physicist 14 7 [289]1 (14)11 (340)11 (420)11 0 8
115 Uup Ununpentium IUPAC systematic element name 15 7 [289]1 (13.5)11 (700)11 (1400)11 0 8
116 Lv Livermorium Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, California) which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis 16 7 [293]1 (12.9)11 (708.5)11 (1085)11 0 8
117 Uus Ununseptium IUPAC systematic element name 17 7 [294]1 (7.2)11 (673)11 (823)11 0 8
118 Uuo Ununoctium IUPAC systematic element name 18 7 [294]1 (5.0)11 13 (258)11 (263)11 0 8
9e99 ~z ~z 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99
Categories in the metal–nonmetal trend
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–nonmetal range:
Metal Metalloid Nonmetal Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Post-​transition metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas

Notes[edit]

  • ^1 The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, four such elements, bismuth, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions, and thus their standard atomic weights are given.
  • ^2 The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  • ^3 The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  • ^4 The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  • ^5 The atomic weight of commercial lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  • ^6 This element does not solidify at a pressure of one atmosphere. The value listed above, 0.95 K, is the temperature at which helium does solidify at a pressure of 25 atmospheres.
  • ^7 This element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure
  • ^8 The transuranic elements 99 and above do not occur naturally, but some of them can be produced artificially.
  • ^9 The value listed is the conventional atomic-weight value suitable for trade and commerce. The actual value may differ depending on the isotopic composition of the sample. Since 2009, IUPAC provides the standard atomic-weight values for these elements using the interval notation. The corresponding standard atomic weights are:
    • Hydrogen: [1.00784, 1.00811]
    • Lithium: [6.938, 6.997]
    • Boron: [10.806, 10.821]
    • Carbon: [12.0096, 12.0116]
    • Nitrogen: [14.00643, 14.00728]
    • Oxygen: [15.99903, 15.99977]
    • Magnesium: [24.304, 24.307]
    • Silicon: [28.084, 28.086]
    • Sulfur: [32.059, 32.076]
    • Chlorine: [35.446, 35.457]
    • Bromine: [79.901, 79.907]
    • Thallium: [204.382, 204.385]
  • ^10 Electronegativity on the Pauling scale. Standard symbol: χ
  • ^11 The value has not been precisely measured, usually because of the element's short half-life; the value given in parentheses is a prediction.
  • ^12 With error bars: 357+112
    −108
     K.
  • ^13 This predicted value is for liquid ununoctium, not gaseous ununoctium.

References[edit]

  • M. E. Wieser et al. (2013). "Atomic weights of the elements 2011 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. (IUPAC) 85 (5): 1047–1078. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-13-03-02.  (for standard atomic weights of elements)
  • Sonzogni , Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06.  (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 103–118)

External links[edit]

  • Atoms made thinkable, an interactive visualisation of the elements allowing physical and chemical properties to be compared