The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include: 1) mental experiences that have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain; 2) mental experiences that are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined; 3) mental experiences that motivate particular kinds of behaviour. The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
Kind of Emotion
Related to object properties
Attraction, desire, admiration
Aversion, disgust, revulsion
Indifference, familiarity, habituation
Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation
Pride in achievement, selfconfidence, sociability
Embarrassment, shame , guilt, remorse
Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language)
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.